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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1750-1914 THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM TO THE FACTORY SYSTEM.

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Presentation on theme: "THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1750-1914 THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM TO THE FACTORY SYSTEM."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM TO THE FACTORY SYSTEM

3 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION PREDECESSOR TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: CHANGES IN THEORY AND MACHINERY.

4 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

5 NEW CROPS  CHARLES TOWNSHEND – CROP ROTATION  COMPLIMENTARY CROPS (CLOVER &TURNIPS – WHEAT & BARLEY)  JETHRO TULL – SEED DRILL  IRON PLOWS  MECHANICAL REAPERS AND THRESHERS  ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT

6 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION: THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT  THE FENCING OFF OF PUBLIC LANDS BY LANDOWNERS (1700’S).  AGRICULTURE BECAME MORE EFFICIENT.  EXPERIMENTATION WITH NEW CROPS.  FEWER FARM WORKERS NEEDED.

7 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT: RESULTS  MORE FOOD, BETTER DIET, IMPROVED HEALTH  RAPID POPULATION GROWTH  INCREASED DEMAND FOR MANUFACTURED GOODS  UNEMPLOYED FARMERS = LARGE NEW LABOR FORCE

8 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  DOMESTIC SYSTEM (COTTAGE INDUSTRY)  WOOL/COTTON CLOTH MANUFACTURED IN THE HOME.  ENTREPRENEURS DELIVERED RAW MATERIALS.  FAMILIES CLEANED RAW MATERIAL, SPUN THREAD AND WOVE CLOTH.  THIS SYSTEM COULD NOT KEEP UP WITH DEMAND.

9 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION MECHANICAL INVENTIONS  JOHN KAY  FLYING SHUTTLE  1733  SPED UP WEAVING PROCESS  WEAVERS USE THREAD FASTER THAN SPINNERS COULD PRODUCE IT  JAMES HARGREAVES  SPINNING JENNY  1764  SPED UP THE SPINNING PROCESS  A PERSON COULD SPIN SEVERAL THREADS AT ONCE

10 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION FLYING SHUTTLE

11 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SPINNING JENNY

12 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION MECHANICAL INVENTIONS  RICHARD ARKWRIGHT  WATER FRAME  1769  100 SPINDLES DRIVEN BY WATER POWER  INCREASED THREAD PRODUCTION  SAMUEL CROMPTON  SPINNING MULE  1779  USED FEATURES OF THE SPINNING JENNY AND THE WATER FRAME  INCREASED THREAD PRODUCTION

13 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WATER FRAME

14 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SPINNING MULE

15 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION MECHANICAL INVENTIONS  EDWARD CARTWRIGHT  POWER LOOM  1785  LOOM IN WHICH THE WEAVING ACTION WAS POWERED BY WATER  A WORKER COULD PRODUCE 200 TIMES MORE CLOTH IN A DAY  ELI WHITNEY  COTTON GIN  1793  MACHINE THAT TORE FIBERS FROM SEEDS TO CLEAN THE RAW COTTON  SPED UP THE PROCESS OF CLEANING COTTON FIBER

16 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION POWER LOOM

17 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION COTTON GIN

18 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION FACTORY SYSTEM  WORKERS AND MACHINES BROUGHT TOGETHER IN ONE PLACE  INVESTORS BUILT LARGE BUILDINGS TO HOUSE MACHINES  WORKERS HAD A SET NUMBER OF HOURS TO WORK  WORKERS WERE PAID DAILY OR WEEKLY WAGES

19 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION THE STEAM ENGINE

20  1698-THOMAS SAVERY-STEAM DRIVEN PUMP-REMOVE WATER FROM FLOODED COAL MINES  EARLY 1700’S-THOMAS NEWCOMEN –SAFER STEAM POWERED PUMP  1760’S-JAMES WATT-IMPROVED NEWCOMEN ENGINE, PRODUCED 4 TIMES THE POWER AND STEAM BECAME AN EFFICENT POWER SOURCE

21 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION COAL AND IRON  EARLY 1700’S-ABRAHAM DARBY- DEVELOPED A WAY TO USE A FORM OF COAL, INSTEAD OF CHARCOAL, TO SMELT THE IRON. IRON IS BETTER QUALITY AND CHEAPER TO PRODUCE  DARBY MADE IRON  1850’S-HENRY BESSEMER-’PROCESS’ CREATED STRONGER, CHEAPER STEEL

22 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TRANSPORTATION & COMMUNICATION  CANAL-1759-DUKE OF BRIDGEWATER  ROAD SURFACE-1700’S-JOHN MCADAM  RAILROAD-1829-GEORGE STEPHENSON ‘ROCKET’ TRAVELED AT 36 MPH! BETWEEN 1850 AND 1860 BRITAIN BUILT OVER 5000 MILES OF RAILROAD TRACK  STEAMSHIP-1807-ROBERT FULTON  TELEGRAPH-1837-SAMUEL F.B. MORSE  INEXPENSIVE POSTAL SYSTEM IN BRITAIN

23 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION LOCOMOTIVE & STEAMSHIP Why were railroads improvements over canals?

24 WHY DID BRITAIN LEAD THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?  AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION = MORE FOOD  AVAILABLE LABOR POOL  PLENTY OF COAL & IRON  EXCELLENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  MERCHANT TRADITION  CAPITAL FOR INVESTMENT  LARGE COLONIAL EMPIRE FOR RAW MATERIALS  COLONIAL EMPIRE WAS A MARKET FOR FINISHED GOODS

25 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BRITAIN’S REIGN AS A WORLD POWER BEGINS


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