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AT/IT & Distance Learning ADA Symposium 2002 May 8, 2002 David Klein & David Dawson Law, Health Policy & Disability Center.

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Presentation on theme: "AT/IT & Distance Learning ADA Symposium 2002 May 8, 2002 David Klein & David Dawson Law, Health Policy & Disability Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 AT/IT & Distance Learning ADA Symposium 2002 May 8, 2002 David Klein & David Dawson Law, Health Policy & Disability Center

2 Overview  Distance learning concepts and principles  Web-based distance learning  Design of distance learning  Employment Services Training project  Our findings ® Design of Web-based distance learning ® Designing for people with disabilities

3 Definition of distance learning  Students separated from instructor by distance  Technology used to bridge the gap

4 Principles of Learning  Learning is an active process ® Student has to DO something  Learning takes effort ® More effort makes better learning  Learning comes about by interaction with a community or environment ® Learning requires external guidance ® Remember that the focus is people, not technology

5 Distance learning vs. standup/classroom learning  Similarities ® Learning can be active ® Learning takes effort ® Students interact with an environment that includes a knowledge community

6 Distance learning vs. standup/classroom learning  Differences ® Asynchronous learning common  Students and instructor are not working at the same time ® Technologies ® Examples  Independent/guided study  E-mail  Bulletin boards

7 Distance learning Media  Paper  Audio/Videotape  CD-ROM  Web  Broadcast/Fiber optic television (ICN)  Electronic media are potentially the most accessible

8 Distance learning for people with disabilities  Technology can be a mitigating factor to reduce dependence on one sensory modality (e.g., hearing)  Asynchronous learning can help those who might communicate slowly or with effort  Mobility can be less of an issue

9 Distance Learning  Web-based distance learning Web-based distance learning  Tools for Web-based distance learning Tools for Web-based distance learning  The design of Web-based distance learning The design of Web-based distance learning  Employment Services Training Project Employment Services Training Project  ES Services – What we learned ES Services – What we learned  DL and people with disabilities DL and people with disabilities  ES Services – Student comments ES Services – Student comments

10 Types of Web-based distance learning  Static Web pages (mostly linear) ® Like reading a book  Hyperlinked Web pages (nonlinear) ® Will students read every page?  Activities ® How do you provide good feedback?  Instructor-led ® How does an instructor interact with students?  Autonomous ® Difficult and expensive to develop

11 Tools for Web-based distance learning activities  E-mail!  Telephone (that’s right)  Bulletin board/Listserv  Chat/Instant messaging  Calendar  Whiteboard  Audio/Video (live or archived)

12 Accommodations tools for distance learning – Software  Screen readers ® JAWS ® Windows Eyes ® outSPOKEN  Talking Web browsers ® Home Page Reader ® WeMedia Browser  Voice recognition ® Dragon Naturally Speaking (Dragon Dictate) ® ViaVoice

13 Accommodations tools for distance learning – System Tools  Windows: Control Panel->Accessories-> Accessibility  Macintosh: Control Panels (Mouse, Monitors)  Keyboard shortcuts ® Microsoft: eyboard/keyboardsearch.asp eyboard/keyboardsearch.asp ® Netscape: ers/browsing/shortcuts.html ers/browsing/shortcuts.html  StickyKeys  BounceKeys  SlowKeys

14 Accommodations tools for distance learning – System Tools  Mouse ® Slow mouse movement ® Double-click speed or single click ® Change the size of mouse arrow/animations  Monitor screen ® Screen density ® Colors – black & white, high contrast  Magnifier

15 Accommodations tools for distance learning – Devices  Trackball  Ergonomic keyboard  Braille reader

16 Instructional design for distance learning  Design  Develop  Evaluate  Deploy Design Develop Evaluate Deploy

17 Why design?  Start with effective instruction  Lack of immediate access to a live instructor, so problems can escalate quickly  Can get the delivery system out of the way and put the content to the front  Can address the widest audience under the widest conditions (human factors)  Not a guarantee for success, but increases the chances for it

