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Nutrition Practice Standards for Bariatric Surgery

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Practice Standards for Bariatric Surgery"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Practice Standards for Bariatric Surgery
Dana Eiesland, RD, LDN Lisa C. Luz, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Mount Auburn Weight Management Center 1

2 Objectives Review criteria for surgery
Outline the pre-surgical evaluation Summarize pre-surgical nutrition goals Review nutrition guidelines & diet progression following surgery Review immediate post operative and long term surgical complications 2

3 General Criteria for Weight Loss Surgery (WLS)
BMI with at least one co-morbidities (exp. DM, Obstructive sleep apnea) BMI > 40 without co-morbidities Previous unsuccessful attempts at weight loss Age >18-65 with few exceptions Medically cleared for surgery Mentally & emotionally prepared and motivated No substance abuse, no active eating disorder Support system in place Realistic expectation regarding outcomes Has good understanding of the procedure and dedicated to lifestyle change 3

4 Pre-Surgical Evaluation
Prior to surgery candidates should be carefully assessed by a specialized multidisciplinary team including: Bariatrician (MD specializing in the care of the obese) Surgeon PCP Social Worker/ Psychologist Dietitian Nurse 4

5 Pre-Surgical Goals Improvement of nutritional status
Correct vitamin/nutrient deficiencies (most common include: iron, vitamin B12 and vitamin D) Achievement of better control of nutrition- related comorbidities Development of lifestyle and eating habits that will promote positive post-weight loss surgery outcomes and weight loss maintenance Promote 5-10% weight loss to reduce surgical risks 5

6 Pre-Surgery Nutrition Education
Fluid, calorie, and protein requirements Diet instruction: Stages 1-3 Label reading Supplement/product information Vitamin & mineral requirements Exercise Intensive Education is provided during group & one-on-one sessions Behavior modification self-care & lifestyle choices self-monitoring (keeping a food journal) healthy food selections eating behaviors (speed, schedule) 6

7 Post-Surgery Nutrition Guidelines
Dietary consult ordered upon admit Complete nutrition assessment Review diet progression with patient Work with in-patient team to identify & minimize complications post-op For all procedures patients will follow the same diet Diet advanced from NPO to Stage 1 Bariatric Diet on Post op Day 1 7

8 Post Surgical Diet Progression
Stage 1 - Water Typically start day of surgery; Duration < 1 day NO STRAWS Nursing staff to administer 1oz water per hour via medicine cup Instruct patient to sip slowly & stop if feeling full or nauseous Note: Diet office will be instructed not to send meal trays All medications to be administered in liquid/chewable form IV Fluid until tolerating liquids Patient to begin tracking fluid intake on Patient Intake Diary (provided by healthcare team) 8

9 Post Surgical Diet Progression
Stage 2 - Bariatric Clear Liquids Starts Post op Day1; Duration 1-2 days Non-carbonated liquids without calories, sugar, or caffeine; includes broth, sugar-free (SF) ice pops, SF gelatin, water, & ice chips Priority is hydration Instruct to sip slowly & stop if feeling full or nauseous (avoid straws) Will receive 3oz Bariatric Clear Liquids 3 times a day on meal trays Instruct to sip 2-4 oz Bariatric Clear Fluids per hour between meals Will be expected to track intake on Patient Intake Diary 9

10 Post Surgical Diet Progression
Stage 3 - Bariatric Full Liquids Starts Post op Day 1-2; duration 2-4 weeks Will receive 3oz Bariatric Full Liquids 3 times a day on meal trays Low-fat protein-rich liquids with (exp. Low-fat (LF) broth, LF milk, protein shakes; light/LF yogurt, LF cottage cheese; LF/SF pudding) juven/beneprotein Priority on hydration and protein intake (minimize loss of lean body mass) Instruct to sip slowly & stop if feeling full or nauseous Instruct to sip 2-4 oz fluids per hour between meals Note: Patients will go home on this stage. You may not see other stages unless patients are re-admitted ? Change to 4oz of each, sip slowly; 1-2 oz per 30 min ? 10

11 Post Surgical Diet Progression
Stage 4 - Soft and Moist Protein Start 2 weeks post-op; Duration 4-6 weeks As tolerated replace full liquids with soft & moist protein foods (avoid dry or tough meats); ~2-4oz per meal May need to continue with protein shakes to meet protein needs Instruct not to drink fluids with meals; wait 30 min before & after each meal to have beverages If meeting protein goals may add well-cooked soft fruits & vegetables Will begin taking chewable vitamin & mineral supplements 11

