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Introducing JavaScript. Server-Side and Client-Side Programming Server-side programming –Program placed on server that hosts Web site –Program then used.

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Presentation on theme: "Introducing JavaScript. Server-Side and Client-Side Programming Server-side programming –Program placed on server that hosts Web site –Program then used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introducing JavaScript

2 Server-Side and Client-Side Programming Server-side programming –Program placed on server that hosts Web site –Program then used to modify contents and structure of Web pages

3 Server-Side and Client-Side Programming Client-side programming –Runs programs on user’s computer –Programs likely to be more responsive to users –complement server-side programming

4 Server-Side Programming

5 Client-Side Programming

6 Combining Client-Side and Server-Side Programming

7 Introducing JavaScript Server-side Programs pose problems Client-side Programs were developed to run programs and scripts on the client side of a Web browser

8 The Development of JavaScript Java –Developed by Sun Microsystems –Programs designed to be run within Java interpreters –An example of a compiled language JavaScript –Developed by NETSCAPE, –An interpreted language –Internet Explorer supports a version called JScript

9 Comparing Java and JavaScript

10 Versions of JavaScript

11 The Development of JavaScript Jscript is a version of JavaScript supported by Internet Explorer The European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) develops scripting standards –The standard is called ECMAScript but browsers still generally call is JavaScript

12 Inserting JavaScript into a Web Page File Outline the main tasks you want the program to perform first A JavaScript program can either be placed directly in a Web page file or saved in an external text file

13 Inserting JavaScript into a Web Page File Insert a client-side script in a Web page when using the script element Comments are useful for hiding scripts from older browsers Specify alternative content using the nonscript element for browsers that don’t support scripts (or have their script support disabled)

14 Writing Output to the Web Page An object-based programming language writes the output by manipulating tasks An action you perform on an object is called a method

15 Writing Output to the Web Page To write text to a Web page, use the following JavaScript commands: document.write(“text”); or document.writeln(“text”)’ Where text is the content to be written to the page. The doucment.write() and document.writeln() methods are identical, except that the document.writeln() method preserves any line breaks in the text string.

16 Working with the Script Element Script element –Used to enter scripts into an HTML or XHTML file –Syntax script commands

17 Writing Output to a Web Document Inserting in a Web

18 The document.write() Method One way to send output to the Web document Object –Can be any item, including mouse pointer or window scrollbars Method –Process by which JavaScript manipulates the features of an object

19 Understanding JavaScript Rules and the Use of White Space JavaScript –Is case sensitive –Ignores most occurrences of extra white space –Line breaks occurring within a statement can cause error –Good practice to not break a statement into several lines

20 Supporting Non-JavaScript Browsers noscript element –Used by browsers that do not support scripts –Syntax alternative content

21 Working with Variables Variable –A named item in a program that stores information –Used to represent values and text strings –Values can change as the program runs

22 Working with Variables and Data JavaScript variable types: –Numeric variables –String variables –Boolean variables –Null variables You declare a variable before using it

23 Working with Variables and Data Numeric variable- any number, such as 13, 22.5, etc –Can also be expressed in scientific notation String variable- any group of text characters, such as “Hello” or “Happy Holidays!” –Must be enclosed within either double or single quotations (but not both) Boolean variable- accepts only true and false values Null variable- has no value at all

24 Declaring a Variable Tells JavaScript interpreter to reserve memory space for the variable Statement to declare a variable var variable; Declaring three variables var emLink, userName, emServer;

25 Declaring a JavaScript Variable You can declare variables with any of the following JavaScript commands: var variable; var variable = value; variable = value; Where variable is the name of the variable and value is the initial value of the variable. The first command creates the variable without assigning it a value; the second and third commands both create the variable and assign it a value.

26 Declaring a Variable Limits on variable names –First character must be either a letter or an underscore character ( _ ) –Remaining characters can be letters, numbers, or underscore characters –Variable names cannot contain spaces –Reserved words cannot be used

27 Writing a Variable Value to a Web Document Variable –Can be used in place of value it contains Writing a text string to a Web page var libName = ”Duston Public Library"; document.write(libName); Plus symbol ( + ) –Can be used to combine variable with text string

28 Working with Dates Create a date object to store date information Date Methods

29 Working with Expressions and Operators Expressions are JavaScript commands that assign values and variables Operators are elements that perform actions within expressions –Arithmetic operators: perform simple mathematical calculations –Binary operators: work on two elements in an expression –Unary operators: work on only one variable –Increment operators: can be used to increase the value of a variable by 1 –Assignment operators: used to assign values in expressions

30 Working with Expressions and Operators The Math object is a JavaScript object used for calculations other than simple math

31 Creating a Function to Perform an Action Functions –Collection of commands that perform an action or return a value –Include a function name –Include a set of commands that run when function is called –Some require parameters

32 Creating a Function to Perform an Action Syntax of a JavaScript function function function_name(parameters){ JavaScript commands } Calling a function function_name(parameter values)

33 Functions and Variable Scope Variable scope –Indicates where and how the variable can be used in your application –Can be local or global

34 Functions and Variable Scope Local scope –Variable created within a JavaScript function Global scope –Variables not declared within functions

35 Creating a Function to Return a Value For a function to return a value –It must include a return statement Syntax of a function that returns a value function function_name(parameters) { JavaScript commands return value; }

36 Commenting JavaScript Code Comments –Explain what your programs are designed to do and how they work Multiline comment /* The showEM() function displays a link to the user’s e- mail address. The username and server name are entered in reverse order */

37 Using Comments to Hide JavaScript Code Syntax for hiding script

38 Accessing an External JavaScript File Common practice to –Create libraries of functions located in external files Script elements that point to external files are –Placed in a document’s head section Extension “.js” –Used by external files containing JavaScript commands and functions

39 Using an External Script

40 Debugging Your JavaScript Programs Three types of errors: –Load-time errors (occurs when the script is loading) –Run-time errors (occurs when the being executed) –Logical errors (free from syntax and structural mistakes, but result in incorrect results)

41 Common Mistakes You need to debug your program to fix the mistakes Common mistakes include: –Misspelling a variable name –Mismatched parentheses or braces –Mismatched quotes –Missing quotes –Using ( instead of [ –Using = in place of ==

42 Debugging Tools and Techniques To avoid making mistakes and quickly located those you do make: –Write modular code –Use the Microsoft Script Debugger to debug (for use with Internet Explorer) –Use the JavaScript Console to debug (for use with Netscape and Mozilla family of browsers)

43 Microsoft Debugger Window

44 Tips for Writing Good JavaScript Code Use good layout to make your code more readable. Indent command blocks to make them easier to read and to set them off from other code Use descriptive variable names to indicate the purpose of your variables Be careful how you use uppercase and lowercase letters in your code, because JavaScript commands and names are case-sensitive

45 Tips for Writing Good JavaScript Code Add comments to your code to document the purpose of each script Initialize all variables at the top of your script and insert comments describing the purpose and nature of your variables Create customized functions that can be reused in different scripts. Place your customized functions in external files to make them available to your entire Web site

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