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Perspectives of Pharmacy Education Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director of International Program Magdaline Exantus, M.S.

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Presentation on theme: "Perspectives of Pharmacy Education Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director of International Program Magdaline Exantus, M.S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Perspectives of Pharmacy Education Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director of International Program Magdaline Exantus, M.S.

2 Mission What is the Mission of Pharmacy Education? Pharmaceutical education is responsible for preparing students to function: Mission for the Profession of Pharmacy Mission for the Pharmacy Practice

3 Pharmacy Profession What is the Mission of our profession? To Serve Society

4 Pharmacy Practice What is the mission of our practice? Dispensing Pharmaceutical Care Rational Use of Drugs

5 Evolution of Pharmacy Education in US 1820spart-time program 1870sfull-time 2 year program 1920sfull-time 3 year program 1920sfull-time 4 year B.S.program 1950sfull-time 4-6 year Pharm.D Entry Level Pharm.D. program (ACPE)

6 Pharmacy Education in US Pre-professional Pharmacy Study Two years of university level pre- professional education Basic sciences, humanities, social sciences Pharmacy College Admissions Test

7 Pharmacy Education in US The professional Pharmacy Curriculum At least 5 years beyond high school (ACPE) Bachelor of Science (BS) pharmacy (5 yrs) Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) (6 yrs) Post Professional Pharmacy Graduate School Master Ph.D. Residencies Pharmacy Practice residencies Specialized residencies

8 Curriculum Comparison - by country AustraliaFrance BoliviaGermany BrazilHaiti ChinaHonduras ColombiaIndia CubaJamaica FinlandJapan Taiwan Thailand Korea Trinidad Pakistan Turkey Peru Venezuela Philippines Vietnam Saudi Arabia S. Africa Ukraine

9 Pharmacy Education - Curriculum 1. Biomedical Science 2. Pharmaceutical Science 3. Behavioral, Social & Administrative Pharmacy Science 4. Pharmacy Practice 5. Professional Experience 6. Electives/others (Modified From ACPE Report)

10 Biomedical Sciences  Anatomy  Physiology  Pathophysiology  Microbiology  Immunology  Biochemistry  Molecular Biology  Chemistry (Modified From ACPE Report)

11 Biomedical Science (Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 26(pre- pharmacy) + 15(Pharm.D)=41 Australia 54.0 Pakistan20.0 S. Africa36.0 Venezuela36.0 Bolivia41.0 Korea33.5 Japan34.0 Ukraine42.3 Cuba54.0 Thailand51.5 Trinidad25.0 Taiwan37.3 Finland30.5 India27.5

12 Pharmaceutical Sciences Medicinal Chemistry Pharmacognosy Pharmacology Toxicology Biopharmaceutics Pharmacokinetics (Modified From ACPE Report)

13 Pharmaceutical Sciences (Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 0 (pre- pharmacy) + 29 (Pharm.D)=29 Australia 46.0 Pakistan69.5 S. Africa30.0 Venezuela32.0 Bolivia12.5 Korea93.0 Japan95.0 Ukraine48.3 Cuba51.0 Thailand55.5 Trinidad27.0 Taiwan38.2 Finland43.0 India76.9

14 Behavioral, Social & Administrative Pharmacy Science Pharmacoeconomics Pharmacy Practice Management Pharmacy Communication Skills Pharmacy Ethics Pharmacy Law Biostatistics Research Design Epidemiology (Modified From ACPE Report)

15 Behavioral, Social & Administrative Pharmacy Sciences (Data from NSU-international program 2004, 2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 6 (pre- pharmacy) + 16 (Pharm.D)= 22.0 Australia 40.0 Pakistan 0.0 S. Africa18.0 Venezuela12.0 Bolivia 8.5 Korea 2.0 Japan 6.0 Ukraine 5.3 Cuba 0.0 Thailand 5.8 Trinidad 36.0 Taiwan 5.6 Finland 4.5 India 8.5

16 Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Increase the academic credits of : Behavioral, social, communication and administrative (Pharmacy Practice Related) Social Behavioral Pharmacy Communication skills Health care delivery system Health/Pharmaco Economics Practice Management Pharmacy Law and regulatory affair Ethics Research Methods/Drug literature evaluation

17 Pharmacy Practice Compounding & Preparing Dosage Physical Assessment Disease-State Management Therapeutic Patient Care Management Self-Care / Non-Prescription Drugs Drug Information & Literature Evaluations (Modified From ACPE Report)

18 Pharmacy Practice (Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 28 (Pharm.D) = 28.0 Australia 68.0 Pakistan00.0 S. Africa00.0 Venezuela 4.0 Bolivia 4.0 Korea 2.0 Japan 6.0 Ukraine 0.0 Cuba 0.0 Thailand14.0 Trinidad 9.0 Taiwan11.0 Finland 6.0 India 7.6