18 Instructional design – Design  Needs analysis  Audience/Resources analysis  Content analysis  Task analysis  Results – parameters defined Instructional Design

19 Instructional design – Development  Write content  Produce text materials (Web pages)  Develop dynamic components ® Quizzes ® Evaluations ® Hypertext links ® Interface  Produce graphics and other multimedia components  Integrate  Develop instructor tools Instructional Design

20 Instructional design – Evaluation  Formative evaluations ® Evaluate analyses in design phase ® Evaluate content – subject matter experts ® Evaluate interactive/dynamic components – instructional designers ® Evaluate interface elements – designers ® Evaluate for accessibility – people with disabilities ® Evaluate the integrated instruction – instructors, students  Pilot  Summative evaluation Instructional Design

21 Instructional design – Evaluation for people with disabilities  Text-based browser (Lynx)  Turn off frames, images, stylesheets, sounds  Use keyboard only  Use accommodations tools  Include people with disabilities in evaluations

22 Instructional design – Deployment  Pilot  Develop student packet ® Login and site use instructions ® Minimum requirements (hardware, software) ® Contact information ® Calendar ® E-mail, paper, CD  First course  Modifications Instructional Design

23 Employment Services Training Project (Region VII CRP-RCEP)  Demo Demo  Design Design  Development decisions Development decisions  Features Features  What we learned What we learned

24 ES Training – Demo  Can view demo   Click on “Already have a password”  Type “User”  Password “Demo”  Click on the Help link in the sidebar (on the left) and click on Course Tour for details about how students interact with the Web-based instruction ES Training

25 ES Training – Design  Needs ® Covers a 4-state region, in place of a 2-day standup training in Kansas City ® Can be offered more than twice a year ® Must be accessible ES Training

26 ES Training – Design  Audience/Resources ® Employment counselors and job coaches who work with people with disabilities ® High school education ® High turnover; probably about 9 month average ® People people (prefer to work with people rather than technology) ® Technological resources relatively low; older computers and slow Internet connections (phone lines) ® Usually training during work hours ES Training

27 ES Training – Design  Content ® Basic skills for employment counseling ® Basic concepts, such as values and person- centered language ® Getting to know the customer, how to support the customer ® Problem-solving ® Customer satisfaction ES Training

28 ES Training – Design  Tasks ® Periodic assessments (quizzes) and course evaluations ® Writing projects that help trainees organize and document their work activities ES Training

29 ES Training – Development Decisions  Web-based training ® Saves traveling ® Allows for interactive instructor-student feedback with writing projects as well as immediate, computer feedback on quizzes ® Quick turnaround possible on feedback ® Can be instructor led (good for interpersonal contact) ES Training

30 ES Training – Development Decisions  Active Server Pages with database - Pros ® Student work saved online  Don’t have to print work  Can work from any computer with Web access  Students can return to any page and view their last save (like a word processor) ® Students can log on  Work privately  Keeps track of student work  Provides instructors with student usage information ® Communication can be immediate ® Very flexible ® Very accessible ES Training

31 ES Training – Development Decisions  Active Server Pages - Cons ® Long development time – includes time for “debugging” ® Requires developer with knowledge of ASP (we learned on our own) ® Puts a load on the server, which could be an issue for a large class (e.g., hundreds of trainees) ES Training

32 ES Training – Features  Internal e-mail  Internal bulletin board  Guided instruction ® Students click Next button to move to next page ® Application keeps track of where students have left off; students can’t skip pages ® Instructors can require that students not advance until they receive feedback on assignments ® Students can skip back to any previous page at any time ES Training

33 ES Training – Features  Participants can post personal information (e.g., autobiographies, employment details)  Glossary  File Cabinet – resources and references referred to often during training  Instructor tools ES Training

34 ES Training – Evaluations What We Learned  Important to start with good instruction ® Our writers were good trainers with a lot of experience and the high quality of the content is reflected in the evaluations  E-mail is vital, both internal and external ® We require that students have e-mail before signing up  Bulletin board hasn’t been well used  Tends to be time-consuming for the instructors

