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Nigeria Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Jessica Shi Period 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Nigeria Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Jessica Shi Period 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nigeria Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Jessica Shi Period 1

2 Precolonial Nigeria Various indigenous polities Sophisticated + influential societies Some major polities: ◦ Hausa states of Kano, Katsina, Zaria, and Gobir ◦ Yoruba states of Ife and Oyo

3 Hausa Northern Nigeria Loose alliances ◦ Division of labor between states Leadership based on ancestry 1300s: Introduced to Islam ◦ Honored traditional ways 1800s: Conquered by Fulani (Western Sudan) ◦ Created Sokoto Caliphate

4 Yoruba Southwestern Nigeria Allegiance paid to large urban center in area ◦ Confederation of rulers: no centralized authority 1700s: Civil war in Oyo between minor leaders ◦ Rebels called Fulani for help ◦ Fulani conquered all of Oyo by 1830s 1880s: Treaty signed between warring factions with help from British

5 Slave Trade Arrival of Europeans = Slave trade 1/3 of Yoruba enslaved 1/2 of Hausas enslaved British rule: 2 mil. to 2.5 mil. enslaved Traded for European goods ◦ Sokoto jihad and Yoruba wars: guns/gunpowder

6 Colonial Nigeria 1807: British legislation prohibits British subjects from participating in slave trade ◦ Slave ships intercepted by Royal Navy ◦ Some freed slaves migrate home, become agents to allow British trade ◦ Encouraged palm oil trade, but failed to undermine slave trade

7 Colonial Nigeria 1849: UK appointed consul over bights of Benin and Biafra 1861: UK annexed Lagos ◦ To better abolish slave trade (Lagos was an export point) ◦ To protect trade interests from Lagos 1884: UK formed Niger Coast Protectorate ◦ During Berlin Conference: “Scramble for Africa”

8 Colonial Nigeria 1886: Royal Niger Company established control over Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate ◦ Chartered company ◦ Competition with state-supported protectorates of France and Germany ◦ 1899: Charter revoked ◦ 1900: Transferred territories to British government 1901: Nigeria became a British protectorate

9 Divisions between North and South South ◦ View that Africans incapable of maintaining order ◦ Mercantilist system North ◦ Frederick Lugard appointed High Comissioner ◦ : Period of fighting ◦ Indirect rule: Throne retained by cooperative chief with considerable power ◦ Budget deficit: Powerful merchants refuse to tax trade

10 Divisions between North and South South ◦ British created political hierarchy, rule through traditional and non-traditional leaders ◦ Rapid spread of Western education and Christianity North ◦ Christian missionaries resisted by Muslim leaders ◦ Traditional leaders kept

11 Colonial Nigeria 1912: Lugard becomes governor of both northern and southern Nigeria 1914: Both regions united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria ◦ For economic purposes ◦ Still divided administratively ◦ Nigerian Legislative Council established: no legislative powers

12 Colonial Nigeria 1922: Sir Hugh Clifford Constitution: Elective legislative houses, but only for southern provinces 1946: Richards Constitution: Expanded Legislative Council, established three regions (Eastern, Western, Northern) to reconcile religious tensions ◦ East: Igbo ◦ West: Yoruba ◦ North: Hausa and Fulani

13 Colonial Nigeria 1951: Macpherson Constitution: Greater autonomy, central government with Council of Ministers + House of Representatives ◦ Separate House of Chiefs for the North, to reflect tribal authority 1954: Lyttleton Constitution: More revisions, paved way towards independence

14 Colonial Nigeria 1957: Internal self-government in West + East regions, federal prime minister 1959: Internal self-government in the North 1950s: Ethnic cleavages ◦ South committed to policies that would benefit the South because of wealth from export crops ◦ North emirs want firm control on economics and politics, no intervention from federal government

15 Independence 1960: British Act of Parliament, Nigeria became independent ◦ First constitution as sovereign state ◦ Retains Queen Elizabeth II as head of state

16 First Republic 1963 Constitution: Federal republic based on Westminster system Joint Nigerian’s People’s Congress (NPC, conservative, Hausa-Fulani interests) + Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP, Yoruba interests)

17 Military Rule : Young Majors (Igbos) overthrew NPC-NNDP government, assassinated prime minister + premiers of West + North ◦ Igbos in north massacred 1966: Major General Yakubu Gowon took over leadership ◦ Divided regions into 12 states

18 Military Rule : Igbo rejects the division ◦ Emeka Ojukwu (Igbo officer) declares the Eastern region an independent nation: Republic of Biafra : Nigerian Civil War: Ethnic/political conflict over attempted secession of Republic of Biafra ◦ Biafra suffers the most: land-locked, starving, surrenders

