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Preparing for Nuclear Renaissance and the Korean Model The 9 th ROK-UN Joint Conference on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Issues: Nuclear Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "Preparing for Nuclear Renaissance and the Korean Model The 9 th ROK-UN Joint Conference on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Issues: Nuclear Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparing for Nuclear Renaissance and the Korean Model The 9 th ROK-UN Joint Conference on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Issues: Nuclear Renaissance and International Peace and Security Jeju, Republic of Korea 2-3 December 2010 Bong-Geun Jun, Ph.D. IFANS, Seoul 1

2 Contents 1.Nuclear Renaissance and Why Now 2.Nonproliferation Requirements 3. The Korean Case 4. Preparations for Newcomers 5. Koreas Role for Global Renaissance 2

3 [1] Nuclear Renaissance Current Status of Civilian Nuclear Energy -441 nuclear power plants in 29 countries -14 % of world electricity production=5.7% of total primary energy consumption Global Nuclear Renaissance - NPP construction: 33 in 2007, 66 now - 65 new countries considering or planning nuclear energy - South Korea: 20 now, 8 under construction, 40 in China: 10 now, 24 under construction - Global: Southeast Asian, South Asian, Middle Eastern countries 3

4 World Nuclear Power Outlook 2030 [Source: IAEA, Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2030, 2008 Edition (High estimate) ] 113 GW 175GW North America Western Europe Eastern Europe & Russia Asia 48 GW 119GW 83GW 268GW 122GW 150GW Africa 2GW14GW Latin America 4 GW 20GW GW GW Two-fold Increase (14.2%) (14.4%) 4

5 Why Now? Climate change: Greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations Energy (in)security: uncertain fossil-fuel prices, unstable supply, limited stock Safe operation record of NPP Nuclear Energy Dark Age : Three Mile Island accident (USA, 1979), Chernobyl accident (Ukraine, 1986), Indian nuclear test (1974) Increasing electricity demand: industrialization, per person consumption, desalination Nuclear bandwagon, state prestige(?) 5

6 [2] Nonproliferation Requirements NPT §4. the inalienable right to peaceful use of nuclear energy, but with nonproliferation conditionality (1) Safeguards -NPT, IAEA Safeguards Agreement, Additional Protocol (2) Export Control -NSG, UNSCR 1540, CSI (3) Nuclear Security - CPPNM, IAEA INFCIRC. 225, UNSCR 1887, GICNT, Nuclear Security Summit Communique/Work Plan 6

7 Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime NPT : Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons IAEA : International Atomic Energy Agency CSA : Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement NSG : Nuclear Suppliers Group CPPNM : Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material CTBT : Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty FMCT : Fissile Material Cut off Treaty NPT (75.4) Horizontal Proliferation: Vertical Proliferation Safeguards Export Control Physical Protection IAEA CSA Zangger Committee, NSG UNSCR 1540 CPPNM CTBT (99.12) IAEA Guidelines (INFCIRC/225) FMCT Additional Protocol AG : Australian Group (96.10) BWC : Biological Weapons Convention (87.6) CWC : Chemical Weapons Convention (97.4) MTCR : Missile Technology Control Regime (01.3) Wassenaar Arrangement (96.7) Other Export Control Regimes 7

8 Recent Positions on NE and Nonproliferation LAquila G-8 Statement on Nonproliferation (2009.7) 7. … We are committed to promoting nuclear non- proliferation, safeguards, safety and security in cooperation with the IAEA and welcome new initiatives in emerging nuclear energy countries on nuclear education and training as well as institutional capacity building in these fields. … UNSC Resolution 1887 (2009.9) 11. Encourages efforts to ensure development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy by countries seeking to maintain or develop their capacities in this field in a framework that reduces proliferation risk and adheres to the highest international standards for safeguards, security, and safety; 8

9 2010 NPT Review Conference Final Document 52. The Conference confirms that, when developing nuclear energy, including nuclear power, the use of nuclear energy should be accompanied by commitments to and ongoing implementation of safeguards, as well as appropriate and effective levels of safety and security, in accordance with IAEA standards and consistent with the national legislation and respective international obligations of States. 9

10 Koreas Position Basic bargain among the 3 pillars in NPT - nuclear disarmament, nonproliferation, PUNE are mutually reinforcing and complementary - Presidents Prague speech(2009.4) PUNE with conditionality - PUNE with strict nonproliferation and SG obligations - Access to nuclear fuel cycle technology: multilateral approaches should not deny or limit the legitimate right to PUNE; conditions of objective and economic needs, peaceful purposes and full fulfillment of nonproliferation obligations - More attention to the back-end nuclear fuel cycle 10

11 [3] The Korean Case Nuclear Power Generation 2009, 20 units 17.7 GWe, 34% of electricity supply(base), 24 % of capacity , 35 units 35 GWe, 59% of supply KEPCO average cost 68 kwon(5cents)/KWH: Nuclear 39 Kwon(3cents) vs. Coal 53 Kwon vs. LNG 143 Kwon Public consensus for NE: Cheap, reliable and high quality electricity supply for fast economic growth and high-tech industries 11

