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Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament.

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Presentation on theme: "Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knee joint Skeleton Muscle ligament

2 skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula (未參與knee joint) patella

3 femur

4 Tibia and Fibula

5 Patella

6 muscle

7 Posterior thigh muscle / hamstrings
Biceps fermoris 2 Semitendinosus 3 Semimembranosus

8 Biceps Fermoris Proximal attachment : long head: ischial tuberosity
Short head : linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur Distal attachment : lateral side of head of fibula,tendon is spilt at this site by fibular collateral ligament of knee

9 Biceps Fermoris hamstrings的外側 2-joint muscle
main action :flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed;extends thigh(e.g. when starting to walk)

10 Semitendinosus Proximal Attachment: ishchial tuberosity
Distal Attachment: medial surface of superior part of tibia

11 Semimembranosus Proximal attachment: ishchial tuberosity
Distal attachment: posteromedial aspect of the tibia

12 Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus
2-joint muscle Extend thigh Flex leg and rotate it medially when knee flexion When thigh and knee are flexed, these muscle can extend trunk

13 Gracilis Proximal attachment : body and inferior ramus of pubis
Distal attachment : superior part of medial surface of tibia

14 Gracilis Medial thigh muscle 2-joint muscle
Main action : adducts thigh;flexes leg;helps rotate it medially

15 Muscle of gluteal region
Gluteus Maximus Muscle Tensor Fasciae Latae Iliotibial Tract

16 Iliotibial Tract upper end: the iliac crest lower end:
the lateral condyle of tibia The tensor fasciae latae and superficial 3/4 of gluteus maximus insert into the iliotibial tract,which acts as a long aponeurosis of the muscles. Steadys the pelvis and assists in knee extension

17 Gluteus Maximus Muscle
Proximal attachment : ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line;dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx;sacrotuberous ligament Distal attachment : superficial 3/4 of gluteus maximus attaching to iliotibial tract;deep distal 1/4 of gluteus maximus attaching to gluteal tuberosity of femur

18 Gluteus Maximus Muscle
Main action : extends thigh(especially from flexed position)and assists in its lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assits in rising from sitting position

19 Tensor Fasciae Latae Proximal attachment :
anterior superior iliac spine;anterior part of iliac crest Distal attachment : iliotibial tract

20 Tensor Fasciae Latae 2-joint muscle Main action :
adduct and medially rotate thigh;keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance opposite(unsupported)side during its swing phase

21 muscles of posterior compartment of the leg
Popliteus Gastronemius

22 Popliteus Proximal attachment :
lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus Distal attachment : posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line

23 Popliteus Deep muscle of posterior compartment of the leg
Main action : plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended;raises heel during walking;flexes leg at knee joint

24 Gastronemius Proximal attachment :
lateral head:lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur Medial head:popliteal surface of femur,superior to medial condyle Distal attachment : posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

25 Gastronemius Superficial muscle of posterior compartment of the leg
2-joint muscle Main action : plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended;raises heel during walking;flexes leg at knee joint

26 Anterior compartment of thigh
Quadriceps femoris 由深到淺 Vastus intermedius Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Rectus femoris *intermedius在最深層,此圖看不到

27 Quadriceps Femoris Vastus intermedius origin: Upper two thirds of anterior femoral shaft Vastus lateralis and medialis origin: Either side of linea aspera on the posterior femoral shaft

28 Quadriceps Femoris Rectus femoris origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine(aiis) Insertion: Four converge into a single quadriceps tendon which inserts on and surrounds patella, then continues as the patellar ligament to inserts on the tibial tuberosity

29 Quadriceps Femoris Strongest muscle in the body
Knee extension by all four act together Rectus femoris is 2-joint muscle →knee extensor and hip flexor

30 Ligaments of knee

31 Ligaments of knee Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
Posterior cruciate ligament (PAL) Medial collateral ligament (MCL) Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

32 Cruciate ligaments Anterior cruciate ligament Anterior intercondylar of tibia → medial aspect of lateral femoral condyle Posterior cruciate ligament posterior intercondylar of tibia → lateral surface of medial femoral condyle

33 Cruciate ligaments The cruciates bind the tibia and femur together, prevent excessive anteroposterior movement, and may contribute to the mechanical check necessary for medial rotation of the knee.

34 Medial collateral ligaments
Also called tibial collateral ligament Medial epicondyle of femur →medial conyle of tibia Stabilize knee joint, prevent from opening on medial side

35 Lateral collateral ligament
Also called fibular collateral ligament Lateral epiconyle of femur → head of fibula Stabilize knee joint, prevent from opening on lateral side

36 Transverse ligament of knee
Intra-articular ligament A transverse band that passes between the lateral and medial menisci in the front part of the knee joint Tethers the anterior edges of the menisci to each other during knee movements

37 Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
Intra-articular ligament the medial condyle of the femur ←→ the posterior crus of the lateral meniscus.

38 Oblique popliteal ligament
Extracapsular ligament tendinous expansion of semimembranosus muscle the medial condyle of the tibia ←→ the lateral condyle of the femur. Reinforces the joint capsule posteriorly

39 Patellar ligament Extracapsular ligament
A strong flattened fibrous band adjoining the margins of the patella to the tuberosity of the tibia

40 參考來源

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