12 Post Surgical Diet Progression
Stage 5 Low Fat, Low Sugar, High Protein Start 6-8 weeks post-op; Duration lifelong Balanced solid food diet with protein, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Can add raw foods as tolerated. Goals: 60-80 grams protein /day 64+ ounces fluid/ day (including protein drinks) sipped between meals. Continue to separate fluids from your meals Can advance to supplements in tablet form if tolerated 12

13 Things to Consider Post-Op
If having poor diet tolerance: Temperature: If not tolerating ice chips or ice pops consider warm liquids. Be aware that tolerance may vary between patients. Speed: Drinking too quickly, gulping, or drinking too much may cause pain and discomfort. Patients must avoid using straws and focus on taking very small sips from medicine cup. Administering Medications: Note all medications given in the hospital should be crushed or in liquid form. Chewable/liquid vitamins will begin 2weeks post-op 13

14 Immediate Post-Op Nutrition Considerations
Hydration status Food tolerance issues Appropriate diet advancement Address individual complaints 14

15 Common Problems After All Weight Loss Surgeries
Dehydration Monitor for signs and symptoms of dehydration as patients are at greater risk given their dietary restrictions. Patients should strive for 64 ounces of liquids per day. Nausea and Vomiting Eating too quickly or too much, drinking with meals or drinking too close to meals, not chewing thoroughly, or advancing the diet too quickly can all lead to nausea and/or vomiting. Persistent vomiting can lead to thiamin deficiency. Encourage patients to drink and eat slowly, stop if feeling full or nauseous, and take small bites and chew their foods thoroughly. Should I include twice? 15

16 Common Problems After Gastric Bypass Surgery
Dumping Syndrome Usually occurs ~30 minutes following a meal. Undigested contents of the stomach are transported or "dumped" into the small intestine too rapidly. Symptoms may be similar to the flu and include nausea, sweating, bloating, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. To avoid these symptoms patients should avoid high fat and high sugar foods. For example instead of 100% fruit juice; dilute 1:1 with water. Diarrhea Some patients can develop post-operative lactose intolerance. Symptoms could include bloating, abdominal cramps, excessive gas, and diarrhea. Treatment includes following a lactose-free diet. Anatomical complications There may be reason to suspect a possible surgical complication if a patient has persistent nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. 16

17 Common Nutrient Deficiencies
Gastric Bypass: Most common: Iron, Vitamin B-12, Folic acid, Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, & E Thiamin (seen in patients with frequent vomiting) Calcium Protein malnutrition Gastric Banding: Except for folate, nutrition deficiencies are less commonly seen post gastric banding Sleeve Gastrectomy Possible B-12 17

18 Long Term Outcomes Lifelong compliance with vitamin/ mineral supplementation is important to reduce the risk of serious nutrient deficiencies Self-monitoring intake and avoiding high calorie foods and beverages to prevent weight re-gain Remaining connected with post bariatric surgery support groups 18

19 Resources American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery L. Aills et al. ASMBS Allied Health Nutritional Guidelines for the Surgical Weight Loss Patient. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008; 4:S73-S108. If you have any additional questions contact: Lisa C. Luz, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Bariatric Program Coordinator, Mount Auburn Weight Management Center (Phone) : ( ) : Add information on sleeve 19

20 Bariatric Nutrition Quiz
1. It would be appropriate to allow a patient on Stage 2 to have all of the following fluids except: A. Water B. Low sodium vegetable broth C. Ginger ale D. Crystal light 2. All medications & vitamin/mineral supplements should be taken in which form after surgery? A. Chewable B. Liquid C. Tablet D. A&B 20

21 Bariatric Nutrition Quiz
3. Patients should wait 30 minutes before and after meals to drink any fluids. A. true B. false 4. Which of the following are associated with Dumping Syndrome? A. Drinking too much water B. Flu like symptoms including nausea, sweating, bloating, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea occurring ~30 minutes after a meal C. Eating high fat or high sugar foods like 100% fruit juice or ice cream D. B & C 21

22 Bariatric Nutrition Quiz
5. Following bariatric surgery it is important to monitor for: A. Hydration status B. Tolerance of oral intake (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea) C. Diet to be advanced appropriately D. All of the above Answers: 1. C 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. D 22

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