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1 Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint Presentation by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County College This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

2 Development Across the Lifespan
Chapter 9 Development Across the Lifespan Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

3 Chapter in Perspective
From the moment of conception until the moment of death, we change physically, cognitively, and psychosocially. Lifespan developmental psychology is concerned with the systematic physical, cognitive, and psychosocial processes that lead to these changes that occur throughout life. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

4 Basic Issues In Developmental Psychology
To what degree does development result from nature (heredity) and to what extent is it a product of nurture (environmental factors)? In behavior genetics, a relatively new field that combines psychology and biology, researchers seek to provide answers to the nature-or-nurture question. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

5 Basic Issues In Developmental Psychology
Longitudinal studies are conducted to evaluate changes over a period of time. Cross-sectional studies are used to obtain information at a particular point in time. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

6 Basic Issues In Developmental Psychology
Groups composed of participants born in the same year are called cohorts or cohort groups. In a cohort design, we compare the responses of different cohorts. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

7 Development From Conception To Birth
Conception occurs when a sperm and an ovum unite to form a one-cell structure called a zygote. The zygote moves from the fallopian tubes to the uterus (womb), a fist-sized, pear-shaped organ, and attaches itself to its inner wall. Through a process of cell division called mitosis, the zygote reproduces itself. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

8 Development From Conception To Birth
From the 2nd to 9th weeks after fertilization, when the major organ systems are formed, the developing human is called an embryo. Not all zygotes become embryos, however; nearly one-third of implanted zygotes are rejected from the uterus through miscarriage (spontaneous abortion). The zygotes of most of these early miscarriages are defective in some way. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

9 Development From Conception To Birth
Chromosomes are segments of genetic material located in the nucleus of each cell. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (numbered according to size), one of each pair being inherited from each parent. The chromosomes carry genes, which are the basic units of inheritance and the genetic blueprints for development. The general chemical name for genetic material is deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

10 Development From Conception To Birth
Chromosomes are actually large segments of DNA. The unique genetic blueprint for your development is contained in the chromosomes located in the nucleus of each cell. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

11 Development From Conception To Birth
Most human traits are controlled by a number of different genes, a phenomenon termed polygenic inheritance. The sex of a child is determined by the father. The sperm may carry either an X or a Y sex chromosome. When the sperm contributes an X chromosome, the pair of sex chromosomes will be XX, and the baby will be female. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

12 Development From Conception To Birth
If the sperm contributes a Y chromosome, the pair of sex chromosomes will be XY, and the baby will be male. A gene located on a sex chromosome (X or Y) is called a sex-linked gene. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

13 Development From Conception To Birth
From the 9th week until birth, the developing child is called a fetus. The fetus is suspended in a fluid-filled amniotic sac that cushions it against sudden movements or blows to the mother. The placenta is an organ that develops even more rapidly than the fetus during the early months of pregnancy. The placenta allows an exchange of nutrients from the mother to the developing child and an exchange of waste products from the developing child to the mother. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

14 Development From Conception To Birth
The mother’s blood vessels intertwine with those that lead to the child through the umbilical cord. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

15 Development From Conception To Birth
If a pregnant woman’s diet is inadequate, the baby is more likely to be born prematurely (at or before 37 weeks) or to have a low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds). Low-birth-weight infants are 40 times more likely than normal-weight babies to die before their first birthday. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

16 Development From Conception To Birth
Countries that have high numbers of low-birth-weight infants include Canada, Germany, Iran, Japan, China, and Norway. Compared with other industrialized countries, the United States has a relatively high infant mortality rate; in fact, 40 countries rank higher than the United States in the rate of infants who survive to their first birthday. The most important factor in causing this high rate of infant mortality is the lack of adequate prenatal care due to lack of adequate financial resources. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

17 Development From Conception To Birth
A wide variety of factors, including drugs, alcohol, and viruses, can affect the developing fetus. A teratogen is any biological, chemical, or physical agent that can lead to birth defects. A critical period is a specific time during development when certain processes should occur or when damage to normal development can take place. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

