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Complete Unified Device Architecture A Highly Scalable Parallel Programming Framework Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Maryland.

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Presentation on theme: "Complete Unified Device Architecture A Highly Scalable Parallel Programming Framework Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Maryland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complete Unified Device Architecture A Highly Scalable Parallel Programming Framework Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Maryland high school diploma Andrew “Shirley” Das Sarma (Calico Cannonballs McMullins), Blair Computational Methods 2009

2 Background: Why CUDA? Scientific Computing A large computer market Arithmetic-intensive Huge datasets Distributed Parallel

3 Background: Why CUDA? Moore’s Law Transistors double every 24 months Slowing down? New tricks –Multicore –Multi-node Metrics –Transistors per circuit –Performance per unit cost

4 Background: Why CUDA? CPU vs. GPU CPUs optimized for general workload –More instructions per second –Pipelining, lookahead branch prediction, etc. GPUs optimized for parallel calculations –1 pixel shader = 1 thread –Lots of pixel shaders –Lots of arithmetic –On-card DRAM

5 Background: Why CUDA? CPU vs. GPU

6 In terms of raw computing power, GPUs surpass CPUs.

7 What is CUDA? GPGPU (not just graphics, or no graphics) Runs on CPU and GPU High-level language –Extension of C –FORTRAN coming soon One compiler Only NVIDIA so far –Tesla –Larrabee Unfathomably cool

8 How it works C language extension –Language constructs –Keywords Low-overhead threads Independent blocks CPU or GPU: choose one –CPU good for sequential or non-numerical tasks –GPU good for highly parallel calculations

9 GPU block diagram

10

11 CUDA: A C extension Declspecs: host, global, device Keywords: blockIdx, threadIdx, etc. Intrinsics: __syncthreads() Runtime API –cudaMalloc() –cudaMemcpy() –etc. Kernel launch: kernel >>()

12 CUDA: A C extension gcc / cl G80 SASS foo.sass OCG nvcc/cudacc EDG C/C++ frontend Open64 Global Optimizer GPU Assembly foo.s CPU Host Code foo.cpp Integrated source (foo.cu)

13 Background: Pointers Pointer: a structure that contains the address of some other data in memory malloc(size_t sz) returns a pointer to sz bytes of available memory To declare a 20-element int array: int * A = (int *) malloc(20*sizeof(int));

14 Background: Threads Sequence of instructions One thread at a time –Multicore Desktop computer has thousands of threads –Usually fewer than 4 cores GPU comfortably runs millions of threads –Hundreds of cores

15 CUDA execution model Arrays of parallel threads Each thread executes the same code Work determined by threadIdx, blockIdx, blockDim, gridDim Blocks: collections of threads –Threads in a block can cooperate and share fast local memory –No inter-block cooperation 1D, 2D, or 3D block/thread numbering

16 CUDA execution model

17 All functions are declared __host__, __global__, or __device__ Host: Runs on CPU, called from CPU Global: Runs on GPU, called from CPU Device: Runs on GPU, called from GPU

18 CUDA memory model Global memory –Faster than CPU memory –Slower than cache –Accessible by all threads Block shared memory –Small-ish, fast, shared by threads in a block Thread memory –Small, fast, local Texture memory –Small, fast, global

19 Example: SAXPY ( ) __host__ void SAXPYCPU(float * X, float * Y, float a, int N) { for(int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/9/2490309/slides/slide_19.jpg", "name": "Example: SAXPY ( ) __host__ void SAXPYCPU(float * X, float * Y, float a, int N) { for(int i=0; i

20 Example: SAXPY __host__ int main() { int N = 1073741824 ; //2^30 ≈ 1 billion size_t sz = N * sizeof(float); //bytes we need float * h_X = (float *) malloc(sz); //allocate the float * h_Y = (float *) malloc(sz); //host memory /*some code to fill up h_X and h_Y*/ float * d_X, * d_Y; cudaMalloc((void **)&d_X, sz); //allocate the cudaMalloc((void **)&d_Y, sz); //device memory //move the data onto the GPGPU cudaMemcpy(d_X, h_X, sz, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice); cudaMemcpy(d_Y, h_Y, sz, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice); (continued)

21 Example: SAXPY //data is on the device; time to do some SAXPY int threadsPerBlock = 256; int blocks = N / threadsPerBlock; SAXPYGPU >>(X, Y, 2); cudaThreadSynchronize(); //wait until done cudaMemcpy(h_Y, d_Y, sz, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost); cudaFree(d_X); cudaFree(d_Y); //we no longer need the device memory }

22 Example: SAXPY That was easy.

23 Example: 2D integration Simpson 2D coefficient matrix: Our function: f(x,y)=e xy (x+y +π ) -1/2 sin(log(x-y+π)) Want ∫∫ f(x,y) dA over |x|,|y| ≤ 1

