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The Internment of the Japanese Americans Presented by A. Z.

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1 The Internment of the Japanese Americans Presented by A. Z.

2 Purpose for Research  What happened in the internment camps where the Japanese of America were sent? Why were they relocated in the first place?

3 Events Leading to Internment  The Japanese and Japanese-American were sent to internment camps after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  America feared Japan at the time, leading them to believe that all the Japanese were spies for Japan and the Axis Powers.  The Japanese and Japanese-American were sent to internment camps after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  America feared Japan at the time, leading them to believe that all the Japanese were spies for Japan and the Axis Powers.

4 Order and Signing for Interment of Japanese Americans  Roosevelt stood his ground and went on to sign the order that would imprison many Americans of Japanese ancestry.  The signing of Executive Order 9066 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 forced all Japanese ethnic groups to internment camps by use of his Commander-In-Chief war powers.  The order led approximately 120,000 ethnic Japanese peoples and Americans with Japanese relatives to be sent to internment camps.  Roosevelt stood his ground and went on to sign the order that would imprison many Americans of Japanese ancestry.  The signing of Executive Order 9066 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 forced all Japanese ethnic groups to internment camps by use of his Commander-In-Chief war powers.  The order led approximately 120,000 ethnic Japanese peoples and Americans with Japanese relatives to be sent to internment camps.

5 Executive Order 9066 United States Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones. Eventually, EO 9066 cleared the way for the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps.

6 Opposition of the Relocation for American Japanese  The Japanese Americans showed that they were true patriots by joining up and reciting the “Pledge of Allegiance” and singing patriotic songs such as “The Star-Spangled Banner”.  Various people were apt to aid the Japanese who lived in America, such as J. Edgar Hoover, an FBI Director, and Franklin Roosevelt’s own wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, who was unsuccessful in privately persuading him not to sign it.  The Japanese Americans showed that they were true patriots by joining up and reciting the “Pledge of Allegiance” and singing patriotic songs such as “The Star-Spangled Banner”.  Various people were apt to aid the Japanese who lived in America, such as J. Edgar Hoover, an FBI Director, and Franklin Roosevelt’s own wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, who was unsuccessful in privately persuading him not to sign it.

7 People Sent to Internment Camps  62% of the people relocated were Nisei, American-born with Japanese heritage, and Sansei, the children of the Nisei. They were American citizens. The rest (38%) were Issei, the Japanese-born immigrants.  Most of the relocated peoples were of the West Coast, due to the location of the Pearl Harbor attack.  62% of the people relocated were Nisei, American-born with Japanese heritage, and Sansei, the children of the Nisei. They were American citizens. The rest (38%) were Issei, the Japanese-born immigrants.  Most of the relocated peoples were of the West Coast, due to the location of the Pearl Harbor attack.

8 Korematsu v. United States (1944) Landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II. In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu's individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent

9 Condition of the Internment Camps  The 1943 War Relocation Authority reported the internees were housed in “tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind.”  The facilities met international laws, but were still cramped and poorly equipped.  They were built in desolate areas with severe, harsh weather conditions.  The 1943 War Relocation Authority reported the internees were housed in “tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind.”  The facilities met international laws, but were still cramped and poorly equipped.  They were built in desolate areas with severe, harsh weather conditions.

10 Life in Internment Camps  The internees, the Japanese and their heirs, were allowed to stay with their families and were treated well by guards save they violated rules.  Because they came from the West Coast, most of the internees did not have clothes adequately warm enough for Wyoming’s cold weather.  The internees, the Japanese and their heirs, were allowed to stay with their families and were treated well by guards save they violated rules.  Because they came from the West Coast, most of the internees did not have clothes adequately warm enough for Wyoming’s cold weather.

11 Life in Internment Camps Cont.  There was only a budget of 45 cents daily per capita for food rations, giving the internees little food.  Manzanar, the most widely known camp, northeast of Los Angeles, California, had the worst weather; cold temperatures and harsh, frequent dust storms.  There was only a budget of 45 cents daily per capita for food rations, giving the internees little food.  Manzanar, the most widely known camp, northeast of Los Angeles, California, had the worst weather; cold temperatures and harsh, frequent dust storms.

12 How the Internment was Viewed  Ones who were for the internment simply called internees “residents”, but Roosevelt privately referred the camps as “concentration camps”.  Many who were against the internment called it prejudice and called them concentration camps publicly against the War Relocation Authority.  Ones who were for the internment simply called internees “residents”, but Roosevelt privately referred the camps as “concentration camps”.  Many who were against the internment called it prejudice and called them concentration camps publicly against the War Relocation Authority.

13 Internment Ends  The Supreme Court ruled the imprisonment of loyal citizens unconstitutional in December  The ruling led to the government bringing individuals back to the West Coast on early The Japanese Americans were given $25 and a free ticket ride back to their homes.  Some migrated back to Japan, but most stayed to rebuild their lives.  The Supreme Court ruled the imprisonment of loyal citizens unconstitutional in December  The ruling led to the government bringing individuals back to the West Coast on early The Japanese Americans were given $25 and a free ticket ride back to their homes.  Some migrated back to Japan, but most stayed to rebuild their lives.

14 Aftermath and Compensation of Internment  Although compensation was paid for property losses, the ex-internees were still not able to fully recover their losses.  Young Americans started the Redress Movement in 1960 for an apology.  In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a legislation which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. Government.  The Manzanar Camp was reformed into a National Historic Site to “provide for the protection and interpretation of historic, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II”.  Although compensation was paid for property losses, the ex-internees were still not able to fully recover their losses.  Young Americans started the Redress Movement in 1960 for an apology.  In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a legislation which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. Government.  The Manzanar Camp was reformed into a National Historic Site to “provide for the protection and interpretation of historic, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II”.

15 Reflection I too believe that the internment was prejudice and unfair. I am glad, however, that they were apologized for and after learning more about this, I hope nothing more like it will happen again.

16 Bibliography  “Executive Order 9066” Wikipedia.org. 11/09/07, retrieved 11/13/  “Japanese American Internment” Wikipedia.org. 11/26/07, retireved 11/27/07. nternment nternment  “Manzanar” Wikipedia.org. 12/04/07, retrieved 12/04/07.  “Executive Order 9066” Wikipedia.org. 11/09/07, retrieved 11/13/  “Japanese American Internment” Wikipedia.org. 11/26/07, retireved 11/27/07. nternment nternment  “Manzanar” Wikipedia.org. 12/04/07, retrieved 12/04/07.

17 Bibliography Cont.  Davis, Daniel S. and Ann Troy. Behind Barbed Wire. United States, New York, N.Y.: E.P. Dutton, Inc.,  Stanley, Jerry. I Am An American. United States, New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishers, Inc.,  Davis, Daniel S. and Ann Troy. Behind Barbed Wire. United States, New York, N.Y.: E.P. Dutton, Inc.,  Stanley, Jerry. I Am An American. United States, New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1994.


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