Presentation on theme: "PRINCE OF PEACE OR GOD OF WAR? 1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte."— Presentation transcript:
PRINCE OF PEACE OR GOD OF WAR? Napoleon Bonaparte
BORN ON THE ISLAND OF CORSICA 8/15/1769
ATTENDED BRIENNE MILITARY ACADEMY IN FRANCE
ATTENDED THE PRESTIGIOUS ECOLE MILITARY ACADEMY IN PARIS
NAPOLEON’S SPECIALITY WAS ARTILLERY
NAPOLEON SAID: “GOOD LUCK IS ON THE SIDE WITH THE MOST CANNONS.”
SIEGE OF TOULON (9/7/1793 TO 12/19/1793) The British had taken control of the port city with the help of French Monarchists who were against the revolution. Napoleon was a junior officer at Toulon. The French had laid siege to the city, but were unable to recapture it. Late in the siege, Napoleon was offered an opportunity to plan an attack on Toulon.
Siege of Toulon The plan by Napoleon led to the retaking of Toulon. British, Spanish and pro-Bourbon forces were driven out. Napoleon was made a Brigadier General, the youngest general in French history.
AFTER TOULON Napoleon took a leave of absence and went home to Corsica as the Terror grew more extreme. He returned to France after the Terror, a general without a command. Napoleon would travel to Paris to petition for a military command.
“HERO OF THE REVOLUTION”
The new government, the Directory, was being threatened by royalists. Napoleon was contacted and ordered to protect the Directory against the mobs. Napoleon gave the mob “a wiff of grapeshot.” For defending the Directory, Napoleon was proclaimed the “Hero of the Revolution.” He was now France’s leading general.
THE EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN France and Britain were in a superpower struggle for world domination. How could France strike at Britain to weaken their enemy? Cut British supply and trade lines through Egypt. That would weaken Britain.
EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN 1798 The French fleet avoided the British fleet in the Mediterranean and invaded Egypt near the port of Alexandria. “Soldiers, forty centuries look down upon you”, said Napoleon. July 21, 1798, the Battle of the Pyramids takes place. At the Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon’s encountered Mameluke For the French, discipline and strategy won the day.
BATTLE OF THE PYRAMIDS
BATTLE OF THE NILE
BATTLE OF THE NILE 8/1/1798 The British fleet, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson, discovered the French fleet in the harbor of Alexandria. In a night time engagement, the French fleet was soundly defeated by the British and Nelson. The French campaign in Egypt had failed. Napoleon would abandon his troops there and return to France in late 1799.
BRITISH ADMIRAL HORATIO NELSON
NAPOLEON’S RISE TO DICTATOR After his failure in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France. There he joined a plot to overthrow the Directory(letters, coup d’ etat, 11/9/1799). New Government: the Consulate. 3 Consuls(executives): Regis, Lebrun and Bonaparte(he guaranteed the military’s support) and a legislature. The First Consul(Napoleon) had the most power.
THE COUP D’ ETAT
THE CONSULS: REGIS, BONAPARTE, LEBRUN
1802 NAPOLEON MADE HIMSELF FIRST CONSUL FOR LIFE
THE NAPOLEONIC PROGRAM IN FRANCE Concordat of 1801-re-established peaceful relations between church and state. Code Napoleon 1804-law code based on Roman law, it limited some individual freedoms. Centralized Government-all major decisions belonged to Napoleon. Reorganized Education-public schools(lycee) under a central authority.
THE NAPOLEONIC PROGRAM IN FRANCE THE ECONOMY Strengthened agriculture Increased manufacturing Stimulated commerce Established the Bank of France
NAPOLEON AS EMPEROR Crowned emperor 12/2/1804. He had already conquered most of Europe.
THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM 1803 European nations were forbidden to import British products or export goods to Britain. This was economic warfare. British or neutral ships that sailed from Britain or any of its colonies were denied admittance to continental ports. WHY? This was an attempt by France to weaken and undermine the British economy and military by unifying the European continent against Britain economically.
THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM-BRITAIN’S RESPONSE Orders of Council It stated that ships trading in European ports closed to Britain would be captured. French ports were blockaded. This led to the United States declaration of war against Britain (The War of 1812).
PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE British Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the French Fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, (October 21, 1805) Cape Trafalgar is on the south western coast of Spain. British blockaded the French coast, Smuggling became more popular than ever.
THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR 1805
TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON, ENGLAND
PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE: THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN Russia left the Continental System and returned to trading with Britain. Napoleon invaded Russia to enforce the Continental System, June, Napoleon’s weapon: the Grand Army of France numbered over 600,000 men. Russian strategy: scorched earth/”General Winter”. Napoleon conquered a burning Moscow, had to retreat after 5 weeks due to a lack of supplies and shelter.
PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON: THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN
French forces escaped from Russia in November, Casualties were from disease, starvation, cold, frostbite and Russian pursuers. Those that returned to France numbered fewer than 40,000 (out of 600,000).
PROBLEMS FOR NAPOLEON The Battle of Nations-European powers sensed Napoleon’s weakness. October Prussia, Russia, Austria, aided by Britain and Sweden declared war on France. Napoleon was defeated.
ABDICATION April 11, 1814-Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to the island of Elba, in the Mediterranean.
NAPOLEON RETURNS: FEBRUARY 1815
NAPOLEON’S ESCAPE FROM ELBA February, 1815-plan created by Napoleon and his officers was put into effect. Napoleon and his personal guard took control of several ships and sailed back to France. Napoleon made his way from southern France to Paris, gaining support all along the way.
THE HUNDRED DAYS Napoleon became emperor again. He sent out peace envoys to the leaders of Europe. The envoys were all arrested and the European leaders planned for the destruction of Napoleon Bonaparte once and for all.
THE END OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE Final defeat: Waterloo, Belgium. Battle of Waterloo-June 18, Although the armies were about the same strength, Napoleon was outdone by his counterpart on the battlefield, British Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, the duke of Wellington. Napoleon’s army was driven from the field of battle.
NOW WHAT WILL HE DO?
Napoleon attempted to commit suicide with poison, but just made himself sick. Finally, he abdicated for a second time and was sent into exile again. This time he was exiled to the island of St. Helena, in the South Atlantic.