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Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed

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1 Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint Presentation by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County College This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

2 Motivation and Emotion
Chapter 6 Motivation and Emotion Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

3 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
What Is Motivation? Motivation refers to physiological or psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. The aspects of motivation are a factor or motivational state that prompts the behavior, the goal(s) toward which the behavior is directed, and the reasons for differences in the intensity of the behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

4 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

5 Theories of Motivation
Incentive theories see motivated behavior as being pulled by the incentive or goal; the larger or more powerful the incentive, the stronger the pull. According to Maslow's theory, motivational needs are arranged hierarchically from basic physiological needs to self-actualization. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

7 Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s theory is often characterized as a growth theory of motivation because people strive to satisfy successively higher needs. Critics note that not everyone proceeds through the hierarchy as Maslow outlined. What’s more, in some societies people have difficulty meeting basic needs, yet they may be able to satisfy higher needs. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

8 Theories of Motivation
Biological theories of motivation focus on the importance of biological or physiological processes that determine behavior. Among these processes are unlearned behaviors that are part of an organism’s repertoire from birth. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

9 Theories of Motivation
Instincts are unlearned, species-specific behaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

10 Motivation and Imprinting
Konrad Lorenz’s research Geese, Ducks, “Mary’s Little Lamb”. Critical periods of sensitivity Precocial vs altricial species Evolutionary Significance for survival Short Term survival significance Safety, nurturance, food Long Term survival significance Sex and reproduction foster species survival Connections to “imitation” Connections to neuroscience. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

11 Theories of Motivation
A drive is an internal motivational state created by a physiological need. The drive-reduction theory views motivated behavior as designed to reduce a physiological imbalance and return the organism to “homeostasis”. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

12 Theories of Motivation
Drive reduction signals the organism that a particular need has been reduced and that behaviors designed to reduce other current drives can be engaged. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

13 Theories of Motivation
Optimum-level theory states that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from one individual to another. To reach this level, the organism may seek added stimulation or arousal. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

14 Theories of Motivation
Cognitive theories of motivation focus on how we process and understand information. According to cognitive-consistency theories, we are motivated to achieve a psychological state in which our beliefs and behaviors are consistent because inconsistency between beliefs and behaviors is unpleasant. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

15 Theories of Motivation
Cognitive dissonance occurs when incompatible thought creates an aversive state that the organism is motivated to reduce. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

16 Theories of Motivation
Because cognitive dissonance produces discomfort, it motivates us to reduce the discomfort. We seek to reduce the discomfort by creating cognitive consonance—the state in which our cognitions are compatible with one another. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

17 Theories of Motivation
Once a difficult decision has been made, many people wonder whether they made the right decision. This postdecisional dissonance is reduced by raising one’s evaluation of the chosen item and decreasing the evaluation of the rejected item. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

18 Theories of Motivation
The existence of multiple motives often results in conflicts. The most common conflicts are: approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, approach-avoidance, and multiple approach-avoidance. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives One factor in hunger regulation is blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. When our supply of glucose is high and the cells of the body are able to use it, hunger is low. As the blood sugar supply decreases, hunger increases. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

20 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives The amount of stored body fat also serves as a hunger signal. When a person’s weight falls, fat is withdrawn from the fat cells and a hunger signal is sent to the brain. When fat cells are full, no signal is sent. The hypothalamus is the brain structure that receives hunger signals. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

21 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives Dietary factors contribute substantially to the burden of preventable illnesses and premature deaths in the United States. Obesity is a significant risk factor for heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Obesity and being overweight are associated with several types of cancer (colon, gallbladder, prostate, and kidney). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

22 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives Obesity is defined as body weight of 20% or more in excess of desirable body weight. Body mass index (BMI) is a numerical index calculated from a person’s height and weight that is used to indicate health status and disease risk. Genetic factors play a key role in determining a person's weight. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Heredity may influence what we weigh by affecting our basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum energy needed to keep an awake, resting body alive. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Accumulating research suggests that biological factors alone do not fully explain obesity; thus, we should also consider social and cultural factors. Among women, obesity is related to social class. Rates of obesity are higher among people in the lower socioeconomic classes than among those in the middle and upper socioeconomic classes. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

