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Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed

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1 Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint Presentation by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County College This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

2 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Chapter 7 Memory Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

3 Lewin’s “Life Space” and Memory
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4 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Initial Studies Hermann Ebbinghaus conducted the pioneering research on memory in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Ebbinghaus devised nonsense syllables, which he believed had no meaning attached to them, to study how associations between stimuli are formed. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

5 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Initial Studies Through the use of serial learning, Ebbinghaus determined that much of what we learn is forgotten very shortly after a learning session. Serial learning is a learning procedure in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in which it was presented; also known as ordered recall. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

6 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Initial Studies Paired-associate learning is a learning procedure in which items to be recalled are learned in pairs. During recall, one member of the pair is presented and the other is to be recalled. Free recall is a learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

7 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Initial Studies The serial position effect is the tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle. One of the most important findings of Ebbinghaus’s research is the curve of forgetting. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Initial Studies Ebbinghaus found that memory for learned material is best right after the learning session. As time passes, we forget more and more. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Initial Studies Two additional procedures for measuring memory, the recognition test and the relearning test, supplement the three methods just described. In the recognition test, participants pick out items to which they were previously exposed from a longer list that also contains unfamiliar items. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

10 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Initial Studies A relearning test is a test of retention that compares the time or trials required to learn material a second time with the time or trials required to learn the material the first time. A savings score is the difference between the time or trials originally required to learn material and the time or trials required to relearn the material; also known as relearning score. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

11 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory Like the computer, researchers have characterized human memory as an information processing system that has three separate stages: an input or encoding stage, a storage stage, and a retrieval stage during which an already stored memory is called into consciousness. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

12 Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Theory of Memory
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13 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory The stages-of-memory model, also called the traditional model, of memory proposes that memories can be processed in different ways. There are three types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Memory Retrieval and forgetting Retrieval Serial position effect Primacy effect Recency effect Encoding specificity principle Recall Recognition Forgetting Cue-dependent forgetting Interference theory Decay theory Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Characteristics of the information-processing approach Change mechanisms Encoding Automaticity Strategy construction Transfer Self-modification Metacognition Thinking Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

16 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory In the encoding stage, sensory information is received and coded, and then transformed into neural impulses that can be processed further or stored for later use. The second stage of memory processing is storage. Like the computer program, the encoded information must be stored in the memory system if we plan to retain it for any length of time or use it more than once. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

17 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory Once a computer program has been named and stored, we can “call it up” by its name and use it again. Human memory works in much the same way. When we recall or bring a memory into consciousness, we have retrieved it. This recall process is known as memory retrieval. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

18 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory People with eidetic imagery (the technical term for photographic memory) say that they can look at a written page, person, slide, or drawing and then later mentally see that image. Eidetic imagery appears to be relatively rare. It seems, however, that once the image has faded (such images last for up to 4 minutes), the memory seems no better than the memories of those who do not possess eidetic imagery. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

19 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory Sensory memory is a very brief (lasting one-half to 1 second) but extensive memory for sensory events. Short-term memory (STM) is more limited in capacity than sensory memory but lasts longer (10 to 20 seconds). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

20 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory The initial 10- to 20-second STM period often leads to a second phase, working memory, during which attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on the material at hand. Long-term memory (LTM) is the memory stage that has a very large capacity and the capability to store information relatively permanently. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

21 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory The stages-of-memory model stresses the importance of rehearsal or practice in this transfer. Items that are rehearsed seem more likely to be transferred than unrehearsed items. Memories may not be retrievable from LTM because they have faded or because of interference by other memories. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

22 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory We use maintenance rehearsal when we want to save or maintain a memory for a short period. Participants who are instructed to remember a list use elaborative rehearsal, which adds meaning to material that we want to remember. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

23 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Models of Memory Proactive interference occurs when old material interferes with the retrieval of material learned more recently. Retroactive interference occurs when recently learned material interferes with the retrieval of material learned earlier. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

24 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

25 Trial-and-error learning Two-choice discrimination learning tasks
Harry Harlow: Learning to Learn The case for “practice makes perfect” not only in learning initial tasks, but also in facilitating or interfering later learning: TRANSFER OF LEARNING Learning ‘sets’ Trial-and-error learning Two-choice discrimination learning tasks Several in a row demonstrate increased success beyond chance (trial & error) Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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Example: RED VS BLUE 2-CHOICE DISCRIMINATION TASK. Position randomized! Trial Right Left response 1 RED* BLUE + 2 BLUE* RED - 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

27 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Later learning task Trial Right Left response 1 Circle Square* - 2 Square Circle* + 3 4 5 6 7 8 stop 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

28 Other Approaches To Memory
The levels-of-processing model proposed by Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart represents a radical departure from the stages-of-memory model. Craik and Lockhart proposed that there is only one type of memory store and that its capacity is enormous, if not unlimited. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

29 Other Approaches To Memory
A very shallow or simple level might involve processing only the physical characteristics of an object. At a deeper or more complex level of processing, we consider additional characteristics such as the fact that the object has pages. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

30 Other Approaches To Memory
Recent research has demonstrated that there is more than one type of long-term memory. Four types of LTM have been identified: procedural, semantic, episodic, and priming (or implicit) memory. Each serves to store a different kind of information. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

