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Chapter 1 The Organization of The Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The Organization of The Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The Organization of The Nervous System

2 The Nervous System is Made up of Cells

3 Nerve Cells: highly specialized for intercellular communication 1. Morphology dendrites (receiving information) axons (signal conduction) 2. Specialized membranes: Na + channels 3. Synaptic contacts : synaptic endings (terminal boutons)

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5 Neuroglial cells (glial cells / glia) w Distinction from nerve cells: electrical signaling; mitosis w Functions w Types 膠細胞 CNS 如下; PNS--Schwann cell Hematopoietic stem cells macrophage

6 Neural Circuits and Systems afferent neurons, efferent neurons, interneurons, sensory system, motor system

7 The Basic Anatomical Subdivisions of The Nervous System CNS PNS

8 w PNS: ganglia ( cell bodies ), nerve ( axons ) w Sensory ganalia dorsal root ganglia ( spinal cord 旁邊 ) w cranial nerve ganglia ( brainstem 附近 ) w Motor system somatic motor neurons ( spinal cord 內部 ) w autonomic ganglia w Autonomic Nervous System: w 1. sympathetic and 2. parasympathetic divisions w 3. enteric division (gastrointestinal tract): 跟 ANS 有交互 作用, 據說此區神經細胞的數目比 spinal cord 更多

9 荐椎 腰椎 * in the ventral view 1. The locations of preganglionic neurons 2. The locations of postganglionic cell bodies 3. Organs innervated by either one or both systems 4. Modulations from visceral sensory inputs: pain, non-consciousness Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

10 w Artificial categorization 間腦 腦幹 前腦 丘腦 下視丘 中腦 延腦 橋腦

11 尾部 嘴部

12 Viewed from the side cerebral cortex: 2 mm thick 2 m 2 boundary between two functionally distinct areas The external anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres 腦回 裂溝 腦溝

13 Motor cortex, critical in planning behavior 額葉 Somatic sensory cortex, attends to important stimuli Audition, recognizing objects and faces Vision, visual analyses 枕葉 顳葉 頂葉

14 Visceral and autonomic function, including taste

15 Ventral view Olfactory tracts: cranial nerve I The external anatomy of the diencephalon and brainstem w Diencephalon: w 1. Dorsal thalamus: relay information to the cerebral cortex from other parts of the brain w 2. Subthalamus: control of motor functions w 3. Hypothalamus: homeostasis and reproduction w Brainstem

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17 Ventral view: Hypothalamus Pons: neurons run across the base of brainstem Medulla: medullary pyramid

18 Dorsal view: Midbrain: hills, tectum Pons: cerebellum Medulla: blood vessels

19 The external anatomy of the spinal cord 31 pairs spinal nerve dorsal root: sensory neuron ventral root: motor neuron

20 The internal anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon Cortex (cerebral, cerebellar, hippocampal): cell bodies gray matter axon white matter

21 The internal anatomy of the brainstem and spinal cord Somatic mechanoreceptors Pain and temperature Cell bodies of preganglionic neurons of the ANS lie in an intermediate zone between the dorsal and ventral horns

22 Tegmentum : 腦神經 細胞體聚集處(包括 感覺及運動 ) 藍色: sensory input 紅色: motor meurons

23 The ventricular system interconnection Produce cerebrospinal fluid

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25 The meninges ( 腦膜 ) 硬腦膜 軟腦膜 蛛網膜

26 The blood supply of the brain and spinal cord Anterior circulation forebrain Posterior circulation brainstem

27 (10) Dorsal root Ventral root Stroke, brain functions Blood-brain barrier

28 Brain imaging techniques Early 1970s: X ray (air, radiopaque contrast materials) for bone/skull sometimes for vasculation X ray film, two-dimensional view Computerized tomography (CT): movable X-ray tube, sensitive for gray matter & while matter, ventricles 解析度 ~ mm three-dimension view

29 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 解析度 1 mm 以下, blood flow, metabolic state, make “slices” from any point of view 原理: H atom

30 Imaging techniques based on blood flow: PET, SPECT, and fMRI the most active nerve cells use more glucose and oxygen than relatively quiescent neurons: increase blood flow positron emission tomography (PET): 15 O (2 min), 18 F(110 min), 11 C(20 min)  ray SPECT: probe bind to RBC fMRI: oxyhemoglobin

31 問題 w 若自己車禍撞到頭部, 你想先做何種掃描 ? 若懷疑自己腦中有腫瘤, 又該 做何種掃描 ? w 當你正在打電動時做 fMRI, 會在哪幾個腦區域顯現超強活力 ? w 供應大腦血液的主要動脈是哪兩條 w 位在 brainstem 的腦室 w 從頭殼以下到神經細胞之間的腦膜分層順序 w 畫出 spinal cord 的那隻蝴蝶指出 sensory neuron 進入 motor neuron 出來 之處 再畫上血液供應的動脈位置


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