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Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament. skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula ( 未參與 knee joint) patella.

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Presentation on theme: "Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament. skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula ( 未參與 knee joint) patella."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament

2 skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula ( 未參與 knee joint) patella

3 femur

4 Tibia and Fibula

5 Patella

6 muscle

7 Posterior thigh muscle / hamstrings 1Biceps fermoris 2 Semitendinosus 3 Semimembranosus

8 Biceps Fermoris Proximal attachment : long head: ischial tuberosity Short head : linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur Distal attachment : lateral side of head of fibula,tendon is spilt at this site by fibular collateral ligament of knee

9 Biceps Fermoris hamstrings 的外側 2-joint muscle main action :flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed ; extends thigh(e.g. when starting to walk)

10 Semitendinosus Proximal Attachment: ishchial tuberosity Distal Attachment: medial surface of superior part of tibia

11 Semimembranosus Proximal attachment: ishchial tuberosity Distal attachment: posteromedial aspect of the tibia

12 Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus 2-joint muscle Extend thigh Flex leg and rotate it medially when knee flexion When thigh and knee are flexed, these muscle can extend trunk

13 Gracilis Proximal attachment : body and inferior ramus of pubis Distal attachment : superior part of medial surface of tibia

14 Gracilis Medial thigh muscle 2-joint muscle Main action : adducts thigh ; flexes leg ; helps rotate it medially

15 Muscle of gluteal region Gluteus Maximus Muscle Tensor Fasciae Latae Iliotibial Tract

16 upper end: the iliac crest lower end: the lateral condyle of tibia The tensor fasciae latae and superficial 3/4 of gluteus maximus insert into the iliotibial tract,which acts as a long aponeurosis of the muscles. Steadys the pelvis and assists in knee extension

17 Gluteus Maximus Muscle Proximal attachment : ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line ; dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx ; sacrotuberous ligament Distal attachment : superficial 3/4 of gluteus maximus attaching to iliotibial tract ; deep distal 1/4 of gluteus maximus attaching to gluteal tuberosity of femur

18 Gluteus Maximus Muscle Main action : extends thigh(especially from flexed position)and assists in its lateral rotation ; steadies thigh and assits in rising from sitting position

19 Tensor Fasciae Latae Proximal attachment : anterior superior iliac spine ; anterior part of iliac crest Distal attachment : iliotibial tract

20 Tensor Fasciae Latae 2-joint muscle Main action : adduct and medially rotate thigh ; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance opposite(unsupported)side during its swing phase

21 muscles of posterior compartment of the leg PopliteusGastronemius

22 Popliteus Proximal attachment : lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus Distal attachment : posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line

23 Popliteus Deep muscle of posterior compartment of the leg Main action : plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended ; raises heel during walking ; flexes leg at knee joint

24 Gastronemius 僅標出 proximal attachment Proximal attachment : lateral head : lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur Medial head : popliteal surface of femur,superior to medial condyle Distal attachment : posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

25 Gastronemius Superficial muscle of posterior compartment of the leg 2-joint muscle Main action : plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended ; raises heel during walking ; flexes leg at knee joint

26 Anterior compartment of thigh  Quadriceps femoris 由深到淺 Vastus intermedius Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Rectus femoris *intermedius 在最深層, 此圖看不到

27 Quadriceps Femoris Vastus intermedius origin: Upper two thirds of anterior femoral shaft Vastus lateralis and medialis origin: Either side of linea aspera on the posterior femoral shaft

28 Quadriceps Femoris Rectus femoris origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine(aiis) Insertion: Four converge into a single quadriceps tendon which inserts on and surrounds patella, then continues as the patellar ligament to inserts on the tibial tuberosity

29 Quadriceps Femoris Strongest muscle in the body Knee extension by all four act together Rectus femoris is 2-joint muscle →knee extensor and hip flexor

30 Ligaments of knee

31 Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Posterior cruciate ligament (PAL) Medial collateral ligament (MCL) Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

32 Cruciate ligaments Anterior cruciate ligament Anterior intercondylar of tibia → medial aspect of lateral femoral condyle Posterior cruciate ligament posterior intercondylar of tibia → lateral surface of medial femoral condyle

33 Cruciate ligaments The cruciates bind the tibia and femur together, prevent excessive anteroposterior movement, and may contribute to the mechanical check necessary for medial rotation of the knee.

34 Medial collateral ligaments Also called tibial collateral ligament Medial epicondyle of femur →medial conyle of tibia Stabilize knee joint, prevent from opening on medial side

35 Lateral collateral ligament Also called fibular collateral ligament Lateral epiconyle of femur → head of fibula Stabilize knee joint, prevent from opening on lateral side

36 Transverse ligament of knee Intra-articular ligament A transverse band that passes between the lateral and medial menisci in the front part of the knee joint Tethers the anterior edges of the menisci to each other during knee movements

37 Posterior meniscofemoral ligament Intra-articular ligament the medial condyle of the femur ←→ the posterior crus of the lateral meniscus.

38 Oblique popliteal ligament Extracapsular ligament tendinous expansion of semimembranosus muscle the medial condyle of the tibia ←→ the lateral condyle of the femur. Reinforces the joint capsule posteriorly

39 Patellar ligament Extracapsular ligament A strong flattened fibrous band adjoining the margins of the patella to the tuberosity of the tibia

40 參考來源 老師的 ppt


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