Presentation on theme: "The Middle East Paulina Gawor Jeremy Jones Michael Deddo"— Presentation transcript:
1The Middle East Paulina Gawor Jeremy Jones Michael Deddo Anthony CundariChristopher MoaklerAP Global Period 2
28000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. POLITICALFirst cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E. (Ur, Sumer) Between 3200 and 2350 B.C.E., they evolve into city-states (control of surrounding region). Governments sponsor building projects and irrigationAttacks by others led to wall building and military developmentKingships evolve with cooperation of noble familiesThe Code of Hammurabi was created by a Babylonian King, in 1790 BCE. Code revolves around laws of retribution.Hammurabi centralizes bureaucracy & has taxation.Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E.Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about , are conquerors, but cannot maintain a stable governmentNew Babylonian empire, B.C.E.: Nebuchadnezzar ( B.C.E.) Hanging gardens of palace showed wealth and luxury.Nobles received political leadership.The Persian Empire was the successor of the Median Empire and lasted from 550 BC to 330 BC. Cyrus the Great founds this empire under Achaemenid Dynasty.The Persian Empire was the largest empire in ancient history.Upper & Lower Egypt united by the pharaoh around 3150 BCE.Egypt gets conquered over time by foreigners. ECONOMICBronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural toolsIron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods furtherShipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network developsPhoenicians: Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networksOverland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on cultureSea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goodsEconomic foundations of classical PersiaAgriculture was the economic foundationTrade from India to EgyptStandardized coins, good trade routes, markets, banksSpecialization of production in different regionsAfrica: Economic specialization and tradeBronze important but copper and tin rare and expensiveIron metallurgy develops independently in SudanTransportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravansEgypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia (ebony, gold, gems, slaves) and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt
38000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.RELIGIONAttracted Persian aristocrats and ruling elitesHebrews, Israelites, and JewsIslamic conquerors toppled the Sasanid empire, seventh century C.E.Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E.Descendents borrow law of retribution and flood story from MesopotamiaMost Zoroastrians in Persia converted to IslamSome migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century B.C.E. then back to Palestine with MosesSome Zoroastrians still exist in modern-day IranTwelve tribes become IsraelitesZoroastrianism influenced Judaism, Christianity, and later, IslamMesopotamian-style monarchs with Jerusalem as capitalBuddhism, Christianity, Manichaeism, Judaism also in PersiaThe first monotheistic religion of Judaism developsAfrica: The development of organized religious traditionsMoses: Ten Commandments, the moral and ethical standards for followersPrincipal gods: sun gods Amon and ReCompilation of teachings into Torah ( B.C.E.)Brief period of monotheism: AtenMummificationAssyrians conquerAt first only pharaohs are mummified, later ruling classes and wealthy can afford it, and eventually commoners have it tooConquer Israel in north and Judah in south and destroy JerusalemProphets in this period increase devotion of people, and build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identityPersian Empire: ZoroastrianismCosmic conflict between good and evilHeavenly paradise and hellish realm as reward and punishmentPopularity of Zoroastrianism grows from sixth century B.C.E.
48000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. SOCIAL INTELLECTUAL SW Asia: Cities: more opportunities to accumulate wealthSW Asia: The development of written cultural traditionsKings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters)are highest class, priests and priestesses rule temple communities with large incomes and staff. Free commoners (peasants), dependent clients (no property) pay taxes and labor on building projects.Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style, becomes standardReed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay then bakedMostly commercial and tax documentsEducation: vocational to be scribe or government officialAfricaEgypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture), pharaoh, professional military and administratorsLiterature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract (religious and literary )Nubia: complex and hierarchical societyAfrica: Early writing in the Nile valleyPatriarchy existed in both, but women have more influence than in Mesopotamia. Women could act as regents, like the female pharaoh Hatshepsut.Hieroglyphics found on monuments and papyrus by 3200 B.C.E.Hieratic script, everyday writing B.C.E.Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses, and scribesDemotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek writingPersiaScribes live very privileged livesFree classes were bulk of Persian societyNubia adapts Egyptian writingIn the city: artisans, craftsmen, merchants, civil servantsIn the countryside: peasants, some of whom were building underground canalsLarge class of slaves who were prisoners of war and debtors
