Presentation on theme: "Regional Issues Southeast Asia among most vulnerable to climate change. Region is a “victim” of developed world in many ways—breathes dirty air. Individual,"— Presentation transcript:
Regional Issues Southeast Asia among most vulnerable to climate change. Region is a “victim” of developed world in many ways—breathes dirty air. Individual, local, national economic activity as important as multinational businesses. Forests, coasts, rivers, farmland at risk. Question: How to develop economically, environmentally?
Laos: Current Issues Deforestation: forest cover down from 70% to about 40% (U.N.). Soil erosion: worst in highlands. Lack of clean water: progress being made. Sanitation, liquid and solid waste. Overfarming—not letting land rest, fertilizing to much. Government working with U.N., others.
Laos: Looming Issues Hydropower: Who builds, who pays, who is displaced, who covers secondary costs? Mining: Copper, tin, gold, gypsum: Waste pollutants to land, air, water. Who profits? Who pays secondary costs? Manufacturing, garment-making, cement: Polluting byproducts to land, water, air. Industrial production growing by more than 10% a year recently.
Vietnam: Current Issues Deforestation and soil erosion, but some progress here. Water pollution & overfishing. Groundwater pollution/drinking water. Urban, industrial pollution. Solid, liquid waste treatment, disposal. Road-building, other construction. Increasing air pollution in urban areas.
Vietnam: Looming Issues Extraction pollution: coal, phosphates, manganese, oil and gas, timber. Will businesses be responsible? Manufacturing pollution: food, clothes and shoes, glass, cement, fertilizer, paper—all generate pollution of air, soil, water. How will costs be covered? Air pollution from more vehicles. Loss of coastal habitat as oceans rise. Government increasingly active.
Cambodia: Current Issues Illegal logging, deforestation. Strip mining for precious stones. Fishery destruction in west. Overfishing. Soil erosion, overcultivation. Lack of safe water. Sanitation, liquid and solid waste. River pollution, silting.
Cambodia: Looming Issues Mining of iron, manganese, bauxite, phosphates, oil and gas production, rubber—pollution, cleanup costs. Manufacturing—clothing, shoes— beginning to generate industrial pollution. Vehicles beginning to affect air in some places.
Common Questions Labor force growing quickly in all three countries. Jobs needed. All three need exports to build economies. All three need to preserve forests, other natural areas to protect tourist revenue. How can governments encourage business growth, sustain environment? Much depends on developed world as market, provider of technology, expertise.
Climate Change Deforestation, changing land use accounts for 75% of region’s greenhouse gas emissions! Power generation GHG emissions are increasing—can early switch be made to alternative energy? Region has opportunity to be world leader in adapting to climate change. Will require regional cooperation.
Climate Change Has Arrived Coastlines vulnerable to rising oceans, more frequent storms, oil and gas spills. Rivers vulnerable to damming, industrial pollution, urban pollution. Loss of forests means loss of jobs, income, tourism, greenhouse gas absorbers. Heat waves, droughts, floods, storms will hurt agricultural production. GDP will fall unless action is taken.
Business & Climate Region needs technology to deal with problems. Business needs to make a profit. How to put the two together? International aid, domestic incentives can begin to make it work. Poverty reduction must be in the mix. Education must be in the mix. Sovereignty has to be preserved for plans to be practical.
Regional Issues Recap: Water Scale up water conservation and management; and widen use of integrated water management, including flood control and prevention schemes, flood early warning system, irrigation improvement, and demand-side management.
Regional Issues: Agriculture Strengthen local adaptive capacity through better climate information, research and development on heat- resistant crop varieties, early warning systems, and efficient irrigation systems; and explore innovative risk-sharing instruments such as index-based insurance schemes.
Regional Issues: Forestry Enhance early warning systems and awareness-raising programs to prepare for more frequent forest fires; and implement aggressive public-private partnerships for reforestation and afforestation.
Regional Issues: Health Expand or establish early warning systems for disease outbreaks, health surveillance, awareness-raising campaigns, and infectious disease control programs.
Regional Issues: Infrastructure Introduce “climate proofing” in transport- related investments and infrastructure, starting with public buildings.
Regional Issues: Marine Implement integrated coastal zone management plans, including mangrove conservation and planting. Source for recap: The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review April 2009