24 Example: 2D integration __host__ int main() { int B = N/T; //(N+1)^2=points, T=threads, B=blocks size_t sz = B*N*sizeof(dtyp); //dtyp is typedef’d dtyp * d, *h = (dtyp *) malloc(sz); cudaMalloc((void **)&d, sz); dim3 Threads(T); dim3 Grid(B, N); //W=bound of integration S2DGPU >>(-W, W, -W, W, d); //INVOKE cudaThreadSynchronize(); //wait for it to finish cudaMemcpy(h, d, sz, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost); cudaFree(d); dtyp u=0; for(int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/9/2490309/slides/slide_24.jpg", "name": "Example: 2D integration __host__ int main() { int B = N/T; //(N+1)^2=points, T=threads, B=blocks size_t sz = B*N*sizeof(dtyp); //dtyp is typedef’d dtyp * d, *h = (dtyp *) malloc(sz); cudaMalloc((void **)&d, sz); dim3 Threads(T); dim3 Grid(B, N); //W=bound of integration S2DGPU >>(-W, W, -W, W, d); //INVOKE cudaThreadSynchronize(); //wait for it to finish cudaMemcpy(h, d, sz, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost); cudaFree(d); dtyp u=0; for(int i=0; i>(-W, W, -W, W, d); //INVOKE cudaThreadSynchronize(); //wait for it to finish cudaMemcpy(h, d, sz, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost); cudaFree(d); dtyp u=0; for(int i=0; i

25 Example: 2D integration __host__ void S2DCPU(dtyp x0, dtyp xf, dtyp y0, dtyp yf, dtyp* a) { *a=0; dtyp x=x0, y; for(int i=0; i<=N; i++) { y = y0; for(int j=0; j<=N; j++) { bool c1 = i==0||i==N, c2 = j==0||j==N; *a+=(c1?(c2?1:(j%2==0?2:4)): (i%2==0?(c2?2:(j%2==0?4:8)): (c2?4:(j%2==0?8:16))))*f2(x,y); y += (yf-y0)/N; } x += (xf-x0)/N; }

26 Example: 2D integration __global__ void S2DGPU(dtyp x0, dtyp xf, dtyp y0, dtyp yf, dtyp * a) { int X = blockIdx.x*blockDim.x+threadIdx.x; int Y = blockIdx.y; dtyp x = x0+(xf-x0)*X/(gridDim.x*blockDim.x); dtyp y = y0+(yf-y0)*Y/gridDim.y; __shared__ dtyp u[T]; bool evx = (X&1)==0, evy = (Y&1)==0; u[threadIdx.x] = (X==0?(Y==0?1:(evy?2:4)):(evx?(Y==0?2:(evy?4:8)): (Y==0?4:(evy?8:16))))*F(x,y); if(threadIdx.x==0) if(blockIdx.x==0) u[threadIdx.x]+=(blockIdx.y==0?1: ((blockIdx.y&1)==0?2:4))*F(xf,y); else if(blockIdx.x==1) u[threadIdx.x]+=(blockIdx.y==0?1: ((blockIdx.y&1)==0?2:4))*F(x0+(xf-x0) *blockIdx.y/gridDim.y, yf); __syncthreads(); if(threadIdx.x==0) { for(int i=1; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/9/2490309/slides/slide_26.jpg", "name": "Example: 2D integration __global__ void S2DGPU(dtyp x0, dtyp xf, dtyp y0, dtyp yf, dtyp * a) { int X = blockIdx.x*blockDim.x+threadIdx.x; int Y = blockIdx.y; dtyp x = x0+(xf-x0)*X/(gridDim.x*blockDim.x); dtyp y = y0+(yf-y0)*Y/gridDim.y; __shared__ dtyp u[T]; bool evx = (X&1)==0, evy = (Y&1)==0; u[threadIdx.x] = (X==0 (Y==0 1:(evy 2:4)):(evx (Y==0 2:(evy 4:8)): (Y==0 4:(evy 8:16))))*F(x,y); if(threadIdx.x==0) if(blockIdx.x==0) u[threadIdx.x]+=(blockIdx.y==0 1: ((blockIdx.y&1)==0 2:4))*F(xf,y); else if(blockIdx.x==1) u[threadIdx.x]+=(blockIdx.y==0 1: ((blockIdx.y&1)==0 2:4))*F(x0+(xf-x0) *blockIdx.y/gridDim.y, yf); __syncthreads(); if(threadIdx.x==0) { for(int i=1; i

27 Next-gen GPGPUs NVIDIA Tesla S1070 –960 cores @ 1.44 GHz –16 GB DRAM –No more, no less –506 GB/s memory bandwidth –4000 GFLOPS –800 W (.2 W/GFLOPS) –$4,000 ($1/GFLOPS) Intel Xeon 5500 –4 cores @ 3.2 GHz –Up to 192 GB DRAM* –*Memory not included –64 GB/s memory bandwidth –~50 GFLOPS –130 W (2.6 W/GFLOPS) –$2,300 ($46/GFLOPS)

28 Runtime data: 2D integration dtyp N GPU 16 GPU 256 GPU 512 CPU 16 CPU 256 CPU 2048 double102489-114208- double1638416852047-259961519217056 float10248910113210- float16384353255361299492390723009 Note: All times are in milliseconds.


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