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Chemical Oceanography - 04 Introduction to the Physics and Biology of the Ocean The School of Marine Sciences and Marine Environment Ruppin Academic Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Oceanography - 04 Introduction to the Physics and Biology of the Ocean The School of Marine Sciences and Marine Environment Ruppin Academic Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Oceanography - 04 Introduction to the Physics and Biology of the Ocean The School of Marine Sciences and Marine Environment Ruppin Academic Center Gitai Yahel Tel.(09) #110, Skype gitaiyahel, Web

2 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (2) The vertical structure of the ocean Aphotic Deepsea ~3.8 km Thermocline Epipelagic zone Station 230, East Atlantic, 1 Nov 1974, MedAtlas Thermocline, nutricline, below m illuminated, warm, productive nutrient depleted, saline, m Permanent thermocline The ocean interior (90% of the ocean volume) Deep Cold Dark Stable Low biological activity

3 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (3) Schematic organization chart Template for download in web site Sediment Ocean interior Surface OceanPolar zone - Type your text here

4 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (4) Example - Ocean density scheme Sediment Ocean interior Surface OceanPolar zone - Higher density - Deep water are very cold >4ºC and salty - Relatively uniform - Slow currents - Lower density (warm but many times saltier) - Large variations - Strong horizontal currents - Winter cooling - storms - Eddy diffusivity - Upwelling in specific zones - Wind driven (Ekman) - Winter cooling - storms - Eddy diffusivity Ultimately all energy dissipate into heat via friction (some with boundaries) - Winter cooling - storms - Eddy diffusivity Sun light is the fundamental driver of the ocean density structure and circulation - Deep water formation - Intense mixing

5 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (5) Nomenclature of oceanic zones

6 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (6) Water cycle, major reservoirs and fluxes

7 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (7) Surface Sea Temperature distribution The sun is the major source of energy to the ocean Heat redistribution derive the global circulation

8 An animation of average Sea Surface Temperature Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (8) NASA:

9 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (9) Latitudinal precipitation and salinity distribution Surface seawater salinities largely reflect the local balance between evaporation and precipitation.

10 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (10) Global salinity distribution Ocean Salinity is fairly constant

11 Average Sea Surface Salinity Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (11) NASA:

12 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (12) Regional thermocline structure Sarmiento and Gruber 2005 Chapter2a Tropics

13 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (13) Seasonal thermocline dynamics at mid latitudes Sarmiento and Gruber 2005 Chapter2a

14 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (14) General circulation – surface currents The great gyres are the most prominent feature of the surface circulation

15 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (15) General circulation – surface currents

16 Upwelling zones The deep water that surfaces in upwelling is cold; by looking at Sea Surface Temperature maps we can identify cool upwelled water versus hotter surface water.

17 Equatorial Upwelling Water Flow Upwelling

18 Coastal Upwelling

19 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (19) Schematic of thermohaline circulation. Sinking

20 The Thermohaline Circulation – The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (20)

21 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (21) North Atlantic circulation North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) Sources: Greenland Sea (80%) and Labrador Sea (20%) Characteristics: Temperature of 2.5º C and salinity of North Atlantic deep water forms as warm, saline waters from the Gulf Stream moves northward, cooled and become more dense.

22 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (22) The great global conveyor – simplified scheme

23 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (23) The great global conveyor from Aguado and Burt, Understanding Weather & Climate

24 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (24) Implication for chemical oceanography Distinct Horizontal distribution pattern of chemicals in the ocean – the ocean is NOT fully mixed! oMixing time 10 3 years oUneven distribution of chemicals due to: Salinity Removal (e.g. burial) Addition (e.g., rivers) Transformation (e.g., photosynthesis)

25 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (25) Biological oceanography - the major players: Primary producers Grazers Decomposers+

26 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (26) Energy and mass transfer – we use a simplified scheme

27 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (27) Energy Flow

28 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (28) Passage of energy between trophic levels

29 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (29) Bio-geo-chemical cycling - mass cycled, energy is wasted…(as heat)

30 Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (30) Macro nutrients cycling

31 Mass balance and energy transfer Friday, January 10, 2014 Chemical Oceanography, (31)


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