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PRINCE OF PEACE OR GOD OF WAR? 1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte.

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Presentation on theme: "PRINCE OF PEACE OR GOD OF WAR? 1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PRINCE OF PEACE OR GOD OF WAR? Napoleon Bonaparte

3 BORN ON THE ISLAND OF CORSICA 8/15/1769

4 ATTENDED BRIENNE MILITARY ACADEMY IN FRANCE

5 ATTENDED THE PRESTIGIOUS ECOLE MILITARY ACADEMY IN PARIS

6 NAPOLEON’S SPECIALITY WAS ARTILLERY

7 NAPOLEON SAID:  “GOOD LUCK IS ON THE SIDE WITH THE MOST CANNONS.”

8 SIEGE OF TOULON (9/7/1793 TO 12/19/1793)  The British had taken control of the port city with the help of French Monarchists who were against the revolution.  Napoleon was a junior officer at Toulon.  The French had laid siege to the city, but were unable to recapture it.  Late in the siege, Napoleon was offered an opportunity to plan an attack on Toulon.

9 Siege of Toulon  The plan by Napoleon led to the retaking of Toulon.  British, Spanish and pro-Bourbon forces were driven out.  Napoleon was made a Brigadier General, the youngest general in French history.

10 AFTER TOULON  Napoleon took a leave of absence and went home to Corsica as the Terror grew more extreme.  He returned to France after the Terror, a general without a command.  Napoleon would travel to Paris to petition for a military command.

11 “HERO OF THE REVOLUTION”

12  The new government, the Directory, was being threatened by royalists.  Napoleon was contacted and ordered to protect the Directory against the mobs.  Napoleon gave the mob “a wiff of grapeshot.”  For defending the Directory, Napoleon was proclaimed the “Hero of the Revolution.”  He was now France’s leading general.

13 THE EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN  France and Britain were in a superpower struggle for world domination.  How could France strike at Britain to weaken their enemy?  Cut British supply and trade lines through Egypt. That would weaken Britain.

14 EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN 1798  The French fleet avoided the British fleet in the Mediterranean and invaded Egypt near the port of Alexandria.  “Soldiers, forty centuries look down upon you”, said Napoleon.  July 21, 1798, the Battle of the Pyramids takes place.  At the Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon’s encountered Mameluke  For the French, discipline and strategy won the day.

15 BATTLE OF THE PYRAMIDS

16 BATTLE OF THE NILE

17 BATTLE OF THE NILE 8/1/1798  The British fleet, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson, discovered the French fleet in the harbor of Alexandria.  In a night time engagement, the French fleet was soundly defeated by the British and Nelson.  The French campaign in Egypt had failed. Napoleon would abandon his troops there and return to France in late 1799.

18 BRITISH ADMIRAL HORATIO NELSON

19 NAPOLEON’S RISE TO DICTATOR  After his failure in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France. There he joined a plot to overthrow the Directory(letters, coup d’ etat, 11/9/1799).  New Government: the Consulate.  3 Consuls(executives): Regis, Lebrun and Bonaparte(he guaranteed the military’s support) and a legislature.  The First Consul(Napoleon) had the most power.

20 THE COUP D’ ETAT

21 THE CONSULS: REGIS, BONAPARTE, LEBRUN

22 1802 NAPOLEON MADE HIMSELF FIRST CONSUL FOR LIFE

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24 THE NAPOLEONIC PROGRAM IN FRANCE  Concordat of 1801-re-established peaceful relations between church and state.  Code Napoleon 1804-law code based on Roman law, it limited some individual freedoms.  Centralized Government-all major decisions belonged to Napoleon.  Reorganized Education-public schools(lycee) under a central authority.

25 THE NAPOLEONIC PROGRAM IN FRANCE THE ECONOMY  Strengthened agriculture  Increased manufacturing  Stimulated commerce  Established the Bank of France

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27 NAPOLEON AS EMPEROR  Crowned emperor 12/2/1804.  He had already conquered most of Europe.

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30 THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM 1803  European nations were forbidden to import British products or export goods to Britain. This was economic warfare.  British or neutral ships that sailed from Britain or any of its colonies were denied admittance to continental ports.  WHY? This was an attempt by France to weaken and undermine the British economy and military by unifying the European continent against Britain economically.

31 THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM-BRITAIN’S RESPONSE  Orders of Council  It stated that ships trading in European ports closed to Britain would be captured.  French ports were blockaded.  This led to the United States declaration of war against Britain (The War of 1812).

32 PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE  British Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the French Fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, (October 21, 1805)  Cape Trafalgar is on the south western coast of Spain.  British blockaded the French coast,  Smuggling became more popular than ever.

33 THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR 1805

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35 TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON, ENGLAND

36 PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE: THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN  Russia left the Continental System and returned to trading with Britain.  Napoleon invaded Russia to enforce the Continental System, June,  Napoleon’s weapon: the Grand Army of France numbered over 600,000 men.  Russian strategy: scorched earth/”General Winter”.  Napoleon conquered a burning Moscow, had to retreat after 5 weeks due to a lack of supplies and shelter.

37 PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON: THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN

38  French forces escaped from Russia in November,  Casualties were from disease, starvation, cold, frostbite and Russian pursuers.  Those that returned to France numbered fewer than 40,000 (out of 600,000).

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42 PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON  The Battle of Nations-European powers sensed Napoleon’s weakness.  October Prussia, Russia, Austria, aided by Britain and Sweden declared war on France.  Napoleon was defeated.

43 ABDICATION  April 11, 1814-Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to the island of Elba, in the Mediterranean.

44 NAPOLEON RETURNS: FEBRUARY 1815

45 NAPOLEON’S ESCAPE FROM ELBA  February, 1815-plan created by Napoleon and his officers was put into effect.  Napoleon and his personal guard took control of several ships and sailed back to France.  Napoleon made his way from southern France to Paris, gaining support all along the way.

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48 THE HUNDRED DAYS  Napoleon became emperor again.  He sent out peace envoys to the leaders of Europe.  The envoys were all arrested and the European leaders planned for the destruction of Napoleon Bonaparte once and for all.

49 THE END OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE  Final defeat: Waterloo, Belgium.  Battle of Waterloo-June 18,  Although the armies were about the same strength, Napoleon was outdone by his counterpart on the battlefield, British Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, the duke of Wellington.  Napoleon’s army was driven from the field of battle.

50 NOW WHAT WILL HE DO?

51  Napoleon attempted to commit suicide with poison, but just made himself sick.  Finally, he abdicated for a second time and was sent into exile again.  This time he was exiled to the island of St. Helena, in the South Atlantic.

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53 ABDICATION AND EXILE ON ST. HELENA

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55 NAPOLEON DIED MAY 5, 1821

56 NAPOLEON’S BODY RETURNED TO FRANCE-1840

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