8 Gender In Development Gender Equality and IDEA GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN DECISION-MAKINGThe empowerment of women is a major concern in all spheres, ranging from participation in grassroots community settings to participation in the macroeconomic policy arena. OBJECTIVES:Accordingly, the Programme for Global Partnerships for the Empowerment of Women in Decision-Making has the following objectives: · To follow up on the outcomes of the Fourth World Conference on Women through support to the UN Resident Coordinator System. · To advance women's leadership and governance positions. · To promote women's entrepreneurship, and to facilitate women's equal access to resources, employment, markets and trade.
9 Gender and Political Participation Gender equality in politics is on the agenda of many international, regional and local organizations .Aims to emphasize not only the quantitative aspects of women's representation, but also the qualitative impact of women in decision-making processes. It aims to improve and enhance women's effectiveness in political positions and to strengthen their impact in important decision-making forums.International IDEA seeks to compile information on women's participation in political structures and various mechanisms for enhancing women's political decision-making power
10 What Is Feminism?"[Feminists are] just women who don't want to be treated like shit." Su, an Australian woman interviewed for the 1996 anthology DIY Feminism.
11 Women EmpowermentThe empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status is a highly important end in itself. In addition, it is essential for the achievement of sustainable development.
12 Women EmpowermentThe full participation and partnership of both women and men is required in productive and reproductive life, including shared responsibilities for the care and nurturing of children and maintenance of the household. In all parts of the world, women are facing threats to their lives, health and well- being as a result of being overburdened with work and of their lack of power and influence.
13 Women Empowerment4.2. Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process. More than 40 years ago, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted that "everyone has the right to education". In 1990, Governments meeting at the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, committed themselves to the goal of universal access to basic education. But despite notable efforts by countries around the globe that have appreciably expanded access to basic education, there are approximately 960 million illiterate adults in the world, of whom two thirds are women. More than one third of the world's adults, most of them women, have no access to printed knowledge, to new skills or to technologies that would improve the quality of their lives and help them shape and adapt to social and economic change. There are 130 million children who are not enrolled in primary school and 70 per cent of them are girls.
14 Women Empowerment4.4. Countries should act to empower women and should take steps to eliminate inequalities between men and women as soon as possible by: (a) Establishing mechanisms for women's equal participation and equitable representation at all levels of the political process and public life in each community and society and enabling women to articulate their concerns and needs; (b) Promoting the fulfilment of women's potential through education, skill development and employment, giving paramount importance to the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and ill health among women; (c) Eliminating all practices that discriminate against women; assisting women to establish and realize their rights, including those that relate to reproductive and sexual health; (d) Adopting appropriate measures to improve women's ability to earn income beyond traditional occupations, achieve economic self-reliance, and ensure women's equal access to the labour market and social security systems; (e) Eliminating violence against women; (f) Eliminating discriminatory practices by employers against women, such as those based on proof of contraceptive use or pregnancy status; (g) Making it possible, through laws, regulations and other appropriate measures, for women to combine the roles of child-bearing, breast-feeding and child-rearing with participation in the workforce.
15 POWER and POLITICSCan women in politics bring "power to the people"? For people everywhere, politics is increasingly someone else's business. Instead of being regarded as a universal tool for social transformation, it has come to be seen as a clever play of subterfuge, power-mongering and corruption, where power over others is the only end. Abandoned through apathy and appropriated by realpolitik, politics itself is being drained of its power-to represent and realize people's true needs and aspirations. Do women, as a political force, offer something that can reverse this cynicism and inspire hope? In overturning the assumptions of gender, can women dismantle the very foundations of power and challenge other hierarchies as well? Women are raising important political questions around the world: Is peace simply the absence of war? Which has higher priority-military security or the systemic insecurity of hunger, poverty and daily violence? Are these questions being heard?
16 POWER and POLITICSThis hour on power and politics brings out the curious anomalies of being a woman who holds power in a system created by, and essentially for, men. It looks at the potential of women to transform and be transformed by this political power-whether they advocate radical steps to represent women better, tread the middle line to change the system from within, or exercise power from outside the system as advocates of the people. We follow women who are using strategies to overthrow ingrained prejudices; to achieve power through politics; to redistribute power and to make politics meaningful for all. Some of the countries we are researching stories in are: Zimbabwe, France, Nicaragua, the Czech Republic and Eritrea."The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have any." - Alice Walker, Author
17 Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power Strategic objective G.1. [Take special measures to ensure women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and decision-making]
18 Actions to be taken By Governments: (a) Commit themselves to establishing the goal of gender balance in governmental bodies and committees, as well as in public administrative entities, and in the judiciary, including [setting specific targets and] implementing measures to substantially increase the number of women [with a view to achieving equal representation of women and men] in all governmental and public administration positions;(b) [Consider measures in electoral systems that encourage political parties to integrate women in elective and non-elective public positions in the same proportion and levels as men;](c) Protect and promote the equal rights of women and men to engage in political activities and to freedom of association, including membership in political parties and trade unions;
19 Actions to be taken By Governments: (d) [Review the differential impact of electoral systems on the political representation of women in elected bodies and consider, where appropriate, the adjustment or reform of those systems;](e) Monitor and evaluate progress on the representation of women through the regular collection, analysis and dissemination of quantitative and qualitative data on women and men at all levels in various decision-making positions in the public and private sectors, and disseminate data on the number of women and men employed at various levels in Governments on a yearly basis; ensure that women and men have equal access to the full range of public appointments and set up mechanisms within governmental structures for monitoring progress in this field;
20 Actions to be taken By Governments: f) Support non-governmental organizations and research institutes that conduct studies on women's participation in and impact on decision- making and the decision-making environment;(g) Encourage greater involvement of indigenous women in decision-making at all levels;(h) [Encourage] [Ensure] that government-funded organizations adopt non-discriminatory policies and practices [in order to increase the number and raise the position of women in their organizations;](i) [Recognize that shared work and parental responsibilities between women and men promote women's increased participation in public life, and take appropriate measures to achieve this, including measures to reconcile family and professional life;](j) Aim at gender balance in the lists of national candidates nominated for election or appointment to United Nations bodies, specialized agencies and other autonomous organizations of the United Nations system, particularly for posts at the senior level.
21 GenderRefers to women's and men's roles and responsibilities that are socially determined. Gender is related to how we are perceived and expected to think and act as women and men because of the way society is organised, not because of our biological differences.
22 SexGenetic/physiological or biological characteristics of a person which indicates whether one is female or male.
23 Gender equality Mainstreaming gender Integration of gender concerns into the analyses, formulation and monitoring of policies, programmes and projects, with the objective of ensuring that these reduce inequalities between women and men.
24 Gender equalityAbsence of discrimination on the basis of a person's sex in opportunities and the allocation of resources or benefits or in access to services.
25 Gender equityFairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men. The concept recognises that women and men have different needs and power and that these differences should be identified and addressed in a manner that rectifies the imbalance between the sexes.(see also Glossary)