1Fiscal Policy Lecture notes 10 Instructor: MELTEM INCE
2Fiscal PolicyFiscal policy is the use of the federal budget to achievemacroeconomic objectives, such as full employment,sustained long-term economic growth, and price levelstability.Expenditures are classified as transfer payments,purchases of goods and services, and debt interest.Transfer payments are by far the largest expenditure,and are sources of persistent growth in expenditures.
3Fiscal PolicyThe federal government’s budget balance equals tax revenueminus expenditure.If tax revenues exceed expenditures, the government has abudget surplus.If expenditures exceed tax revenues, the governmenthas a budget deficit.If tax revenues equal expenditures, the government hasa balanced budget.
4Supply Side EffectsGovernment debt is the total amount that the governmenthas borrowed—that the government owes. It is theaccumulation of all past deficits.Fiscal policy has important effects on employment andpotential GDP called supply side effects.
6The Supply Side: Investment, Saving, and Economic Growth A quick refresher of the national incomeaccounting equations is needed.GDP = C + I + G + X – M.GDP = C + S + T.From these two equations, you can see thatI = S + T – G + M – X.
7The Supply Side: Investment, Saving, and Economic Growth The equationI = S + T – G + M – Xsays that investment, I, is financed by:Private domestic saving, S,Foreign saving, M – X,Government saving, T – G
8The Supply Side: Investment, Saving, and Economic Growth Call saving S plus foreign saving M – X privatesaving, PS.Then investment is financed by the sum ofprivate saving and government saving.That isI = PS + T – G
9The Supply Side: Investment, Saving, and Economic Growth If taxes exceed government purchases, T > G,the government has a budget surplus and governmentsaving is positive.If taxes are less than government purchases,T< G, the government budget is in deficit andgovernment saving is negative.
11The Supply Side: Investment, Saving, and Economic Growth Because government saving is part of total saving, the directeffect of a government budget deficit is a decrease in totalsaving.When total saving decreases, the real interest rate risesand the equilibrium quantity of investment decreases.The tendency to a government budget deficit todecrease investment is called a crowding-out effect.
13Stabilizing the Business Cycle Fiscal policy action that seek to stabilize the business cyclework by changing aggregate demand.These policy actions can be:DiscretionaryAutomaticDiscretionary fiscal policy is a policy action that isinitiated by an act of Congress.Automatic fiscal policy is a change in fiscal policytriggered by the state of the economy.
14Stabilizing the Business Cycle The government purchases multiplier is the magnification effect of a change in government purchases of goods and services on aggregate demand.The tax multiplier is the magnification effect a change in taxes on aggregate demand.An increase in taxes decreases disposable income, which decreases consumption expenditure and decreases aggregate expenditure and real GDP.
20Stabilizing the Business Cycle Expansionary fiscal policy is an increase ingovernment purchases or a decrease in taxes.Contractionary fiscal policy is a decrease ingovernment purchases or an increase in taxes.