6600 C.E. – 1450 Political: The early caliphs and the Umayyad dynasty Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")Became head of the state, chief judge, religious leader, military commanderThe Shia sect originally supported Ali and descendents as caliphVersus the Sunnis ("traditionalists"), the Shias accepted legitimacy of early caliphsDifferent beliefs: holy days for leaders, Ali infallibleOngoing conflict between the two sectsThe Umayyad dynasty ( C.E.)Ruled the dar al-Islam for the interests of Arabian military aristocracyLevied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to IslamUmayyad declined, due to discontent of conquered and resistance of ShiaThe Abbasid dynasty:Abu al-Abbas, descendant of Muhammad's uncle allied with Shias and non-Arab MuslimsWon battle against Umayyad in 750 after annihilating the clanThe Abbasid dynasty ( C.E.)No longer conquering, but the empire still grewAbbasid administrationRelied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraftCentral authority ruled from the court at BaghdadAppointed governors to rule provincesUlama ("people with religious knowledge") and qadis (judges) ruled locallyAbbasid declineStruggle for succession led to civil warGovernors built their own power basesPopular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynastyA Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945Later, the Saljuq Turks controlled the imperial family
7600 C.E. – 1450 Religious:Muhammad ibn Abdullah born to a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.Muhammad's spiritual transformation at age fortyThere was only one true god, Allah ("the god")Allah would soon bring judgment on the worldThe archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to MuhammadThe Quran ("recitation")--holy book of IslamFollowers compiled Muhammad's revelationsWork of poetry and definitive authority on IslamHis teachings offended other believers, especially the ruling elite of MeccaUnder persecution, Muhammad and followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E.Muhammad called himself the "seal of the prophets"--the final prophet of AllahHeld Hebrew scripture and New Testament in high esteemDetermined to spread Allah's wish to all humankindHe and his followers conquered Mecca, 630, and imposed a government dedicated to AllahDestroyed pagan shrines and built mosquesThe Ka'ba was not destroyed; it became site of pilgrimage in 632The Five Pillars of Islam, or obligations taught by MuhammadIslamic law: the sharia, inspired by QuranDetailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of lifeEconomic:New crops, agricultural experimentation, and urban growthSpread of new foods and industrial cropsIndustrial crops became the basis for a thriving textile industryIncreasing agricultural production contributed to the rapid growth of citiesThe formation of a hemispheric trading zoneTrade revived silk roadsUmayyad and Abbasid rulers maintained roads for military and administrationOverland trade traveled mostly by camel caravanArab and Persian mariners borrowed the compass from the ChineseBorrowed the lateen sail from southeast Asian and Indian marinersBorrowed astrolabe from the Hellenistic marinersBanks operated on large scale and provided extensive servicesLetters of credit,functioned as bank checksThe organization of tradeEntrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments
8600 C.E. – 1450Social:The Quran enhanced security of women, but enforced male domination.Adopted veiling of women from Mesopotamia and PersiaWomen's rights provided by the Quran were reduced through later interpretationsUlama, qadis, and missionaries were main agentsEducation also promoted Islamic valuesSufis, or Islamic mystics were the most effective missionariesEncouraged devotion to Allah by passionate singing or dancingSufis led ascetic and holy lives, won respect of the peopleEncouraged followers to revere Allah in their own waysTolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefsPilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and valuesInteractions:Islam and the cultural traditions of Persia, India, and GreecePersian influence on Islam was most notable in literary worksAdministrative techniques borrowed from SasanidsIdeas of kingship: wise, benevolent, absoluteIndian influences: Adopted "Hindi numerals," which Europeans later called "Arabic numerals,“ as well as algebra and trigonometryGreek influences: Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle. Ibn Rushd turned to Aristotle in twelfth centuryIbn Battuta ( ) was a Moroccan Islamic scholar who served as qadi to the sultan of DelhiHe consulted with Muslim rulers and offered advice on Islamic valuesMissionary campaigns: Sufi missionaries (Muslim) visited recently conquered or converted landsCultural exchanges included science, ideas, art, and musicNew technology spread by travelers and facilitated their travel--for example, magnetic compassNew crops introduced to sub-Saharan Africa by Muslims: citrus fruits, rice, cottonSugarcane originated in southwest Asia and north AfricaIntroduced to Europeans during the crusadesSugarcane plantations spread all over the Mediterranean basinPlantations operated through slave labor, Muslim captives, and Africans
10Political:The Ottoman empire ( ) was founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi)Ottoman expansion into Byzantine empire: seized city of Bursa, then into the BalkansOrganized ghazi into formidable military machineCentral role of the Janissaries (slave troops)Effective use of gunpowder in battles and siegesMehmed the Conqueror (reigned ) captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capitalAbsolute monarchy; centralized stateSuleyman the MagnificentSuleyman the Magnificent expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe. Suleyman also built a navy powerful enough to challenge European fleetsThe Safavids, Turkish conquerors of Persia and MesopotamiaBattle of Chaldiran (1514)Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empireQizilbash were crushed by Ottomans at ChadiranShah Abbas the Great ( ) revitalized the Safavid empire; modernized military; sought European alliances against OttomansThe Mughal empireAurangzeb ( )Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinentRevoked policies of toleration: Hindus taxed, temples destroyedHis rule troubled by religious tensions and hostilityAll three Islamic empires were military creationsAuthority of dynasty derived from personal piety and military prowess of rulersDevotion to Islam encouraged rulers to extend their faith to new landsDynastic decline caused by negligent rulers, factions, and government corruption
11Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training. Janissary corps became politically corrupt, undisciplinedProvincial governors gained power, private armiesExtensive territorial losses in nineteenth centuryEgypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern armyAli's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous provinceAttempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt ( )Reformer Mahmud II ( ) became sultan after revoltWhen Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reformsHe built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraphLegal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era ( )Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen stateBroad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic codeState reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869)Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authorityOpposition to Tanzimat reforms:Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and traditionLegal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leadersYoung Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralizationHigh-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's powerThe Young Turk eraCycles of reform and repression1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional governmentNew sultan Abd al-Hamid II ( ) proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberalsReformed army and administration: became source of the new oppositionThe Young Turks, after 1889, an active body of oppositionCalled for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rightsForced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909)Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistanceThe empire survived only because of distrust among European powers
12 Economic:Food crops the basis of all three empires major crops: wheat and riceImports of coffee and tobacco very popularPopulation growth in the three empires less dramatic than in China or EuropeSignificant population growth in India from more intense agricultureLess dramatic growth in Safavid and Ottoman realmsLong-distance trade important to all three empiresEconomic difficulties began in seventeenth centuryLess trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basinExported raw materials, imported European manufactured goodsHeavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interestForeigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economyExtraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empireCould operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman portsDeprived empire of desperately needed incomeReligious:Religious diversity created challenges to the rule of the empiresAkbar tolerated Sikhism, a new faith combining elements of Hinduism and IslamAdvocated syncretic "divine faith," emphasizing loyalty to emperorReligious minorities generally tolerated in Islamic states
13Interactions:Ottoman and Safavid empires shared segments of the east-west trade routesSafavids offered silk, carpets, and ceramics to European trading companiesThe Mughal empire less attentive to foreign or maritime tradingMughals permitted stations for English, French, and Dutch trading companiesIn Ottoman empire, conquered peoples protected, granted religious and civil autonomy in their own communitiesIn India, the Muslim rulers closely cooperated with Hindu majorityArt:All emperors sponsored arts and public works: mosques, palaces, schools, hospitals, etc.The Suleymaniye blended Islamic and Byzantine architectural elementsFatehpur Sikri, Mughal capital, created by AkbarCombined Islamic style with Indian elementsThe Taj Mahal, exquisite example of Mughal architecture
141914-Present Political: Ottoman Empire dissolves after WWI in 1923 Turkey becomes independent country in 1923 led by Atta Turk who created a republicEastern Question Solved after Ottoman Empire dissolves.Middle Eastern states made UN mandates England sends Jews to Palestine after WWII to create a Jewish state. (Israel) Arab states surrounding Israel attempt to retake the territory that was taken from them.Dictators come to power, such as Sadam Hussein (Iraq) and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran)Economic:At beginning of time period economy is bad because Europe doesn’t need to trade through the Middle East.Suez Canal facilitates quicker trade between Mediterranean and Indian Ocean.Modern Economy is primarily based on oil, as they have over half the world’s oil reserves.Religious:Islam is divided into sects such as Sunni’s and Shia’sIn Iraq, there was genocide against the Shia’s by Sadam Hussein and his government.Social:Sunni’s are the dominant sect of Islam, 9 out of every 10 Muslim’s are SunniIsraelis are hated by most of Middle EastInteractions:Ottomans are defeated in WWI which eventually leads to their demise.1967 – 6 day war, Israel captures Gaza Strip and West Bank1973- Egypt and Syria invade during Yom Kippur, are beaten in 20 days.Iran Iraq War, sparks Shia insurgency on border. 1992- peace treaty is signed between Israelis and Arabs.