Presentation on theme: "The Western Frontier A Look at the Wild West. Introduction WHAT IS THE FRONTIER? It is the furthest extent of settled land It is the open range of the."— Presentation transcript:
The Western Frontier A Look at the Wild West
Introduction WHAT IS THE FRONTIER? It is the furthest extent of settled land It is the open range of the midwest and west
The belief that the United States was destined to control north America from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to Mexico WHAT IS MANIFEST DESTINY?
WHY MOVE WESTWARD? Countrygrowth and pride Landfresh, cheap; a refuge Wealthmining and agriculture Adventurenew challenges; leave the past behind Religious freedom
13 Original Colonies War for Independence (1783) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Red River Basin (1818) Florida Purchase (1819) Mexican Annexation (1845) Oregon Country (1846) Mexican Cession (1848) Gadsden Purchase (1853)
MOVING WEST A. The U.S. controlled the continent from coast to coast, but the land in the middle was not settled or developed
B. The Government Passes Legislation to grant land 1. Pacific Railway Acts of 1862& 1864 gave railroad companies 10 square milesof land on each side of thetrack for every mile of track laid >> they resold theland to settlers
2. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) distributed millions of acres of land to state governments >> they could sell the land to found land- grant colleges 3. Homestead Act (1862) offered 160 acres of land tosettlers who a. were 21 or heads of families
b. were citizens or immigrants who had applied for citizenship c. paid a $10 registration fee d. built a house within 6 months e. farmed the land for 5 years before claiming ownership
4. Oklahoma Act of 1889 opened the last of the frontier to new settlers; the Sooners sneaked intothe territory before the official start and claimed the best land
Base camp before the 1889 land run. Boomers at Arkansas City, Kansas, Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
Boomers on Kansas state line, April 19th, Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
Waiting for land run at Purcell, Oklahoma Territory, Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
C. People Who Moved West 1. Speculators: people who bought large areas of land in hopes of reselling it for a profit 2. Homesteaders: people whorushed to accept offers offree land
3. Exodusters: African- American settlers who moved west; took their name from the biblical account of the Jews escaping slavery in Egypt 4. Solid Folk: people who settled down if they liked itor returned east if they didnt
This poster urges Exodusters to move from Kentucky to Kansas. Kansas State Historical Society
"Negro Exodusters en route to Kansas, fleeing from the yellow fever, " Photomural from engraving. Harpers Weekly,
Exodusters waiting for a steamboat to carry them westward in the late 1870's.
5. Boomers: people who kept relocating from town to town looking for a quick fortune, but seldom staying long enough to make a living D. Problems Facing Settlers 1. The extremely poor couldntafford the free land
2. Land companies claimed most of the land, not individuals 3. Resettlement of the Native Americans 4. The Anglos (white easterners) overwhelmed the Mexicanos (Spanish- speaking westerners) who lived in the area
5. Scarce resources (water, trees, etc.) 6. Harsh climate (blizzards in winter, heat in summer, prairie fires, insects) 7. Squatters moved onto landthat did not belong to them
FARMING THE WEST A. Overcoming Problems 1. Irrigation systems used dams, canals and sloping fields to control water flow 2. Windmills drew water from below ground 3. Settlers burned dried buffalo manure and built houses of sod
4. The government created theDepartment of Agricultureto help the farmer B. New Farming Techniques 1. New equipment: self- bindingharvester, combine, chilled-iron plow (James Oliver),seed-drill 2. Barbed wire
3. Bonanza farms: farms ownedby large companies and operated like factories with machinery, professional managers and specialized laborers 4. Dry farming: planting crops that require less water and keeping fields free of weeds
Aerial view of bonanza farm in the late 1800s to early 1900s.
