3Safety FirstSafety precautions can help you avoid injuries during physical activity.If you become ill or injured during a physical activity, get help immediately.
4Safety FirstBefore beginning a physical activity program, get a medical screening to identify diseases and disorders that could make it unsafe to participate in some activities.
5Safety First Use the correct safety equipment for an activity. Pay attention to other people, objects, and the weather.Play or exercise at your skill level and know your limits.Warm up before exercise and cool down afterward.Stay within the areas designated for a given activity.Obey all rules and restrictions.Practice good sportsmanship.
6Use the Right Equipment Choose comfortable, non-binding clothes that are appropriate for the weather.Wear well-fitting athletic shoes that are designed for your sport or activity.Wear socks to cushion your feet and keep them dry.
7The Right Equipment Cycling Equipment Always wear a helmet that fits you properly.Make sure your helmet is approved by Snell or ANSI.Cycling EquipmentUse front and rear reflectors if you must ride at night.Wear light-colored clothing with reflective patches.
8Skating or Skateboarding Equipment The Right EquipmentHelmetSkating or Skateboarding EquipmentKnee and Elbow PadsGlovesWrist Guards
9The Right EquipmentFor contact sports, male players should wear a cup to protect the groin.For non-contact sports that involve running, male players should wear an athletic supporter.
10The Right EquipmentFemale players should wear sports bras.Special adaptive equipment helps those with disabilities take part in a variety of sports, from bowling to golf.
11The Right EquipmentUsing the right safety equipment can protect you from injury during physical activity.
12Watching the WeatherCheck the weather and avoid exercising outside during extreme weather, such as thunderstorms or blizzards.
14Tips for Cold-Weather Activity Cold-Weather RisksTips for Cold-Weather ActivityDrink plenty of fluids. Cold air can lead to dehydration.Warm up and cool down, even in cold weather.If you have asthma, talk to your doctor before exercising outdoors in cold weather.Cover your nose and mouth to prevent breathing cold, dry air.
15Cold-Weather RisksTo treat frostbite, go to a warm place and thaw the affected areas with warm (not hot) water.FrostbiteDamage to the skin and tissues caused by extreme cold
16Cold-Weather RisksHypothermia can occur as a result of exposure to extreme cold, submersion in cold water, or wearing wet clothing in cold or windy weather.HypothermiaDangerously low body temperature
17Hot-Weather RisksHeavy sweating while exercising in hot weather can lead to dehydration, or excessive loss of water from the body.Drinking fluids before, during, and after physical activity can prevent dehydration.
18Hot-Weather RisksIf you are exercising during hot weather, you may also need to replace sodium, chloride, and potassium.Sports drinks will replace these elements.
19Hot-weather health problems may lead to overexertion. Hot-Weather RisksHot-weather health problems may lead to overexertion.OverexertionOverworking the body
20Overexertion can cause heat exhaustion. Hot-Weather RisksOverexertion can cause heat exhaustion.Heat exhaustionA form of physical stress on the body caused by overheating
21Hot-Weather Risks Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Heavy sweating Cold, clammy skinDizziness, confusion, or faintingA weak, rapid pulseCrampsShortness of breathNausea or vomiting
22Hot-Weather RisksTo recover from heat exhaustion, rest in a shady area, douse yourself with cold water, and fan your skin.If you don’t feel better within half an hour, seek medical help.
23Hot-Weather RisksIf you recognize symptoms of heatstroke, call for medical help immediately and try to cool the person.HeatstrokeA dangerous condition in which the body loses its ability to cool itself through perspiration
24Sun and Wind Protection Sun and wind can pose a hazard in both hot and cold weather and can lead to:Skin CancerEye DamageWindburnSunburn
25Coping with InjuriesYou can treat minor sports injuries yourself, but major injuries require professional medical treatment.You can identify and take action for both minor and major exercise-related injuries.
26Minor Injuries Minor Injuries Blisters Muscle Cramps Strains Tendonitis
27Minor InjuriesBlisters are fluid-filled bumps caused by friction.Well-fitting shoes and athletic socks can prevent blisters.
28Minor InjuriesMuscle cramps can occur when muscles are tired, overworked, or dehydrated.Muscle crampsSudden and sometimes painful contractions of the muscles
29Minor InjuriesWarm up before exercise to reduce the risk of strains, which cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected muscle.StrainsOverstretching and tearing a muscle
30If it hurts to move a joint after you get a sprain, see your doctor. Minor InjuriesIf it hurts to move a joint after you get a sprain, see your doctor.Sprainsinjuries to the ligaments around a joint
31Minor InjuriesUse the P.R.I.C.E. procedure to treat strains and minor sprains.P.R.I.C.E. stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation.
32Minor Injuries The P.R.I.C.E. Procedure Protect the affected area with a bandage or splint to prevent further injury.Rest the muscle or joint for at least a day.Ice the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes at a time, three times a day for two days after the injury.Compress the affected area to reduce swelling.Elevate the injured area above the level of your heart to keep the swelling down.
33Minor InjuriesTendonitis is inflammation and swelling in the tendons, which are bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones.Treatment may include rest, medication, physical therapy, and in rare cases, surgery.
34Major injuries require immediate medical care. Fractures are broken bones.Dislocations occur when a bone pops out of its normal position in a joint.A concussion is an injury to the brain that can result in a severe headache, unconsciousness, or memory loss.
35After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary What is the purpose of a health screening? How can it prevent injury during physical activity?A health screening can identify diseases and disorders that could make participating in an activity unsafe.
36After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary How should frostbite be treated? What can you do to prevent frostbite?Thaw the area with warm water. Frostbite can be prevented by wearing appropriate cold-weather clothing.
37After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Name three symptoms of heat exhaustion.Sample answer: heavy sweating, dizziness, and weak and rapid pulse