18 Development From Conception To Birth
Almost all drugs cross the placenta freely; among those that are harmful to the fetus are antibiotics (such as tetracycline), barbiturates, large doses of vitamins A and B6, and an acne preparation (Accutane). Even aspirin and caffeine are suspected of causing harm to the fetus. Fetal tobacco syndrome, a condition characterized by retarded fetal growth resulting in lower birth weight and hyperactivity, can occur if a mother smokes as few as five cigarettes per day during pregnancy. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

19 Development From Conception To Birth
Scientists have been aware for many years that children of alcoholic parents exhibit learning and developmental problems like low birth weight, small head size, and mental retardation. The identification of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) awakened the scientific community to the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. The signs of FAS include small head, flat midface, hearing loss, heart defects, and low intelligence. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

20 Development From Conception To Birth
Technological advances have greatly enhanced our ability to detect defects in the developing fetus. The ultrasound procedure involves directing high-pitched sound waves (more than 20,000 cycles per second) toward the fetus. The sounds pass through the body and bounce back like the sonar waves used by submarines. A computer converts these echoed sound waves into a sonogram, an outline image of the fetus, uterus, and placenta. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

21 Development From Conception To Birth
Amniocentesis involves inserting a needle into the amniotic sac to withdraw about an ounce of amniotic fluid. Fetal cells floating in the amniotic fluid are then analyzed. Analysis of chromosomes can reveal the sex of the fetus as well as the presence of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, which occurs in about 1 in 800 births. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

22 Development From Conception To Birth
Unless the baby is premature, birth occurs approximately 266 days after fertilization, or 280 days after the last menstrual period. The first stage of the birth process, labor, begins when the pituitary gland and uterus release a hormone, oxytocin, that stimulates contractions of the uterus. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

23 Development From Conception To Birth
The second stage of the process is delivery, the actual birth of the baby. At birth, the average newborn in the United States weighs 7.5 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long. Most of the drugs used to reduce the pain of labor and delivery cross the placenta and are associated with a number of adverse short- and long-term effects on infants. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

24 Development From Conception To Birth
During the birth process, some babies experience anoxia, or lack of oxygen. Anoxia occurs for several reasons: The contractions may compress the umbilical cord, the baby may squeeze the cord, or the cord may be wrapped around the baby. Medication given to the mother usually crosses the placenta and may interfere with the baby’s breathing, thus depriving the baby of even more oxygen. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

25 Development In Infancy
Newborns enter the world equipped with several reflexes. The rooting reflex is a reflex in which the infant turns its head in the direction of a touch on its face. The palmar or grasp reflex consists of a very strong hold on any object placed in the palm. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

26 Development In Infancy
The Moro reflex is a startle reflex in response to a loud noise or the sensation of being dropped. The Babinski reflex is a reflex in which the infant’s toes fan upward when the bottom of the foot is stroked. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

27 Development In Infancy
Very young infants can recognize their mother’s voice just hours after birth. Although estimates of the newborn’s visual acuity range from 20/300 to 20/800, visual acuity improves to about 20/20 by 6 to 12 months. Taste and smell receptors are present and probably functioning by the 4th month of prenatal development. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

28 Development In Infancy
Research on newborns in the United States has shown that they are also quite capable of learning through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

29 Development In Infancy
Maturation is the biological unfolding of an organism according to the plan stored in its genes. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

30 Development In Infancy
Before birth, the brain develops at an amazing rate, adding up to 250,000 new nerve cells each minute. Inherited characteristics and the environment interact to determine the course of growth. Some precocious babies develop physical and cognitive abilities at an early age; others are slower to develop. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

31 Development In Infancy
When a baby’s development is seriously delayed, remedial steps can be taken. Psychologists and pediatricians may use the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether an infant is average, above average, or below average in behavioral and intellectual development. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

32 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Three types of temperament in young children have been identified: easy, slow-to-warm-up, and difficult. Although heredity seems to play an appreciable role in determining temperament, the mother’s child-rearing attitudes also can influence adolescent temperament. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

33 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Sigmund Freud believed that the personality develops as a child deals with conflicts between biological urges and the demands of society. Psychosocial crises, or conflicts between psychological needs and societal demands, were proposed as the main determinants of personality by Erik Erikson. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

34 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Erikson's psychosocial crises for childhood include: basic trust versus basic mistrust (birth to age 1.5 years), autonomy versus shame and doubt (1.5 to 3 years), initiative versus quilt (3 to 7 years), and industry versus inferiority (7 to 10 years). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

