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Nigeria: Political and Economic Change By Sam Dembling.

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1 Nigeria: Political and Economic Change By Sam Dembling

2 Maps of Nigeria HelloHello

3 Pre-colonial Period Various kingdoms founded on ethnic lines:Various kingdoms founded on ethnic lines: Southeastern Igbo have Kanem-Bornu trading empire.Southeastern Igbo have Kanem-Bornu trading empire. Northern Hausa-Fulani establish Sokoto Caliphate.Northern Hausa-Fulani establish Sokoto Caliphate. Southwestern Christian Yoruba found Oyo Kingdom.Southwestern Christian Yoruba found Oyo Kingdom.

4 Colonial Period, Great Britain annexes Lagos to gain Niger River trade route Great Britain annexes Lagos to gain Niger River trade route Britain divides country into northern and southern protectorates. “Indirect rule” in North through Muslim emirates w/ power to tax. “Direct rule” in South. Export economy Britain divides country into northern and southern protectorates. “Indirect rule” in North through Muslim emirates w/ power to tax. “Direct rule” in South. Export economy Split into peanut-producing north, cocoa- producing south, and palm-oil producing east. Along ethnic lines Split into peanut-producing north, cocoa- producing south, and palm-oil producing east. Along ethnic lines.

5 Colonial period continued Three constitutions between 1945 and independence (1960).Three constitutions between 1945 and independence (1960). Each one gives greater local autonomy and self-rule to regions.Each one gives greater local autonomy and self-rule to regions. 64% total revenues derived from indirect taxes (on international trade), 16.5 % direct taxes, 19 % direct revenues.64% total revenues derived from indirect taxes (on international trade), 16.5 % direct taxes, 19 % direct revenues.

6 Political/Economic Trends: Balkanization Balkanization- Geographic fragmentation of one large state into a series of smaller, often hostile ones.Balkanization- Geographic fragmentation of one large state into a series of smaller, often hostile ones.

7 Patron- Clientelism/Corrupti on Patron-Clientelism—System in which a patron helps grant a client’s wishes (often economic) in exchange for political loyalty.Patron-Clientelism—System in which a patron helps grant a client’s wishes (often economic) in exchange for political loyalty.

8 First Republic: Political System: Based on Westminster model. House of Representatives and Senate (tribal leaders). Federal—three main regions have much power. Supreme court.Political System: Based on Westminster model. House of Representatives and Senate (tribal leaders). Federal—three main regions have much power. Supreme court. Northern Abubakar Tafawa Balewa elected 1 st PM.Northern Abubakar Tafawa Balewa elected 1 st PM. Balewa wins 1964/65 elections, but is accused of electoral fraud. Riots ensue. Other parties boycott.Balewa wins 1964/65 elections, but is accused of electoral fraud. Riots ensue. Other parties boycott. Balewa is assassinated in 1966 coup.Balewa is assassinated in 1966 coup.

9 Military Rule: Ironsi, 1966 Major General Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi, a Christian Igbo, comes to power.Major General Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi, a Christian Igbo, comes to power. Ironsi Administration—Suspends constitution; calls on emergency powers; bans political parties; takes away regional autonomy; forms Federal Military Government (FMG).Ironsi Administration—Suspends constitution; calls on emergency powers; bans political parties; takes away regional autonomy; forms Federal Military Government (FMG). Assassinated in 1966 coup after major anti-Igbo protests.Assassinated in 1966 coup after major anti-Igbo protests.

10 Military Rule : Gowon, Northern Christian Lieutenant Colonel Yakubu Gowon takes charge of FMG.Northern Christian Lieutenant Colonel Yakubu Gowon takes charge of FMG. Gowon Administration—Reintroduces federalism. Biafran War (next slide). Corruption becomes entrenched during oil boom of early 70’s. High inflation: printed much money. Little economic planning. Helps create Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Divides Nigeria into 12 states.Gowon Administration—Reintroduces federalism. Biafran War (next slide). Corruption becomes entrenched during oil boom of early 70’s. High inflation: printed much money. Little economic planning. Helps create Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Divides Nigeria into 12 states. 1975—Stripped of office by military while attending an OAU summit in Uganda.1975—Stripped of office by military while attending an OAU summit in Uganda.

