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Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed

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1 Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint Presentation by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County College This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

2 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Chapter 11 Personality Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

3 Analyzing Personality
Psychologists define personality as a relatively stable pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving that distinguishes one person from another. Two important components of this definition are distinctiveness and relative consistency. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

4 Analyzing Personality
The methods psychologists use to examine personality include case studies, interviews, naturalistic observations, laboratory investigations, and psychological tests. To be useful, a psychological test must have three characteristics: reliability, validity, and standardization. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

5 Analyzing Personality
Some of the best-known and most widely used personality measures are self-report inventories that require individuals to respond to statements about themselves in the form of yes-no or true-false answers. Among the widely used self-report inventories of personality are the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

6 Analyzing Personality
The MMPI was designed to help diagnose psychological disorders. The CPI is used to assess personality in the normal population. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

7 Analyzing Personality
Projective tests are assessment techniques that require individuals to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli. The assumption underlying projective tests is that people project their personality characteristics onto the ambiguous stimuli. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

8 Analyzing Personality
One of the most frequently used projective tests is the Rorschach inkblot test. Administering and interpreting projective tests requires extensive training. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

9 Analyzing Personality
The Barnum effect is the tendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself. The effect results from the use of favorable personality descriptions that apply to many people. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

10 Analyzing Personality
Walter Mischel advised psychologists to turn their attention from the search for traits to the study of how situations influence behaviors. Some characteristics, such as intelligence, emotional reactions, and physical appearance, are consistent over time. Although a number of studies have failed to demonstrate consistency of behavior across situations, there may be limitations in the methods used to study consistency. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

11 Analyzing Personality
Epstein proposes that both sides of the consistency issue are correct. Behavior depends on the situation, but there are consistent behavioral tendencies across situations. The situation also influences the likelihood that a person will exhibit a specific behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

12 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Traits are summary terms that describe tendencies to respond in particular ways that account for differences among people. Psychologist Gordon Allport set out to compose a list of traits, which he described as the building blocks of personality. After eliminating words that referred to temporary moods, social evaluations, or physical attributes, Allport found that 4,500 words remained. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

13 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Raymond Cattell proposed 16 source traits to describe personality and make predictions of future behaviors. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

14 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Cattell used the term surface traits to describe traits that were easy to identify. He assumed that these surface traits were in turn directed by a smaller number of traits called source traits. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Trait Approaches Eysenck said we can describe personality as consisting of three basic traits: extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Extraversion has been associated with a number of differences in everyday behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

16 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches There is a growing consensus that personality traits can be reduced to five basic ones, although there is some disagreement about the precise labels for the five. The most common names for the “Big Five” are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

17 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Advances in the technology of genetics and neuroscience have led to an increase in the ability to detect genetic and neurological bases of complex behavior. Recent assessments of the heritability of the Big Five have concluded that all five traits are moderately and equally heritable. A growing body of research suggests that personality traits have considerable long-term stability. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

18 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Gregory Hurtz and John Donovan completed an extensive search for research that investigated the relation between measures of the Big Five factors and job or training performance. Their results showed that conscientiousness had the highest correlation across occupations with job performance criteria (r = 0.14), which was low to moderate but stable across studies. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

19 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches Not everyone views the factors of the five-factor model as capturing the essence of personality. Drew Westen and Jonathan Shedler are psychotherapists and research psychologists who don’t think questionnaire items address the deeper organizing principles of personality. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

20 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Trait Approaches According to these psychologists, if we use questionnaires to provide a glimpse of personality, what we get is a description on a selection of traits that are just statistical entities and only skim the personality’s surface. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

21 Biological Factors in Personality
The idea that physical and biological factors hold a key to personality has a long history. Trephining involves the opening of a hole in the skull, leaving the membranes surrounding the brain intact. The main concept of the modern trepanation movement lies in the word brainbloodvolume (the amount of blood supplied to the brain). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

