Safety First Safety precautions can help you avoid injuries during physical activity. If you become ill or injured during a physical activity, get help immediately.
Safety First Before beginning a physical activity program, get a medical screening to identify diseases and disorders that could make it unsafe to participate in some activities.
Safety First Use the correct safety equipment for an activity. Pay attention to other people, objects, and the weather. Play or exercise at your skill level and know your limits. Warm up before exercise and cool down afterward. Stay within the areas designated for a given activity. Obey all rules and restrictions. Practice good sportsmanship.
The Right Equipment Use the Right Equipment Wear well-fitting athletic shoes that are designed for your sport or activity. Wear socks to cushion your feet and keep them dry. Choose comfortable, non-binding clothes that are appropriate for the weather.
The Right Equipment Cycling Equipment Make sure your helmet is approved by Snell or ANSI. Always wear a helmet that fits you properly. Use front and rear reflectors if you must ride at night. Wear light-colored clothing with reflective patches.
The Right Equipment Skating or Skateboarding Equipment Knee and Elbow Pads Helmet Gloves Wrist Guards
The Right Equipment For contact sports, male players should wear a cup to protect the groin. For non-contact sports that involve running, male players should wear an athletic supporter.
The Right Equipment Female players should wear sports bras. Special adaptive equipment helps those with disabilities take part in a variety of sports, from bowling to golf.
The Right Equipment Using the right safety equipment can protect you from injury during physical activity.
Watching the Weather Check the weather and avoid exercising outside during extreme weather, such as thunderstorms or blizzards.
Cold-Weather Risks Tips for Cold-Weather Activity Warm up and cool down, even in cold weather. Drink plenty of fluids. Cold air can lead to dehydration. Cover your nose and mouth to prevent breathing cold, dry air. If you have asthma, talk to your doctor before exercising outdoors in cold weather.
Cold-Weather Risks To treat frostbite, go to a warm place and thaw the affected areas with warm (not hot) water. Frostbite Damage to the skin and tissues caused by extreme cold
Cold-Weather Risks Hypothermia can occur as a result of exposure to extreme cold, submersion in cold water, or wearing wet clothing in cold or windy weather. Hypothermia Dangerously low body temperature
Hot-Weather Risks Heavy sweating while exercising in hot weather can lead to dehydration, or excessive loss of water from the body. Drinking fluids before, during, and after physical activity can prevent dehydration.
Hot-Weather Risks If you are exercising during hot weather, you may also need to replace sodium, chloride, and potassium. Sports drinks will replace these elements.
Hot-Weather Risks Hot-weather health problems may lead to overexertion. Overexertion Overworking the body
Hot-Weather Risks Overexertion can cause heat exhaustion. Heat exhaustion A form of physical stress on the body caused by overheating
Hot-Weather Risks Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Heavy sweating Cold, clammy skin Dizziness, confusion, or fainting A weak, rapid pulse Cramps Shortness of breath Nausea or vomiting
Hot-Weather Risks To recover from heat exhaustion, rest in a shady area, douse yourself with cold water, and fan your skin. If you don’t feel better within half an hour, seek medical help.
Hot-Weather Risks If you recognize symptoms of heatstroke, call for medical help immediately and try to cool the person. Heatstroke A dangerous condition in which the body loses its ability to cool itself through perspiration
Sun and Wind Protection Sun and wind can pose a hazard in both hot and cold weather and can lead to: WindburnSunburn Skin Cancer Eye Damage
Coping with Injuries You can treat minor sports injuries yourself, but major injuries require professional medical treatment. You can identify and take action for both minor and major exercise-related injuries.
Minor Injuries Blisters Muscle Cramps Strains Tendonitis
Minor Injuries Blisters are fluid-filled bumps caused by friction. Well-fitting shoes and athletic socks can prevent blisters.
Minor Injuries Muscle cramps can occur when muscles are tired, overworked, or dehydrated. Muscle cramps Sudden and sometimes painful contractions of the muscles
Minor Injuries Warm up before exercise to reduce the risk of strains, which cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected muscle. Strains Overstretching and tearing a muscle
Minor Injuries If it hurts to move a joint after you get a sprain, see your doctor. Sprains injuries to the ligaments around a joint
Minor Injuries Use the P.R.I.C.E. procedure to treat strains and minor sprains. P.R.I.C.E. stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation.
Minor Injuries Ice the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes at a time, three times a day for two days after the injury. Rest the muscle or joint for at least a day. Protect the affected area with a bandage or splint to prevent further injury. The P.R.I.C.E. Procedure Elevate the injured area above the level of your heart to keep the swelling down. Compress the affected area to reduce swelling.
Minor Injuries Tendonitis is inflammation and swelling in the tendons, which are bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones. Treatment may include rest, medication, physical therapy, and in rare cases, surgery.
Major Injuries Major injuries require immediate medical care. Fractures are broken bones. Dislocations occur when a bone pops out of its normal position in a joint. A concussion is an injury to the brain that can result in a severe headache, unconsciousness, or memory loss.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary A health screening can identify diseases and disorders that could make participating in an activity unsafe. 1.What is the purpose of a health screening? How can it prevent injury during physical activity?
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2.How should frostbite be treated? What can you do to prevent frostbite? Thaw the area with warm water. Frostbite can be prevented by wearing appropriate cold-weather clothing.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3.Name three symptoms of heat exhaustion. Sample answer: heavy sweating, dizziness, and weak and rapid pulse