11 Biafran War ( ) Causes—Oil discovered in southeastern Nigeria; northern massacres of Igbos during Ironsi rule; general desire for nationhood.Causes—Oil discovered in southeastern Nigeria; northern massacres of Igbos during Ironsi rule; general desire for nationhood. War—Igbo Colonel Ojukwu leads Biafra into war of secession, poorly equipped. US, UK, USSR support Nigerian govt. Blockade of Biafra causes mass starvation. Biafrans surrender after 1970 offensive.War—Igbo Colonel Ojukwu leads Biafra into war of secession, poorly equipped. US, UK, USSR support Nigerian govt. Blockade of Biafra causes mass starvation. Biafrans surrender after 1970 offensive. Aftermath—Over a million dead (mostly from starvation/disease). Gowon does not retaliate against Biafrans, helps resolve tensions.Aftermath—Over a million dead (mostly from starvation/disease). Gowon does not retaliate against Biafrans, helps resolve tensions.

12 Military Rule: Mohammed, Murtala Mohammed—Hausa-Fulani from the north.Murtala Mohammed—Hausa-Fulani from the north. Mohammed Administration—Attempts to purge govt. of corruption by dismissing thousands of officials/military officers. Sets up a Public Complaints Commission.Mohammed Administration—Attempts to purge govt. of corruption by dismissing thousands of officials/military officers. Sets up a Public Complaints Commission. Assassinated in 1976 by Gowon’s supporters.Assassinated in 1976 by Gowon’s supporters.

13 Military Rule: Obasanjo, Olusegun Obasanjo—Christian Yoruba from the west.Olusegun Obasanjo—Christian Yoruba from the west. Obasanjo Administration—Divides Nigeria into 19 states (previously 12). Permits limited political activity. Sets up the Second Republic, w/ a constitution based on America’s. Hoped these measures would weaken ethnic ties.Obasanjo Administration—Divides Nigeria into 19 states (previously 12). Permits limited political activity. Sets up the Second Republic, w/ a constitution based on America’s. Hoped these measures would weaken ethnic ties. Exchanges military rule of the country for democracy in 1979.Exchanges military rule of the country for democracy in 1979.

14 Second Republic: Shagari, Shehu Shagari—Muslim Hausa-Fulani from the north wins 1979 elections.Shehu Shagari—Muslim Hausa-Fulani from the north wins 1979 elections. Shagari Administration—Must respond to economic crisis in early ’80s. Cuts govt. budget. Expels two million illegal immigrants. Implements IMF- recommended austerity measures, which are deeply unpopular. Wins hotly contested ‘83 elections.Shagari Administration—Must respond to economic crisis in early ’80s. Cuts govt. budget. Expels two million illegal immigrants. Implements IMF- recommended austerity measures, which are deeply unpopular. Wins hotly contested ‘83 elections. Overthrown in 1983.Overthrown in 1983.

15 Military Rule: Buhari, Mohammed Buhari—Northern Muslim Hausa-Fulani.Mohammed Buhari—Northern Muslim Hausa-Fulani. Buhari Administration—Replaces govt. with Supreme Military Council. Bans political activity. Dissolves legislature. Continues austerity measures, but has low public opinion.Buhari Administration—Replaces govt. with Supreme Military Council. Bans political activity. Dissolves legislature. Continues austerity measures, but has low public opinion. Military detains replaces him with Babangida.Military detains replaces him with Babangida.

16 Military Rule: babangida, Ibrahim Babangida—Muslim from “middle belt.”Ibrahim Babangida—Muslim from “middle belt.” Babangida Administration—Rules under Armed Forces Ruling Council. Plans return to civilian rule. Creates new constitution in 1992, which changes number of states from 19 to 30. Causes mass protests after annulling 1992 elections after Yoruba Mashood Abiola is elected president. Failed transition called the “Third Republic.”Babangida Administration—Rules under Armed Forces Ruling Council. Plans return to civilian rule. Creates new constitution in 1992, which changes number of states from 19 to 30. Causes mass protests after annulling 1992 elections after Yoruba Mashood Abiola is elected president. Failed transition called the “Third Republic.” Forced to resign in disgrace in 1993.Forced to resign in disgrace in 1993.