35 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

36 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Attachment refers to an intense reciprocal relationship occurring between two people, usually a child and an adult. Studies of young monkeys conducted by Harry and Marguerite Harlow indicated that attachment was determined by contact comfort, rather than by the presence of food. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

37 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
In addition to demonstrating the importance of contact comfort, the Harlows found that raising baby monkeys in isolation in the laboratory had a detrimental effect on the animals’ social behavior. A major conclusion of the Harlows’ research was that even though attachment was important, it did not ensure normal social development. Environmental contact (nurture) with members of one’s own species is needed for this kind of development. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

38 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
John Bowlby’s ethological theory of attachment stresses the adaptiveness of attachment. Bowlby believes attachment evolved because of its adaptive value; infants are protected when parents or caregivers are near. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

39 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
One way to determine the kind of attachment a baby has developed is to observe the baby’s reaction to being put in a strange situation, such as an unfamiliar playroom and the departure of the familiar caregiver. Mary Salter Ainsworth reports four main types of attachment: securely attached, avoidant and anxious-ambivalent. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

40 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
The baby's style of attachment can influence relationships established during adulthood and may even persist through several generations. The percentages of different types of attachment may vary from culture to culture. Not much is known about how attachment styles may influence individuals’ behaviors as adults. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

41 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Most fathers work away from the home and are gone quite a bit of the time. Despite this father-absent pattern, infants do establish attachments with their fathers at about the same age they form attachments with their mothers. The types of interactions displayed by fathers with their infants may differ from those shown by mothers. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

42 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Comparisons of the attachment of infants who attended day-care centers with that of infants who were cared for at home by their mothers in the United States reveal that infants who attended day-care centers did not differ from infants who were raised at home. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

43 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Children may derive some benefits from good day care, which may be more important for children from disadvantaged homes. A good day-care center should function as much like a good parent as possible. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

44 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
Typically composed of classmates, selected friends, or other children in the neighborhood, the peer group offers children many opportunities for feedback concerning their abilities, intelligence, and values as they grow into young adults. The peer group can foster the development of self-esteem and a sense of autonomy. Peer group influences can be negative, however. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

45 Psychosocial Development In Childhood
According to Rice, children “spend more time watching television than engaging in any other activity (including playing and eating) except sleeping.” Although there is continuing debate over whether exposure to media violence leads to violence, 50 years of research indicates that the link between media violence and aggression is substantial and has grown stronger. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

46 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Cognitive development refers to the changes that occur in our thought processes as we pass through life. Cognitive development and intelligence go hand in hand. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

47 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Jean Piaget proposed that cognitive development progresses through a series of qualitative stages. Through his research Piaget identified the processes by which children gain new knowledge. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

48 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Assimilation is the process by which we incorporate new information into our accustomed way of thinking. Accommodation is the process of altering our ways of thinking (schemas) so that we can include new information that does not fit into existing ways of thinking. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

49 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Jean Piaget proposed that cognitive development progresses through a series of qualitative stages. During the sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2), infants learn to coordinate their senses and their motor behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

50 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Before symbolic communication is possible, infants must learn the principle of object permanence. Object permanence refers to the fact that a person or object does not cease to exist when it is not directly perceived. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

51 Cognitive Development In Childhood
During the preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7), the child gains the ability to use symbolic representations for objects and events that are not physically present. This stage is also characterized by egocentrism, the inability to see situations from another person's point of view. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

52 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Children in the concrete operational stage are able to represent objects mentally and engage in logical reasoning about the world around them through the use of these mental representations, but they are not yet able to think abstractly. During this stage, thought becomes more logical. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

53 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Piaget demonstrated that preoperational children do not grasp the principle of conservation, the understanding that a change in the size or shape of a substance does not change the amount of that substance. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

54 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Lev Vygotsky stressed the social context in which a child learns. According to Vygotsky, the social interaction experienced by children facilitates learning and performing skills that are beyond their current capabilities. Vygotsky introduced the term zone of proximal development to describe tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