19 Military Rule : Rise of oil prices ◦ Nigerian government becomes wealthy due to large reserves of petroleum (discovered in 1950s) 1975: General Murtala Mohammed staged bloodless coup ◦ Accused Gowon of oil corruption + delaying promise of civilian rule

20 Military Rule : Mohammed assasinated 1976: Chief of staff Lt. General Olusegun Obasanjo takes over ◦ Oil prices plummet, economic crisis + political disorder

21 Second Republic 1979 Constitution: American-style presidential system National Party of Nigeria (NPN, Hausa- Fulani interests) Subdivisions increased to 19 states

22 Military Rule Election: Disputes over vote rigging, legal battle over NPN win ◦ Military overthrew Second Republic ◦ Major General Muhammadu Buhari emerged as leader of the Supreme Military Council 1985: General Ibrahim Babngida overthrew Buhari ◦ Claimed misuse of power, violations of human rights, failure to deal with economic crisis

23 Third Republic 1993 Constitution: Return of democratic rule, never fully implemented Babangida promised to return to civilian rule by 1990, then : Two established parties: National Republic Convention (NRC), Social Democratic Party (SDP)

24 Third Republic 1993 Presidential Election: Moshood Abiola (Yoruba businessman) seemed to be winning a decisive victory in early votes, Babngida annulled the election 1993: Riots, >100 killed, Babangida handed over power to an interim government ◦ Ernest Shonekan (nonpartisan businessman) is to rule until 1994 elections

25 Military Rule : Defense Minister Sani Abacha forced Shonekan’s resignation (economic problems, political tension) ◦ Dissolved democratic institutions ◦ Replaced elected governors with military officers 1994: Abiola declared himself president 1995: Activist Ken Saro-Wiwa arrested for murder of rivals at a political rally, sentenced to death ◦ Worldwide outcry over lack of fair trial

26 Military Rule : Abacha died of heart failure, replaced by General Abdulsalami Abubakar

27 Fourth Republic 1999 Constitution: Restored democratic rule, in place today People’s Democratic Party (PDP, right- leaning) 1999 Election: Olusegun Obasanjo won ◦ Marked improvements in human rights + freedom of press ◦ Still lots of violence over ethnic + religious differences

28 Fourth Republic 2003: Obasanjo reelected 2007: Umaru Yar’Adua elected President (PDP), marred with electoral fraud 2010: Goodluck Jonathan (PDP) took over after Yar’Adua’s death 2011: Jonathan won reelections, current President of Nigeria

29 Future Problems Rebuilding a petroleum-based economy Ethnic + religious tension Conflict over oil Not a lot of constitutionalism (because there were so many constitutions) Poverty: gap between upper + lower class, very small middle class

30 Legitimacy Election fraud (especially 2007) ◦ Voting boxes vandalized/stolen ◦ Lack of privacy, police instructing people who to vote for ◦ Underage voting Military dependence ◦ Olusegun Obasanjo: former military general ◦ Lack of rule of law under generals Low levels of trust

31 Political Culture Patron-client system ◦ “Prebendalism”: sense of entitlement to government revenues ◦ Large networks based on personal loyalty ◦ Corruption Voting ◦ Unreliable statistics: estimated 2/3 of eligible voters voted in 2003

32 Media All 36 states run their own radio stations ◦ Radio: main source of information >100 private + state-owned newspapers ◦ Reflects ethnic divisions Illiteracy is an issue National Broadcasting Commission monitors broadcast media

33 Supranational Orgnizations Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) member Received assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) ◦ Ambitions similar to those of the European Union (EU)

34 Presidents First Republic ◦ : Nnamdi Azikiwe Military Rule 1 ◦ : Major-General Johnson Aguiyi- Ironsi ◦ : General Yakubu Gowon ◦ : General Murtala Mohammed ◦ : Major-General Olusegun Obasanjo

35 Presidents Second Republic ◦ : Shehu Shagari Military Rule 2 ◦ : Major-General Muhammadu Buhari ◦ : General Ibrahim Babangida Third Republic ◦ : Ernest Shonekan Military Rule 3 ◦ : General Sani Abacha ◦ : General Abdulsalami Abubakar

36 Presidents Fourth Republic ◦ : Olusegun Obasanjo ◦ : Umaru Musa Yar’Adua ◦ 2010-present: Goodluck Jonathan

37 Regions North: Hausa-Fulani, predominately Muslim Southwest: Yoruba, 40% Muslim + 40% Christian Southeast: Igbo, mostly Roman Catholic, growing number of Protestant Christians

38 Map

39 Tic Tac Toe (sorta)


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