C. Complaints of the Farmers 1. Low agricultural prices – increased output, competition 2. Insufficient and expensive credit – high interest rates, defaults on loans 3. High rates charged by middlemen
4. High industrial prices – machinery, etc. 5. Tariffs favored industry and hurt agriculture 6. Demonetizing of silver (no more minted coins made fromsilver)
D. Responses of the Farmers 1. Granger Movement (Patrons ofHusbandry) – an organizationof local farmers clubs toprotect their interests a. cooperatives: groups offarmers who pooled their resources to share work and buy supplies
b. wholesale: buying or selling something in large quantities to lower prices c. worked to advance political interest of farmers d. provided social activities
a. farmers and labor unions formed a new political party 2. Farmers Alliance: organized to unify concerns of farmers with miners and factory workers 3. The Populist Party 1) free and unlimited coinage of silver
2) graduated income tax 3) government ownership of transportation and communication systems 4) shorter working hours 5) restrictions on immigration b. the party was short-lived – Democrats adopted some policies & prosperity returned
RAILROADS & MINING A. A Rush for Gold. 1. People had been looking for gold since the 49 rush in California 2. Discovery of silver in Nevada (the Comstock Lode) led to more strikes 3. By the late 1800s people flocked to the West, Canada, and Alaska
B. Mining Techniques 1. Panning 2. Placer mining: shoveled loosedirt into boxes and then ranwater over it, causing the heavy materials to sink to thebottom 3. Patio Process: using mercury to extract silver from ore
4. Hydraulic mining: water shot at high pressure ripped awaygravel and dirt to expose theminerals beneath 5. Hard-rock mining: sinking deep shafts to obtain ore locked in veins of rock
C. Boom to Bust Miners arrive to build a tent city Miners arrive to build a tent city Merchants arrive to supply miners Merchants arrive to supply miners Wood-frame structures replace tents Wood-frame structures replace tents GOLD OR SILVER STRIKE BOOM TOWN Mining production falls Mining production falls Miners move on Miners move on Stores close and merchants leave Stores close and merchants leave Town is abandoned Town is abandoned GHOST TOWN
D. Mining: An Overview 1. Few people struck it rich 2. Once the easily accessible deposits were worked out, only large companies could afford to mine 3. More money could be made supplying the miners than mining 4. Lawlessness and violence were common in mining areas
E. Railroaders 1. The federal government helpedthe railroad companies because it would benefit the entire nation; a subsidy is financial aid from the government 2. Two railroad companies started a transcontinental railroad
Central PacificUnion Pacific Promontory Point, UT 1869 Transcontinental Railroad
3. the completion of the railroad sparked a spirit of unity in the country 4. The railroads allowed for rapidtransport of people and supplies 5. New states admitted (NV, CO,ND, MT, WA)
F. Problems with the railroad 1. labor was scarce >> dangerous,low pay, hard work 2. high rates because of no competition 3. discrimination regarding rates >> rebates to large shippers, rural service high 4. corruption >> bribery, free passes to government officials
RANCHERS & COWHANDS A. Ranching in the West 1. Spaniards raised Texas longhorns in the Southwest 2. Sheepherding also profitable, but conflicted with cattle 3. The government allowed cattle ranchers to use public lands as open range (free grazing land)
4. Families and large companies established ranches with vast grassland to feed their herds 5. During the round-up, ranchers would drive their cattle from the open range to a central location
1. Ranchers employed cowhands to tend cattle and drive herds to market B. The Cattle Industry 2. A cowboys skills and dress came from Spanish and Mexican vaqueros
3. The cattle drives followed specific routes leading to railheads, where the cattle were loaded onto railroad cars 4. The railheads became cow towns -- cities that concentrated on the cattle industry
C. End of the Cattle Kingdom 1. Surplus of cattle 2. Fencing limited availability of open land 3. Severe weather
INDIANS IN THE WEST A. The Plains Indians 1. A wide variety of tribes inhabited the Great Plains 2. Many tribes followed the migration of the buffalo, living off the land as they moved 3. Societies were highly structured with specific jobs assigned to men and women
4. The US government acquired land from the Indians through numerous treatiesthe Indians were to receive money and supplies; the Bureau of Indian Affairs managed Indian issues 5. Treaties were periodically broken, new ones made, and then broken again