55 Cognitive Development In Childhood
The zone is the distance between the actual ability level the child has reached on his or her own and the level of potential development that can be reached with guidance or supervision. The role of the teacher or adult is to provide help or assistance (known as scaffolding) during a teaching session. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

56 Cognitive Development In Childhood
A stage theory of moral development was proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg. The three major levels of morality are: preconventional (adherence to standards to avoid punishment or receive reinforcement), conventional role conformity (internalization of standards and values), and autonomous moral principles (complete internalization of control over moral conduct). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

57 Cognitive Development In Childhood
Carol Gilligan argues that Kohlberg’s theory was developed only with male participants but has been applied to women as well. According to Gilligan, men tend to have a more absolute view of morality and are more concerned about not interfering with the rights of others. By contrast, women are more concerned with the context in which a behavior occurs and the relationships involved. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

58 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence In contemporary U.S. society, no single event marks the passage from childhood to adulthood. Children experience an extended period of adolescence, which lasts roughly from age 12 to age 20. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

59 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Pubescence is a period of rapid growth, maturation of sexual organs, and appearance of secondary sex characteristics that precedes puberty. Puberty is the time at which an individual achieves full sexual maturity. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

60 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Primary sex characteristics are characteristics directly related to reproduction. Secondary sex characteristics are sex-related characteristics that develop during adolescence and are not directly related to reproduction. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

61 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence By the time they reach adolescence, many individuals have entered Piaget’s final stage of intellectual development, the formal operational stage. This stage is characterized by abstract thinking—the ability to think in terms of possibilities as opposed to concrete reality. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

62 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Although many adolescents can think and solve problems in an adult manner, much of their thought and behavior continues to be somewhat childish and contradictory. The personal fable is a feeling shared by many adolescents that one is not subject to the same rules as other people. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

63 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence The imaginary audience is the adolescent’s assumption that everyone else is concerned with his or her appearance and behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

64 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Erikson’s fifth psychosocial crisis deals with identity versus identity confusion. The development of a strong sense of personal identity and intimacy may take different courses for boys and girls. The new roles open to the adolescent also are influenced by ethnic and racial background, geographic locale, family values, and societal values. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

65 James Marcia: Identity
Two Primary and interacting events: Crisis. Significant events or changes demand an adaptation. Commitment. The resulting adaptive decision, or lack of it, makes for a continuing or new commitment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

66 James Marcia’s Identity Achievement Theory
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67 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence In individualistic cultures such as the United States, adolescents who have explored the alternatives and adopted a well-chosen set of values and goals have reached identity achievement. In other instances, the frustrations of this stage of development may cause adolescents to accept uncritically the values and desires of their parents. In this situation, called foreclosure, the adolescent’s unique identity is not allowed to develop. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

68 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence An adolescent may develop a negative identity by adopting behaviors opposite to those that are expected. Identity diffusion occurs when the adolescent has few goals and is generally apathetic about schoolwork, friends, and the future. A moratorium is a period during which an adolescent may try several identities without intending to settle on a specific one. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

69 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence The adolescent peer group provides feedback and helps adolescents achieve a sense of identity and belonging. Some peer groups, however, may interfere with satisfactory adaptation to society. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

70 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Family attitudes play a major role in determining whether adolescents, especially girls, develop eating problems such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Family relations are also an important variable in predicting juvenile delinquency and other instances of adolescent distress; parenting is the most powerful and “effective way to reduce adolescent problem behaviors.” Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

71 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Adolescence Adolescence is the stage of life in which most individuals begin to make sustained personal commitments. Such commitments may be to another person, a religious cause, career preparation, or a social program. Commitments help the adolescent develop a sense of identity and accomplishment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

72 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Early adulthood lasts roughly 20 years, from approximately age 20 until age 40. Early adulthood is usually characterized by good health. It is also the time at which we reach the peak of physical and sensory fitness. In our early twenties we possess our maximum strength and our greatest sensitivity in both vision and hearing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

73 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Whether or not intellectual abilities decline during adulthood is a subject of debate. K. Warner Schaie conducted cohort studies to determine whether intelligence actually declines with age. His results indicated that most people actually improve in basic mental ability during adulthood. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