22 Biological Factors in Personality
Trepanation supposedly allows greater flow of blood in the capillaries of the brain. Most researchers and physicians do not have a high opinion of the supposed benefits of trepanation. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

23 Biological Factors in Personality
Hippocrates, a Greek philosopher and physician, believed that the human body contained four bodily “humors” or fluids: black bile, blood, phlegm, and yellow bile. The humor that predominated in a person was believed to determine that person’s characteristics. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

24 Biological Factors in Personality
In the 1800s, phrenologists (phrenology was an attempt to study a person by analyzing bumps and indentations on the skull) attempted to link personality with features of the brain. Eventually it became clear that any bumps on the skull had no connection to personal characteristics, and interest in phrenology faded. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

25 Biological Factors in Personality
William Sheldon suggested a relationship between body type and personality. He developed a scheme consisting of three body types: Endomorphs are round, mesomorphs are rectangular, and ectomorphs are thin. Subsequent research demonstrated that his findings were influenced by his preconceptions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

26 Biological Factors in Personality
Additional support for the belief that biological factors influence personality is found in the negative correlation between sensation-seeking scores and levels of the enzyme MAO. A growing body of research points to the importance of biological factors in several personality characteristics. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

27 Biological Factors in Personality
The study of identical twins reared apart allows researchers to identify the effects of heredity independently of the influence of environmental factors. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

28 Biological Factors in Personality
Evidence from such studies indicates that heredity plays a role in a wide range of personality characteristics as evidenced by heritability estimates between 20 and 50%. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

29 Biological Factors in Personality
The evolutionary perspective would predict that those aspects of our personality that help us adapt to environmental demands are passed along to subsequent generations. Researchers have generated considerable data in support of the theory of psychologist David Buss that evolution has had an impact on the type of people that men and women choose as dates and mates. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

30 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Three concepts form the backbone of Freud’s theory: psychic determinism, instincts, and levels of consciousness. Psychic determinism refers to the influence of the past on the present. Freud believed that much of our behavior, feeling, and thinking is determined by events that occurred earlier in our lives. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

31 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud believed we are driven by the energy of certain instincts in much the same way that a car is propelled by the energy contained in gasoline. He described two key instincts: eros for lifegiving and pleasure-producing activities, including sex, and thanatos for aggression or destruction. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

32 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The third major concept in psychodynamic theory is Freud’s proposal that there are various levels of consciousness. Freud described three levels of consciousness. The conscious level refers to the thoughts, wishes, and emotions you are aware of at this moment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

33 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The level just below consciousness is called the preconscious; its contents are waiting to be pulled into consciousness like fish from a pond. The third – and in Freud’s theory the most important – level of consciousness (or awareness) is below the preconscious and is called the unconscious. The unconscious consists of thoughts, wishes, and feelings that exist beyond our awareness; we can gain access to them only with great effort. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

34 The Psychodynamic Perspective
According to Freud’s comprehensive theory, the mind consists of three separate but interacting elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. This model compares the mind to an iceberg. Just as most of an iceberg lies beneath the surface of the water, much of what is truly significant in psychodynamic theory lies below conscious awareness. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

35 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

36 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The id represents the primitive biological side of our personality. This reservoir of pleasure-seeking and aggressive instinctual energy aims to reduce tension that builds up when our wishes are thwarted. Operating on the pleasure principle, it impulsively seeks immediate gratification of wishes through the ego. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

37 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The ego is sometimes called the executive of the personality because it has a realistic plan for obtaining what the id wants; therefore it is said to operate on the reality principle. The superego, has two components: the conscience and the ego ideal. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

38 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The conscience, the moral part of the superego, is like a little voice that tells us when we have violated our parents’ and society’s rules. The second component of the superego, the ego ideal, represents the superego’s positive side—the things that make us proud. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