19 Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Increase the academic credits of : Disease Management/Rational drug use Physical assessment Disease management by Modules Diabetes, Infectious disease, GI, Psychology,etc. Therapeutics/pathophysiology Nonprescription therapies Patient care management (integrated)

20 Professional Experience Experiential Education General Clinical Clerkship Advanced Clinical Clerkship Advanced Elective Clerkship Thesis

21 Professional Experience (Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 40 (Pharm.D) = 40.0 Australia 0.0 Pakistan 0.0 S. Africa 0.0 Venezuela 4.0 Bolivia 4.0 Korea 2.0 Japan 0.0 Ukraine 0.0 Cuba 0.0 Thailand 3.0 Trinidad 0.0 Taiwan ?? 9.0 Finland 8.5 India 5.0

22 Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Increase the academic credits of : Professional experiences (clerkship) Advanced practice Hospital General practice Internal medicine Ambulatory care Drug information Advanced practice electives GI, Nuclear, oncology, pediatric, psychiatric, nutrition, industry, compounding, etc.

23 Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Increase the academic credits of : Service Learning Early practice experience Flexibility of curriculum Public awareness Public/Self recognition as primary care provider Professional association participation International affair involvement Professional maturity

24 Others/Electives Calculus Taiwanese history Physical education Military training Art & artists Public speaking Soviet Law Life of Christ

25 Others/Electives (Data from NSU-international program 2005 admission, Lai, et.al) COUNTRY CREDITS (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 10 (Pharm.D) = 10.0 Australia 0.0 Pakistan12.0 S. Africa18.0 Venezuela 4.0 Bolivia70.0 Korea42.0 Japan12.0 Ukraine59.5 Cuba51.0 Thailand15.0 Trinidad39.5 Taiwan43.5 Finland38.5 India 4.5

26 Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Decrease the academic credits of: Non-pharmacy related courses

27 Academic Credits Comparison TaiwanUS Biomedical Science 3741 Pharmaceutical Science 3829 Behav.,social, adminis. 622 Pharmacy practice/Therap Professional exp/Clerkship 940 Others/electives 4440

28 Curriculum Problems (in General) Deficiencies in content Duplicative teaching Lack of student-directed and independent learning Quality assurance of Clinical rotation Flexibility and Condemnatory Faculty, Students, Practitioners involvement

29 Barriers of Changing Curriculum Public Awareness Pharmacists as part of healthcare team Ethics, regulations, and standard of pharmacy Resource sufficiency Budget Faculty Physical, including facilities and experiential sites Impact on other school programs and current practitioners and students

30 Discussion: Changing Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum Time Frame: 4 years, 5 years, or 6 years ??? Degree: BS, M-Pham, Pharm.D. ??? Licensure: General practice – “Clinical Patient Care is the must” Specialty Advanced clinical practice Industrial Business administrative

31 Ending Changes creates opportunities….. as well as problems…. Thinking Globally…. Acting Locally

32 Thank You Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Director of International Program 3200 S. University drive Ft. Lauderdale, FL,

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35 Mission of Pharmacy Education Inculcate students with the value necessary to serve society as caring, ethical, learning professionals Provide students with scientific fundamentals and fosters attitudes to adapt their careers to changes in health care system Enhance scholarships

36 Mission of Pharmacy Education Promote advances in pharmaceutical care by fostering postgraduate residencies and fellowships in clinical sciences and other areas Provides structured postgraduate education and training (AACP Commission Report)

37 Pharmacy Practice Traditional practice: Preparing the drug product Providing the drug produce Providing drug information

38 Pharmacy Practice Contemporary (Rational drug use): Participating in process of drug use decision Selecting the drug product dosage form Selecting drug product source of supply Determining the dose and dosage schedule Monitoring patient compliance Detecting adverse drug reaction and drug interaction (AACP Commission Report)

39 Practice Areas in Pharmacy Chain Drug Store pharmacists Community pharmacists Compounding pharmacists Academic pharmacists Drug information specialist Hospital staff pharmacist Military pharmacists Public health services pharmacists

40 Practice Areas in Pharmacy Critical care pharmacists Hospice pharmacists Infectious disease pharmacists Long-term care pharmacists Managed care pharmacists Nuclear pharmacists Nutrition support pharmacists

41 Practice Areas in Pharmacy Oncology pharmacists Pediatric pharmacists Poison control pharmacists Primary care pharmacists Psychiatric pharmacists Veterinary pharmacists Regulatory pharmacists


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