31 Other Approaches To Memory
Procedural memories are the memories we use in making responses and performing skilled actions. Our fund of general knowledge is stored in semantic memory. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

32 Other Approaches To Memory
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is a condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory. Episodic memory is memory of one’s personal experiences. Flashbulb memories are detailed memories of situations that are very arousing, surprising, or emotional. The study of flashbulb memories has provided information about episodic memory. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

33 Other Approaches To Memory
Priming or implicit memory is unconscious memory processing in which prior exposure to stimulus items may aid subsequent learning. Priming appears to facilitate procedural and semantic memory processes by improving our ability to identify perceptual stimuli or objects we encounter. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

34 Other Approaches To Memory
A series of studies by S. Sternberg suggested that retrieval from STM is not instantaneous; we do have to scan our STM, locate an item, and process it. The process of scanning items in STM to retrieve a specific memory is rather straightforward, but retrieval of long-term memories is a different story. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

35 Other Approaches To Memory
Depending on the situation, various processes may be involved. For example, we have to distinguish between retrieval of memories in recognition tasks and retrieval of memories in recall tasks. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

36 Other Approaches To Memory
Semantic networks are formed by related concepts (called nodes) that are linked. The process of activating a network constitutes the retrieval process. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

37 Other Approaches To Memory
Not all of our stored memories are arranged in semantic networks in which one concept triggers a network of related items. There are numerous occasions when we are required to use a grouping or cluster of knowledge about a sequence of events or an object. Such clusters of knowledge or typical ways of thinking about things are called schemas. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

38 Other Approaches To Memory
The encoding specificity hypothesis states that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was originally encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved. In short, specific cues are encoded, and these cues, or very similar ones, should be present when retrieval is attempted. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

39 Other Approaches To Memory
The possibility that eyewitness reports may be inaccurate has stimulated a large amount of research. One of the most startling findings concerns what can happen to a memory once it has been retrieved. Earlier we saw that when a memory is retrieved from LTM, it appears to be placed in STM for conscious processing. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

40 Other Approaches To Memory
While this memory is in STM, however, it is possible to add new information to it and then reencode the modified memory. The next time you retrieve the new memory, your report may not correspond exactly to what actually happened because the new memory now contains the additional information. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

41 Other Approaches To Memory
Material learned in a particular physiological state is recalled best in the same physiological state, a phenomenon known as state-dependent learning. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

42 Other Approaches To Memory
One of the most dramatic and significant controversies in recent years involves reports of the sudden recall of repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse. Psychotherapy is the most common vehicle for the retrieval of memories of childhood abuse (generally incest). Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

43 Other Approaches To Memory
Many therapists rely on memory-recovery techniques that they believe help their patients remember repressed memories of abuse. The theory that memories can be repressed is a cornerstone of the debate. Yet, after 70 years of looking, researchers have not found evidence that the process actually exists. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

44 Other Approaches To Memory
It seems possible that we can lose contact with memories for long periods of time; however, repression is an overused explanation of such memory failures. The more likely explanations are normal forgetting, deliberate avoidance, and infantile amnesia, or the inability to form memories early in life. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

45 Other Approaches To Memory
There is no evidence that people who report memories of abuse are involved in deliberate deception. Perhaps the major problem in evaluating memories of childhood sexual abuse is that there is no way to distinguish true repressed memories from false ones. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

46 Other Approaches To Memory
Because false memories “occur in many different contexts and can be quite compelling,” several investigators view such occurrences as memory illusions. Even though memory illusions appear to operate similarly to other normal memory processes, there are some differences between them and true memories. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

47 Other Approaches To Memory
Perhaps the most apparent difference concerns the amount of detail that is recalled: greater detail is recalled with true memories. Daniel Schachter and his colleagues reported data suggesting that the right frontal lobe plays an important role in creating memory illusions. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

48 Techniques for Improving Memory
Mnemonic devices are procedures for associating new information with previously stored memories. If you create and use mental pictures or images of the items you are studying, you will remember them better. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

49 Techniques for Improving Memory
The method of loci refers to the use of familiar locations as cues to recall items that have been associated with them. The pegword technique is the use of familiar words or names as cues to recall items that have been associated with them. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

50 Techniques for Improving Memory
Since the time of the first experiment on grouping, psychologists have consistently found that we tend to group or chunk items when we recall them. Items that are not very meaningful or relevant to the learner are not learned as well or as easily as more meaningful or relevant items. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

51 Techniques for Improving Memory
Some people create special codes to help them learn material that lacks relevance. They code the less relevant material in a meaningful form and then remember the coded items. Acronyms and acrostics are two popular coding techniques. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

52 Techniques for Improving Memory
An acronym is a word formed by the initial letter(s) of the items to be remembered. An acrostic is a verse or saying (often unusual or humorous) in which the first letter(s) of each word stands for a bit of information. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

53 The Physiological Basis of Learning and Memory
Physical trauma may result in a loss of memory known as amnesia. Anterograde amnesia refers to the inability to store new memories after a traumatic event. Anterograde amnesia can result from damage to the hippocampus. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

54 The Physiological Basis of Learning and Memory
Retrograde amnesia refers to a loss of memories that were stored before a traumatic event. Based on the notion that memories must “set” or “consolidate” to be stored in LTM, the consolidation hypothesis predicts that memories that are interfered with before they have consolidated will not be stored. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007

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