74 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Even though Schaie does not believe that a decline begins until late adulthood, others disagree and suggest that intellectual abilities continually decline as a person grows older. There may well be a decline in fluid intelligence, which involves the ability to see new relations, solve new problems, form new concepts, and use new information. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Early Adulthood A second type of intelligence, crystallized intelligence, appears to increase throughout life. Crystallized intelligence involves the ability to retrieve and use information that has been learned and stored. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Early Adulthood According to Erikson, early adulthood is characterized by the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus isolation. If individuals are not able to make the sacrifices and compromises needed to establish strong commitments, they will be isolated from others. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

77 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood A young adult who is able to establish intimate relationships faces a number of important decisions. Among those decisions are whether to marry or cohabit. Both marriage and cohabitation have benefits and costs. For example, married people are healthier and tend to be happier than unmarried people. With nearly a million divorces granted each year in the United States, however, it is clear that marriage is difficult. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

78 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Whether and when to have children is another major issue of young adulthood that has both costs and benefits. If you wait until you are in your mid- to late twenties or older to have children, you will have greater earning power, and you will be able to provide a better lifestyle and education for your children. Most of the advantages of having children when one is younger are related to the effects of aging. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

79 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Diana Baumrind has found that 77% of parents use one of three parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive. Each parenting style is associated with a different set of habits and behaviors. Different cultures may emphasize different parenting styles. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

80 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood Because women, regardless of age, make up the majority of poverty-status adults, the term feminization of poverty is appropriate. The poverty differential between men and women becomes even greater in cases of divorce or separation in families with children. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

81 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Early Adulthood This sex difference in poverty is not limited to the United States and other industrialized nations; it is a global problem (63% of the world’s illiterate are women). Illiteracy sets a vicious cycle into motion: Illiterate women marry at an early age, take poor-paying jobs, have large families, are likely to experience divorce, and are faced with severe poverty. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Early Adulthood Career development is one of the major tasks young adults face. It is important to avoid conflict between career development and family values. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood Middle adulthood encompasses the period from approximately age 40 to age 65. The physical changes that began during early adulthood become more noticeable during middle adulthood. Changing sensory abilities may require new ways of adapting to the environment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood Many people now need reading glasses to adjust to presbyopia, the farsightedness that often accompanies aging. The most pronounced hearing deficit, presbycusis, is reduced ability to hear sounds at higher frequencies. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood A detectable loss of sensitivity in other senses, such as taste and smell, does not occur until at least age 50. The gradual decline that began in early adulthood eventually results in a reduction of more than 10% in physical strength. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

86 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Middle Adulthood Women undergo a series of hormonal changes, known as menopause, that mark the end of childbearing. The decrease in estrogen production that accompanies menopause may result in osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become thinner and prone to fractures. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood We can expect the gradual decline in fluid intelligence and the gradual increase in crystallized intelligence that began in early adulthood to continue during middle adulthood. During middle adulthood, one’s occupation takes on added significance. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

88 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Middle Adulthood The midlife crisis is a potentially stressful period that typically occurs during the mid-forties and is brought on when a person comes to grips with mortality issues and begins to review his or her life and accomplishments. The percentage of men who experience the classic midlife crisis may be quite low (less than 15%), and a sizable proportion (over 30%) report a satisfying adjustment to midlife. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

89 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Middle Adulthood For women, age-related stress tends to occur later, in the late forties and early fifties, when parenting responsibilities have decreased and there is time to cope with other issues. As more women return to college and enter the labor force, however, the likelihood of a midlife crisis appears to be decreasing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood Erikson believes that during our early forties we face the crisis of generativity versus stagnation. To be generative is to have concern for the next generation and for the perpetuation of life. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood The empty nest syndrome is a period of adjustment for parents after all children have left home. Many individuals report an improvement in marital satisfaction after their children have left home. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Middle Adulthood Despite the benefits of having raised independent children, aging parents of middle-aged Americans may require additional care and attention, thus adding another source of stress. Another source of stress that may be reintroduced after the empty nest adjustment period is the return of the birds to the nest. These returning offspring are known as boomerang children. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

93 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood Late adulthood is the period from approximately age 65 until death. Despite the physical changes that occur in late adulthood, keep in mind that chronological age may not be a good predictor of ability or performance in elderly people. Hence researchers distinguish between the young-old and the old-old. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