12 History of Nuclear Energy Development 1958 Atomic Energy Act 1959 Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) 1962 First Reactor: TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor, General Atomics 1978 First NPP: Kori Unit 1, Westinghouse 1958 Atomic Energy Act 1959 Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) 1962 First Reactor: TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor, General Atomics 1978 First NPP: Kori Unit 1, Westinghouse 12

13 Koreas NE Export NPP Export Strategy (2009) -To export 10 units by 2020, 80 units by 2030 Plan (20% of 430 new NPPs projection) -Market: UAE, Turkey, India, Jordan, South Africa, China, Vietnam. … - Strength: Proven technology, world-best operation rate, price, safety, construction period NPP 4 units of 1400 MW(APR 1400) reactor to UAE at $20 billion( ): Research reactor to Jordan at $132 mil. (2010.3) 13

14 UAE Export Selected as a Commercial Nuclear Reactor in UAE (27 Dec 2009) Reactor Model: APR Units Construction site: western Abu Dhabi UAE Export Selected as a Commercial Nuclear Reactor in UAE (27 Dec 2009) Reactor Model: APR Units Construction site: western Abu Dhabi UAE Nuclear Power Plant 14

15 Core type : Open Pool Type Multipurpose Research Reactor (5 MWth ) Purposes : Training, Radioisotope Production, etc. Core type : Open Pool Type Multipurpose Research Reactor (5 MWth ) Purposes : Training, Radioisotope Production, etc. Project Schedule : Selected as preferred bidder Contract signing ceremony on March 2010 Detailed Design by 2012 Built on Jordan University of Science and Technology by 2015 Project Schedule : Selected as preferred bidder Contract signing ceremony on March 2010 Detailed Design by 2012 Built on Jordan University of Science and Technology by 2015 Jordan Research and Test Reactor 15

16 Success Factors of the Korean Model State-led strategic planning and early start Cooperation with and support from U.S. - US-Korea 123 agreement( ) Partnership with IAEA Focus on Civilian Use only - South vs. North Korea Human resources: U.S.-educated engineers, researchers, R&D centers, universities 16

17 Koreas Nuclear Infrastructure Ministry of Education, Science and Technology: nuclear policy, intl cooperation, safety, safeguards/security div. -KAERI: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute -KINS: Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety -KINAC: Korea institute of Nonproliferation and Control -KONICOF: Korea Nuclear International Cooperation Fd. Ministry of Knowledge Economy: nuclear industry, export promotion -KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) -KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) -Doosan Heavy Industry: nuclear key components - Civil engineering firms 17

18 [4] Preparations for Newcomers Typical Criteria for Decisions Economics: costs/benefits Safety: nuclear accident Environment: climate change, nuclear waste Nonproliferation: capability, intentions, security invironment, infrastructure(law, culture, public) Other Major Considerations Energy Security Technological and Economic Advancement Politics: security, prestige factor 18

19 Cost-Benefit Analysis of NE BenefitsCosts and Risks Energy security - Economical and reliable electricity supply for industry, desalination and personal consumption Low-emission energy for environment Technological, industrial advancement and spill- over effect Prestige effect Proliferation risks Nuclear fuel supply and spent-fuel management problems Opportunity cost (lost investment for other renewable energy resources) Costs for nuclear safety, safeguard and security 19

20 Obstacles and Costs to New Comers Costs for Nuclear safety and security infrastructure - regulations, institutions, culture Civilian nuclear technology capability Regional politics: rivalries, domestic and regional instability factors Nuclear proliferation concerns in the region Nuclear fuel cycle activities: nuclear fuel supply, spent fuel management Economic and present needs 20

21 Preparations for NE 1.National Nuclear Energy Roadmap Energy needs, financing, national consensus National Nuclear safety, safeguards, security, export control regime: Human resources development plan Fuel-cycle issues: fuel supply, spent-fuel management 2. International Cooperation Nonproliferation preparations, commitment Cooperation with IAEA: technical, safeguards/security Bilateral cooperation agreements: - ex. U.S. 123 agreement: EURATOM/Japan, Standard 123 model, UAE models 21

22 Preparations for NE 3. Regional, Multilateral Cooperation Joint solutions for nuclear power generation, NPP sites, fuel-supply, spent-fuel managment, safeguards, joint R&D center EURATOM model Nuclear-weapons Free Zone Implementing UNSC 1540, 1887, Nuclear Security Summit Communiqué 22

23 5. Koreas Role for Nuclear Renaissance the Korean Model for Newcomers Contributions to the global nonproliferation regime - hosting 2011 GICNT, 2012 NSS -Nonproliferation assistance to Newcomers -Responsible exporter of nuclear energy Development of future & sustainable nuclear energy systems -participating in GIF, GNEP -Developing proliferation-resistant and sustainable future nuclear energy system 23


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