25 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives When considering diets, it is important to note that the body does not treat all calories alike. One gram of carbohydrates or protein contains 4 calories, whereas 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories. What’s more, high-fat diets require fewer calories for digestion than high-carbohydrate diets. Once the fat is deposited in the body, few calories are needed to maintain it, so it is difficult to remove. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

26 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives Anorexia nervosa is a potentially life-threatening eating disorder occurring primarily in adolescent and young adult females. It involves an intense fear of becoming fat that leads to self-starvation and weight loss accompanied by a strong belief that one is fat despite objective evidence to the contrary. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a victim alternatively consumes large amounts of food (gorging) and then empties the stomach (purging), usually by induced vomiting. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Although sex is classified as a biological motive, it is different from other biological motives in important ways. An individual’s potential to respond sexually to persons of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both is called sexual orientation. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

29 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives Growing evidence suggests that biological factors play an important role in the development of sexual orientation. Sexual behavior is influenced by external factors, brain mechanisms, and hormones. Pheromones are chemical odors emitted by some animals that appear to influence the behavior of members of the same species. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

30 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives Sex hormones are highly significant in directing sexual behavior in lower animals; however, their role in directing human sexual behavior is less clear. The hypothalamus regulates sexual behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Masters and Johnson outlined the stages of sexual arousal: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. They also pioneered the development of techniques to treat sexual dysfunctions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Specific Motives Achievement consists of three components: behaviors that manipulate the environment in some manner, rules for performing those behaviors, and accepted performance standards against which people compete and compare their performance. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

33 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Specific Motives The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has been used to measure levels of achievement motivation. When you take the TAT, you are asked to create a story about a series of pictures that depict people in ambiguous situations. Participants are believed to attribute their own motives to the figures in the ambiguous pictures. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

34 The What and The Why of Emotion
Emotion refers to physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness, aroused by external and internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions. When the subjective feelings associated with emotions last for an extended period of time, we call them moods. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

35 The What and The Why of Emotion
Charles Darwin suggested that emotional expressions have a biological basis. Emotions can increase the chances of survival by providing a readiness for actions such as fighting predators that have helped us survive throughout our evolutionary history. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

36 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The commonsense view of emotions states the sequence of events in emotional responding as: stimulus emotion physiological changes. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

37 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The James-Lange theory states that physiological changes precede and cause emotions. In the James-Lange theory the sequence of events in emotional responding is: stimulus physiological changes emotion. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

38 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The Cannon-Bard theory states that the thalamus relays information simultaneously to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing emotional feelings and physiological changes to occur at the same time. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

39 The Physiological Components of Emotion
Establishing the physiological specificity of emotions does not require that every emotion have a unique physiological signature, only that some emotions differ from others in consistent ways. Research suggests that there are several differences among emotions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

40 The Physiological Components of Emotion
One consistent finding is that anger tends to be associated with cardiovascular changes. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

41 The Physiological Components of Emotion
We can observe physiological patterns in certain emotions such as embarrassment, which can lead to blushing. Blushing may communicate the message that the person values the positive regard of others. Blushing can also occur when we are praised or told that we appear to be blushing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

42 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The limbic system is probably the most important in a discussion of emotion. Joseph LeDoux has found that the amygdala reacts instantly to sensory inputs and can trigger the fight-or-flight response while the cortex is evaluating inputs and making decisions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

43 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The entire brain plays a role in emotion. The right hemisphere appears to be specialized for perceiving emotion from facial expressions. When normal people report negative emotions such as fear or disgust, there is increased activity in their right hemisphere; the left hemisphere is more active during positive emotions such as happiness. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

44 The Physiological Components of Emotion
Alexithymia is a marked inability to experience and express emotions. People with alexithymia lack self-awareness; they rarely cry, are described as colorless and bland, and are not able to discriminate among different emotions. They are often unaware of what others around them feel. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