94 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood The young-old appear physically young for their advanced years, whereas the old-old show definite signs of decline. Despite the young-old and old-old distinction, predictable physical changes come with advancing age. For example, many older people must contend with impaired vision and hearing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

95 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood For many, the middle-adulthood problem of farsightedness is replaced by the development of more serious problems, such as cataracts. The gradual decline in sensitivity to taste and smell that began in middle adulthood continues until the late seventies; after that, the majority of people experience a very sharp drop in olfactory ability. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

96 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood The ability to regulate body temperature also declines noticeably during old age. Although older people do not possess the physical strength that characterizes young adulthood, this decline does not render them unable to perform such activities as taking care of their houses, doing yard work, and playing tennis. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood The slowness of old age is reflected in longer reaction times and an increase in the time required to process information. Physical appearance also changes with advancing age. People shrink as they grow older. Elderly people also experience changes in their sleep patterns. Most of the systems of the body become more susceptible to disease during old age. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

98 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood Dementia is a condition of general intellectual decline involving loss of memory and disorientation. Unfortunately, the number of people predicted to suffer from dementia is increasing. One form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, is irreversible, and there is no long-term treatment at present. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

99 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood Even with the physical problems associated with old age, the average life expectancy in the United States has increased at a steady rate. Better medical care and improved nutrition have extended the number of active years before illness or disability really begins. Moreover, it appears that people who provide emotional support and do things for others live longer. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood Although longer life expectancies are a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, some areas of the world—Peru, Pakistan, the former Soviet Union, Japan, and Iceland—are famous for the longevity of their inhabitants. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood These people seem to share four characteristics: Their diets are high in fruits and vegetables and low in meat and fat, both relaxation and exercise are part of their daily routine, they work throughout their lives, and family and community activities are important to them. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood If the elderly are taught strategies to enhance encoding and are provided with retrieval cues, their memory capability may not differ from that of young adults. If people remain intellectually active, fluid intelligence may not decline. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood Ageism is the tendency to view the elderly in a negative manner. In many instances, ageism leads to isolation of elderly citizens and keeps them from making valuable contributions to society. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood The psychosocial crisis of integrity versus despair occurs during late adulthood. To accept one’s impending death, one must be able to put one’s life in perspective and attach meaning to it. The crisis of integrity versus despair is reflected in the way people adapt to retirement. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Late Adulthood The keys to successful retirement include good planning and preparation, satisfaction with one’s accomplishments, good health, and freedom from financial worries. Over 90% of elderly U.S. citizens live in a community, rather than in an institution such as a nursing home. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

106 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Late Adulthood Owing to physical or financial limitations, however, not all elderly people are able to live in their own homes. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

107 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Attitudes toward death change with age. Children do not have an accurate conception of death until they attain the ability to perform concrete operations. They believe that death is reversible—that a dead friend or pet can return to life. Although adolescents understand the nature of death, they do not have a healthy respect for its implications. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

108 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
For some adolescents, death may seem the only way out of an intolerable situation. Young adults rarely think of their own death. During middle adulthood noticeable physical changes, coupled with the death of one’s own parents, bring the realization that death is inevitable. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

109 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Although death may be imminent, the elderly are more understanding and accepting of this eventuality than younger adults. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

110 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross has identified five stages that an individual may go through in confronting death: denial, anger, bargaining for extra time, depression, and acceptance. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

111 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
The emotional and role changes that follow a death are called bereavement, and the people whose emotions and roles change are known as the bereaved. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

112 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Grief, which is a normal part of bereavement, progresses through four stages: shock and denial, intense concern, despair and depression, and recovery. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

113 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Mourning involves the behavioral changes associated with bereavement. Social support is a key ingredient in successful coping with death and bereavement. In Western nations the hospice movement has taken the lead in the delivery of such support services. The hospice is more a philosophy of treatment than a set of buildings and equipment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

114 Death, Dying, and Bereavement
In addition to providing normal medical services for the terminally ill, hospice physicians and staff are trained to give more personalized care and more time to terminally ill patients and their families. This philosophy of warm, personal concern and care is not confined to hospitals; it can be implemented just as effectively in the home. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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