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Chapter 1 The Organization of The Nervous System

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1 Chapter 1 The Organization of The Nervous System

2 The Nervous System is Made up of Cells

3 Nerve Cells: highly specialized for intercellular communication
1. Morphology dendrites (receiving information) axons (signal conduction) 2. Specialized membranes: Na+ channels 3. Synaptic contacts : synaptic endings (terminal boutons)


5 Neuroglial cells (glial cells / glia)
膠細胞 Distinction from nerve cells: electrical signaling; mitosis Functions Types CNS 如下;PNS--Schwann cell Hematopoietic stem cells macrophage

6 Neural Circuits and Systems
afferent neurons, efferent neurons, interneurons, sensory system, motor system

7 The Basic Anatomical Subdivisions of The Nervous System

8 PNS: ganglia (cell bodies), nerve ( axons)
Sensory ganalia dorsal root ganglia (spinal cord 旁邊) cranial nerve ganglia (brainstem 附近) Motor system somatic motor neurons (spinal cord 內部) autonomic ganglia Autonomic Nervous System: 1. sympathetic and 2. parasympathetic divisions 3. enteric division (gastrointestinal tract): 跟 ANS 有交互作用, 據說此區神經細胞的數目比 spinal cord 更多

9 Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
* in the ventral view 1. The locations of preganglionic neurons 2. The locations of postganglionic cell bodies 3. Organs innervated by either one or both systems 4. Modulations from visceral sensory inputs: pain, non-consciousness 腰椎 荐椎

10 Artificial categorization
丘腦 前腦 間腦 下視丘 中腦 橋腦 腦幹 延腦

11 嘴部 尾部

12 The external anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres
腦溝 The external anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres 腦回 Viewed from the side cerebral cortex: 2 mm thick 2 m2 boundary between two functionally distinct areas 裂溝

13 Vision, visual analyses
Motor cortex, critical in planning behavior Somatic sensory cortex, attends to important stimuli 額葉 頂葉 Audition, recognizing objects and faces 枕葉 顳葉 Vision, visual analyses

14 Visceral and autonomic function, including taste

15 The external anatomy of the diencephalon and brainstem
Ventral view Olfactory tracts: cranial nerve I Diencephalon: 1. Dorsal thalamus: relay information to the cerebral cortex from other parts of the brain 2. Subthalamus: control of motor functions 3. Hypothalamus: homeostasis and reproduction Brainstem


17 Ventral view: Hypothalamus Pons: neurons run across the base of brainstem Medulla: medullary pyramid

18 Dorsal view: Midbrain: hills, tectum Pons: cerebellum Medulla: blood vessels

19 The external anatomy of the spinal cord
31 pairs spinal nerve dorsal root: sensory neuron ventral root: motor neuron

20 The internal anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon
Cortex (cerebral, cerebellar, hippocampal): cell bodies gray matter axon white matter

21 The internal anatomy of the brainstem and spinal cord
Somatic mechanoreceptors Pain and temperature Cell bodies of preganglionic neurons of the ANS lie in an intermediate zone between the dorsal and ventral horns

22 藍色:sensory input 紅色:motor meurons
Tegmentum: 腦神經細胞體聚集處(包括感覺及運動) 藍色:sensory input 紅色:motor meurons

23 The ventricular system
interconnection Produce cerebrospinal fluid


25 The meninges (腦膜) 硬腦膜 蛛網膜 軟腦膜

26 The blood supply of the brain and spinal cord
Anterior circulation forebrain Posterior circulation brainstem

27 Stroke, brain functions
Dorsal root Blood-brain barrier (10) Ventral root Stroke, brain functions

28 Brain imaging techniques
Early 1970s: X ray (air, radiopaque contrast materials) for bone/skull sometimes for vasculation X ray film, two-dimensional view Computerized tomography (CT): movable X-ray tube, sensitive for gray matter & while matter, ventricles 解析度 ~mm three-dimension view

29 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
解析度 1 mm 以下, blood flow, metabolic state, make “slices” from any point of view 原理:H atom

30 Imaging techniques based on blood flow: PET, SPECT, and fMRI
the most active nerve cells use more glucose and oxygen than relatively quiescent neurons: increase blood flow positron emission tomography (PET): 15O (2 min), 18F(110 min), 11C(20 min)  ray SPECT: probe bind to RBC fMRI: oxyhemoglobin

31 問題 若自己車禍撞到頭部, 你想先做何種掃描? 若懷疑自己腦中有腫瘤, 又該做何種掃描?
當你正在打電動時做 fMRI, 會在哪幾個腦區域顯現超強活力? 供應大腦血液的主要動脈是哪兩條 位在 brainstem 的腦室 從頭殼以下到神經細胞之間的腦膜分層順序 畫出 spinal cord 的那隻蝴蝶指出 sensory neuron 進入motor neuron 出來之處 再畫上血液供應的動脈位置

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