45 The Physiological Components of Emotion
The polygraph is an electronic device (often called a lie detector) that senses and records changes in several physiological indices including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Because polygraph tests measure physiological responses, efforts to modify these responses can affect test accuracy. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

46 The Expressive Components of Emotions
There is strong evidence for universal recognition of at least six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. Recently, researchers reported a high degree of reliability in identifying the emotion of pride, which participants distinguished from related emotions such as happiness. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

47 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Robert Plutchik has offered a model of how emotions can be combined to yield blends that differ in intensity. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

48 The Expressive Components of Emotions
He proposes eight basic emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation. These primary emotions can be viewed as four pairs of polar opposites, and each emotion exists in varying degrees of intensity. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

49 The Expressive Components of Emotions
These primary emotions are building blocks that can be combined to create more complex emotions, just as primary colors are combined to form different hues. The result is a three-dimensional structure consisting of eight groupings of primary emotions arranged in tiers representing degrees of intensity and purity. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

50 The Expressive Components of Emotions
The facial feedback hypothesis contends that feedback from facial muscles affects our experience of emotion. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

51 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Display rules are culturally specific prescriptions that tell us which emotions to display, to whom, and when. Such rules account for some cross-cultural differences in the expression of emotion. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

52 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Smiling is a social act; we rarely smile when we are alone. It is such a prominent social signal that we can recognize a smile 300 feet away. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

53 The Expressive Components of Emotions
A real smile of enjoyment, the Duchenne smile, involves activation of muscles that are not activated during faked smiles. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

54 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Nonverbal communication is communication that involves movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, use of personal space, and touching. Tone of voice and posture can convey information that is different from what we verbalize. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

55 The Expressive Components of Emotions
There are four major categories of body language: emblems, illustrators, regulators, and adaptors. Emblems are nonverbal gestures and movements that have well-understood definitions. The meaning of certain gestures varies with the culture. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

56 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

57 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Illustrators are nonverbal gestures or movements made while speaking that accent or emphasize words. Regulators are actions such as eye contact and head nods that coordinate the flow of communication among two or more people. Adaptors (or manipulators) are movements or objects manipulated for a purpose; we use these when we find ourselves in a particular mood or situation. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

58 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Paralanguage is communication that involves aspects of speech such as rate of talking and tone of voice, but not the words used. Emotions are often associated with shifts in tone of voice. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

59 The Expressive Components of Emotions
Across ages, cultures, and stimulus persons, women are more accurate than men in decoding emotion from nonverbal cues offered by the face, body, and voice. Compared with men, women display more emotional awareness. One possible explanation is that women's roles and occupations tend to require greater sensitivity to the emotional expressions in others. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

60 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
Cultures and languages differ in the number of terms they use to describe emotion. Some English words describe categories of emotion that have no equivalents in other languages; other languages have emotion words with no equivalents in English. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

61 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
Schachter and Singer proposed a theory that described emotion as beginning with undifferentiated arousal. The labels we use to describe our emotions depend on our immediate environment and what is on our mind at the particular moment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

62 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
Appraisal theories of emotion propose that how we make judgments about events leads to emotional reactions. Cultural values can influence people's emotions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

63 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
Emotions in infancy range from general distress to pleasure. Joyful expression emerges as infants smile and appear to show excitement and happiness when confronted with familiar events such as the faces of people they know. Sadness emerges at about 3 months in connection with the withdrawal of positive stimulus events. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

64 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
Early on, children learn that emotional expression is more than making faces and sounds; it requires timing, an understanding of context, and knowledge of the audience receiving the communication. At approximately 3 years of age, the emotions a child experiences become highly differentiated. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

65 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
A key cognitive ability is evaluating one's behavior in relation to standards. This ability is the basis of the self-conscious emotions such as shame, guilt, and pride. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

66 The Cognitive Components of Emotion
The term emotional intelligence describes four qualities: the ability to perceive emotions in others, the ability to facilitate thought, understanding emotions, and managing emotions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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