39 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud proposes that there is a never-ending battle between two irrational forces (the id and the superego), with a mediator (the ego) in the middle. Much of this conflict is unconscious, but when it becomes serious, an alarm goes off. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

40 The Psychodynamic Perspective
When the anxiety or guilt alarm rings, the ego defends itself through unconscious efforts referred to as defense mechanisms that tend to deny or distort reality. The effect of defense mechanisms is to reduce anxiety or guilt. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

41 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud proposed that an individual’s personality develops through a series of five stages stretching from infancy to adulthood. These stages are called psychosexual stages because each is characterized by efforts to obtain pleasure centered on one of several parts of the body called erogenous zones. According to Freud, the five stages of psychosexual development are the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

42 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Pleasure-seeking behavior in the oral stage focuses on the baby’s mouth. Infants and toddlers can often be seen biting, sucking, or placing objects in their mouths. Freud hypothesized that if oral needs such as the need for food are delayed, the child’s personality may become arrested or fixated. A person whose development is arrested will display behaviors as an adult that are associated with the time of life during which the fixation occurred. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

43 The Psychodynamic Perspective
From about 18 months until about 3 years of age, the child is in the anal stage. As the child gains muscular control, the erogenous zone shifts to the anus, and the child derives pleasure from the expulsion and retention of feces. The key to this stage is toilet training. The way parents approach toilet training can have lasting effects on their children. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

44 The Psychodynamic Perspective
The phallic stage, which begins at about age 4 to 5, is ushered in by another shift in the erogenous zone and the child’s pleasure-seeking behavior. During this stage, children derive pleasure from fondling their genitals. The phallic stage is also the time when the Oedipal complex (in boys) or the Electra complex (in girls) occurs. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

45 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud believed that young boys develop a sexual interest in their mothers, see their father as competitors for the mothers’ affection, and therefore wish to get rid of their fathers. The young boy fears his father’s retaliation for these forbidden sexual and aggressive impulses. He fantasizes that the father’s retaliation would involve injury to his genitals; as a result, he experiences what is called castration anxiety. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

46 The Psychodynamic Perspective
To reduce the fear, the boy represses his sexual desire for his mother and begins to identify with his father, which means that he tries to be like Dad in his behavior, values, attitudes, and sexual orientation. In the Electra complex young girls become aware that they do not have penises, which Freud believed they both value and desire. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

47 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Thus girls experience penis envy, which leads to anger directed at their mothers and sexual attraction toward their fathers. A girl’s attraction to her father is rooted in a fantasy that seducing him will provide her with a penis. Resolution of this complex occurs when the girl represses her sexual desires and begins to identify with her mother. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

48 The Psychodynamic Perspective
At about age 6, children enter a period when their sexual interests are suppressed. This period, which lasts until the beginning of adolescence, is called the latency stage. Sexual interests are reawakened at puberty and become stronger during the genital stage. In this stage, sexual pleasure is derived from heterosexual relationships. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

49 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Some of Freud’s most outspoken critics were formerly his greatest admirers who once espoused his views, but for a variety of reasons they developed new perspectives that nonetheless fit the psychodynamic mold. For example, they did not accept Freud’s emphasis on the id and the role of sexual motives; instead they emphasized the ego and its role in the development of personality, as well as the social aspects of personality. These individuals are frequently referred to as neo-Freudians. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

50 The Psychodynamic Perspective
One of the best-known neo-Freudians, Carl Jung, split from Freud on more than one issue and developed his own psychodynamic viewpoint. Jung did not want to place as much emphasis on sexuality as did Freud. He suggested that a collective unconscious contains images shared by all people. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

51 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Jung proposed the concepts of introversion and extraversion to reflect the direction of the person’s life force. Karen Horney, an early disciple of Freudian thinking, rejected several Freudian notions and added several of her own. She viewed personality disturbances not as resulting from instinctual strivings to satisfy sexual and aggressive urges but as stemming from the basic anxiety that all people share. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