17 Military Rule: Abacha, Short caretaker govt. led by Ernest Shonekan.Short caretaker govt. led by Ernest Shonekan. Sani Abacha Administration—Strict military rule. Curtailment of human rights. Famous activist Ken Saro-Wiwa executed, international upset. Economic growth, debt reduction. Helps intervene Liberia and Sierra Leone.Sani Abacha Administration—Strict military rule. Curtailment of human rights. Famous activist Ken Saro-Wiwa executed, international upset. Economic growth, debt reduction. Helps intervene Liberia and Sierra Leone. Dies suddenly in 1998— “the coup from Heaven.”Dies suddenly in 1998— “the coup from Heaven.”

18 Fourth Republic: 1999-Present Short interim govt. w/ Abdusalami Abubakar,Short interim govt. w/ Abdusalami Abubakar, Olusegun Obasanjo is elected.Olusegun Obasanjo is elected. Obasanjo Administration--Helped push money back into the economy by opening up trade, purporting to crack down on corruption/patronage. Tackled environmental degradation issues.Obasanjo Administration--Helped push money back into the economy by opening up trade, purporting to crack down on corruption/patronage. Tackled environmental degradation issues.

19 Boko Haram Boko Haram—“Western Education is Forbidden.” Nickname.Boko Haram—“Western Education is Forbidden.” Nickname. Founded w/ “peaceful” intentions in 2002 by cleric Mohammed Yusuf.Founded w/ “peaceful” intentions in 2002 by cleric Mohammed Yusuf. Its 2009 police station attacks led to headquarters raid by Nigerian govt.—800 killed. Groups turns violent.Its 2009 police station attacks led to headquarters raid by Nigerian govt.—800 killed. Groups turns violent. Perceived by US in 2004 as internal threat to Nigeria, not international terrorist group.Perceived by US in 2004 as internal threat to Nigeria, not international terrorist group.

20 Boko Harm Cont. Draws on long-time impoverished North—power struggle between Muslim North and mostly Christian South.Draws on long-time impoverished North—power struggle between Muslim North and mostly Christian South. Difficult to pin down + Nigerian army is heavy handed. (HRW has documented army’s atrocities)Difficult to pin down + Nigerian army is heavy handed. (HRW has documented army’s atrocities) State of Emergency, May 2013—attacks daily.State of Emergency, May 2013—attacks daily. September 29 th SchoolSeptember 29 th School Shooting. 40+ dead. Shooting. 40+ dead.

21 Current Economic Issues Currently over dependent on oil.Currently over dependent on oil. President Goodluck Jonathan suspended Lamido Sanusi, governor of Nigeria’s central bank, on Feb 20 th, Sanusi had begun investigating corruption within the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). $2 billion of the $9 billion foreign cash has left. The naira has dropped to 169 to the dollar.President Goodluck Jonathan suspended Lamido Sanusi, governor of Nigeria’s central bank, on Feb 20 th, Sanusi had begun investigating corruption within the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). $2 billion of the $9 billion foreign cash has left. The naira has dropped to 169 to the dollar.

22 Sources ?article_id=Abubakar+Tafawa+Balewa#.Uxi8i45juZ4http://www.zodml.org/Nigeria/nigeria_people_content_articles.php ?article_id=Abubakar+Tafawa+Balewa#.Uxi8i45juZ4http://www.zodml.org/Nigeria/nigeria_people_content_articles.php ?article_id=Abubakar+Tafawa+Balewa#.Uxi8i45juZ4http://www.zodml.org/Nigeria/nigeria_people_content_articles.php ?article_id=Abubakar+Tafawa+Balewa#.Uxi8i45juZ4 Gowonhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/240299/Yakubu- Gowonhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/240299/Yakubu- Gowonhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/240299/Yakubu- Gowon nigeriahttp://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/24411/jean-herskovits/one- nigeriahttp://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/24411/jean-herskovits/one- nigeriahttp://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/24411/jean-herskovits/one- nigeria

23 Sources 2 years-ago-aged-38/171169/http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/murtala-muhammed-murdered-38- years-ago-aged-38/171169/http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/murtala-muhammed-murdered-38- years-ago-aged-38/171169/http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/murtala-muhammed-murdered-38- years-ago-aged-38/171169/ president-bemoans-negative-image-his-country-how-odd-big-countryhttp://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/ nigerias- president-bemoans-negative-image-his-country-how-odd-big-country


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