35 ES Training – Evaluations What We Learned  Carefully crafted information that students receive prior to training is essential ® A calendar with due dates for assignments ® Times when instructor will provide feedback ® Detailed instructions on how access the site, log in, and how to troubleshoot should be provided in multiple formats (e.g., paper, e-mail, online)  Training should be done on how to use the site before students start content (make it required)

36 ES Training – Evaluations What We Learned  Instructors ® Need training; mentoring with experienced instructor works best  Using the interface  Responding to student needs  Content ® Technical proficiency, such as knowing how to get on the Internet from a hotel room or knowing how to use e- mail ® Instructor tools need to have a lot of options but also be speedy (repeated complaint)

37 ES Training – Evaluations What We Learned  Students wanted feedback from instructors immediately  Most students would prefer standup training, but online was an acceptable alternative  Testing for accessibility should be done with accommodations tools; piloting should include people with disabilities  Trainees with disabilities really like it

38 ES Training – Results  Number of students registered so far: 114  Number completed: 88  Percentage completed: 77%  Target percentage completed: 60%

39 ES Training – Exit Survey Questions  I have learned something new about being an Employment Specialist in this training. – 100% strongly agree or agree  This training was satisfying. – 100% strongly agree or agree  I would take another distance learning course like this one if it were offered. – 81% agree or strongly agree, 19% not sure

40 ES Training – Types of Attrition  Students don’t complete course and no notice to instructor  Students leaving employment or getting transferred/promoted  Some supervisors take the course to view the content and then stop when satisfied

41 Distance Learning that Includes People with Disabilities  Know Web accessibility guidelines ® Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) guidelines: ® Bobby:  Use technologies in electronic text format ® HTML and text (.txt) files  Minimize multimedia  Have a text alternative planned and available for multimedia technologies  Provide a fallback procedure when technology doesn’t work

42 Distance Learning that Includes People with Disabilities  Think simplicity ® Navigation ® Provide guidance  If instruction is designed for student exploration, consider allowing students to take a guided path ® Make directions clear and brief ® Reduce decision making and student options when it isn’t called for in the content ® Minimize number of fonts, font sizes, colors, and focal points on a page ® Use plain language

43 Distance Learning that Includes People with Disabilities  Selective redundancy ® Navigation should be consistent ® Page layout should be the same or similar from one page to the next ® Similar tasks should use similar procedures, when possible  Playoff between making the instruction “smart” versus speed and development time

44 Distance Learning that Includes People with Disabilities  Provide opportunity for communication (student-student-instructor) ® E-mail ® Bulletin boards  Yet avoid distractions ® Links to offsite Web pages ® Bulletin board “emoticons” :-)

45 Distance Learning that Includes People with Disabilities  If possible, select students ® Self-starters ® Motivated learners ® Independent workers  Instructors need as much design and development consideration as students

46 ES Training – Sample student comments  Student exit comments are overall positive.  Most praise the instructors for the quality of the content and the feedback they provided.  Some note that they’d prefer standup training but that this was a good alternative.  Negative comments tend to focus on specifics such as how a button works or to avoid scheduling the course with a timeout for a conference in the middle.

47 ES Training – Sample student comments  “From my perspective as a person with severe hearing impairment. This training has been affective for me, because I'm able to participate more. I learn more by using technology as a delivery system, and would be interested in learning more about your on line accredited courses.”

48 ES Training – Sample student comments  “Although this training was beneficial and I feel I have learned something, I think I would have gained more from interacting with others and hearing about their experiences. The computer just doesn't capture that.”  “I spent more than the three to four hours per week working on lessons and not because I had trouble managing my own time, feedback was not happening quick enough for me.”

49 ES Training – Sample student comments  “[T]his is the first on-line course I've taken. I loved it because it was well designed for on-line presentation and because it felt like a good use of the time and money provided by my employer. The only down side of the class I can think of is that we as classmates don't really get well acquainted.”  “Once I started this class it was hard for me to stop.”

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