52 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Alfred Adler believed that Freud overemphasized the sexual drive in explaining personality. He argued that the primary drive is social rather than sexual. Adler can be considered the first self theorist due to the emphasis he placed on this concept. For him the self was the most important part of the personality. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

53 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Significantly, Freud’s theory is based on the study of a small number of disturbed people, who may not provide the basis for generalizations applicable to most people. Freud is credited with pointing out the influence of early childhood experiences and with developing a stage theory of development In addition, he noted the potential importance of unconscious experiences and the influence of sexuality on human behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

54 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Many of Freud’s concepts and principles are not directly testable; hence, there is little scientific evidence to support his theory. His subjective method of data collection and views about women also have attracted criticism. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

55 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
According to Skinner, we can explain the distinctiveness of individual personalities without using terms such as traits. Each person’s behavior is distinctive because each one experiences different histories of reinforcement and punishment. Skinner focused attention on the environmental factors that initiate and maintain behaviors that ultimately distinguish one person from another. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

56 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Social learning theory is the theory that learning occurs through watching and imitating the behaviors of others. The concept of expectancy is one of the most important elements of social learning theory. People differ in their tendencies to view themselves as capable of influencing reinforcers or being subject to fate. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

57 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Some people, called internals, believe that they can influence their reinforcers via their skill and ability. Others, called externals, believe that whether they attain a desired outcome is due primarily to chance or fate. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

58 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Julian Rotter devised the Internal-External (I-E) Scale to measure individuals’ locus of control (internal or external); since then, locus of control has become one of the most studied concepts in psychology. Locus of control is related to a variety of outcomes, including academic and health behaviors. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

59 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
According to Albert Bandura, individuals not only are affected by the environment but also can influence it. What's more, cognitive factors can influence the person's behavior and his or her environment. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

60 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
This combination of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental effects is called reciprocal determinism. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

61 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Another key concept in Bandura’s theory is self-efficacy, a person’s beliefs about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors. Unlike a trait, self-efficacy is specific to the situation and can change over time. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

62 The Humanistic Perspective
A group of theorists called humanistic psychologists oppose the basic beliefs of both psychodynamic theory and behaviorism. They focus on the present and the healthy personality. What’s more, they view the individual’s perceptions of events as more significant than the learning theorist’s or therapist’s perceptions. For these reasons, they are often called phenomenological psychologists. Phenomenology is the study of experience just as it occurs. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

63 The Humanistic Perspective
Abraham Maslow described humanistic psychology as the “third force” in American psychology because it offered an alternative to psychodynamic theory and behaviorism. According to Maslow, human beings have a set of needs that are organized in a hierarchy. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

64 The Humanistic Perspective
These needs begin with physiological needs and move on to needs for safety, love and belongingness, and self-esteem. These basic needs exert a powerful pull on our behavior. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

65 The Humanistic Perspective
Carl Rogers shared Maslow’s belief that people are innately good and are directed toward growth, development, and personal fulfillment. As we develop, our concept of self emerges. The self is our sense of “I” or “me”; it is generally conscious and accessible and is a central concept in Rogers’s theory. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

66 The Humanistic Perspective
The self-concept is our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics. Rogers believed that we act in accordance with our self-concept. Maslow and Rogers agreed that people have a strong need to be loved, to experience affection. Sometimes, however, people experience affection that is conditional—given only if they engage in behaviors that are approved by others. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

67 The Humanistic Perspective
Rogers contrasted this conditional regard with what he called unconditional positive regard, in which a person is accepted for what he or she is, not for what others would like the person to be. According to Rogers, if you grow up believing affection is conditional, you will distort your own experiences in order to feel worthy of acceptance from a wider range of people. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

68 The Humanistic Perspective
According to Rogers we have a real self, the self as it really is, a product of our experiences. We also have an ideal self, the self we would like to be. Maladjustment results when there is a discrepancy between the real self and the ideal self. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007


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