Presentation on theme: "Child Development Principles and Theories"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Development Principles and Theories Chapter 4
2 Terms to Know Development Infant Toddler Preschooler Physical developmentGross-motor developmentFine-motor developmentCognitive developmentSocial-emotional developmentCephalocaudal principleProximodistal principleMaturationNeuronsSynapsesWindows of opportunityTheorySchemataSensorimotor stagePreoperational stageConcrete operations stageMultiple intelligences
3 Child DevelopmentDevelopment – change or growth that occurs in childrenInfants – birth through the first yearToddlers – children from age one up to the third birthdayPreschooler - children ages three to six
4 Areas of Development Physical development Cognitive development Physical body changes that occurs in a relatively stable, predictable sequenceGross motor development – improvement of skills using the large muscles in the arms and legs. Includes activities such as running, skipping, jumping.Fine motor development – involves the small muscles of the hands and fingers. Includes grasping, cutting, holding.Cognitive developmentAKA intellectual developmentProcesses people use to gain knowledge.Includes language, thought, reasoning and imaginationSocial – emotional developmentThese two are put together because learning to relate to others is social development. Emotional development involves feelings and expressing feelings.Trust, fear, confidence, pride, friendship and humor are all part of social – emotional development.All three are linked to the other. Development in one area can greatly influence another.Example: Writing words requires fine motor skills (physical). It also involves language and thought (cognitive). Language is needed to communicate with others and is also necessary for growing socially and emotionally (social – emotional).
5 Principles of Development Cephalocaudal principleHead downwardChild first gains control of the head, then arms, then legs.Proximodistal principleDevelopment proceeds from center of body outwardSpinal cord develops before other parts of the bodyArms develop before hands, hands and feet develop before toes and fingersMaturationSequence of biological changes in childrenDepends on changes in the brain and nervous systemThese changes assist children to improve their thinking abilities and motor skills
6 Windows of Opportunity Specific spans of time for the normal development of certain types of skillsVisionBirth to 6 monthsIf a child is kept in a dark room for the first few months of life, vision will not develop properlyNeeds little stimulation to developInfants need interesting objects to look at
7 Windows of Opportunity, cont. Emotional ControlBirth to 3 yearsIncludes the abilities to identify feelings, manage strong emotions and develop empathy.Severe stress or early abuse can damage a child’s emotional developmentChildren need caregivers who can read their cues, respond promptly and meet their needs in a nurturing mannerVocabulary / SpeechBirth to 3 yearsInfants must hear language to learn itSpeak in full sentencesTalk to children oftenTell them what you are doing, what they are doing and what will happen nextRead storiesPlay musicEngage in social interactions that require language
8 Windows of Opportunity, cont. Math / Logical Development1 to 4 years oldGive children chance to work on materials that offer an appropriate level of challengeMotor DevelopmentPrenatal to 8 yearsStable, long lasting structures can be createdYoung children need a variety of gross – and fine – motor activities to support motor development
10 Theories of Development Erikson’s Psychosocial TheoryPiaget’s Cognitive Development TheoryVygotsky’s Sociocultural TheoryGardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory
11 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustBirth to 18 monthsTo develop trust, infants need warm, consistent, predictable and attentive careWhen distressed, they need to be comfortedNeed loving, physical contact, nourishment, cleanliness and warmthThey will devel0p a sense of confidence and trust that the world is safe and dependableMistrust occurs if an infant experiences an unpredictable world and is handled harshly
12 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt18 months and 3 yearsAutonomy = IndependenceObjective is to gain self – control without losing self – esteemChildren need to learn to choose and decide for themselvesChildren need positive opportunities for self-feeding, toileting, dressing and explorationOverprotection or lack of activities results in self- doubt, poor achievement and shame
13 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt3 to 5 years of ageChildren need to develop a sense of purpose. This happens when an adult directs the child’s urges toward acceptable social practices.If children are discouraged by criticism, feelings of incompetence are likely to emerge.
14 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority6 – 12 years oldPlanning and carrying out projectsHelps children to learn society’s rules and expectationsRealistic goals and expectations enrich children’s sense of selfChildren can develop a sense of incompetence and insecurity if they are discouraged, criticized or parents demand too much control
15 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Schemata – mental representations or conceptsAssimilation – process of taking in new information and adding it to what the child already knowsAccommodation – adjusting what is already known to fit the new information.
16 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Sensorimotor stageBirth to 2 years oldInfants use all their senses to explore and learnObject permanence – children learn that objects still exist even if they are out of sightPreoperational stage2 to 7 years oldChildren are egocentricAssume others see the world as they doLanguage, symbolic play and drawing is learnedConservationEven if the physical appearance changes, the amount does not changeClassify groups of objects
17 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Concrete Operations stage7 to 11 years oldChildren develop the capacity to think systematically, but only when they can refer to actual objects and use hands-on activitiesCapable of reversing operations (1 + 3 = )Beginning to understand others’ POVsFormal Operations stage11 years to adulthoodThink abstractlyProblem solvingReasoning
18 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky believed that children learn through social and cultural experiencesWhile interacting with others, children learn customs, values, beliefs, and language of their culturePrivate speechSelf – talk or “thinking out loud”Helps guide child activity and develop their thinkingZone of Proximal developmentPresents learning as a scaleOne end of the scale are tasks within child’s current development level.Other end of scale are tasks too difficult for children to accomplish, even with helpMiddle of scale are tasks children cannot accomplish aloneWhen children receive help from a knowledgeable peer or adult it is called scaffolding. This person provides a structure for the child to learn, such as giving clues or demonstrating.
19 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Emphasizes that there are different kinds of intelligences used by the human brain.Believes intelligence is the result of complex interactions between children’s heredity and experiences.Each intelligence functions separately but are linked.
20 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Bodily – kinestheticAbility to control one’s own bodyUse body to solve problems, handle objects and express emotionsChildren benefit from creative-moment experiences and role playing.Musical – rhythmicRecognizes musical patternsAppreciate and create musicBackground music helps stimulate thoughtLogicalAbility to use reason and logic to solve problemsAbility to explore categories, patterns and other relationshipsBenefit from using blocks and storybooks
21 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Verbal – linguisticAbility to use language for expressionChildren learn best by talking, listening, reading and writingInterpersonalCommunication and social skillsThese skills are nurtured in your children when caring behaviors are modeled for themIntrapersonalAbility to understand the inner selfChildren can best learn this when sharing emotions that all children experience such as joy, sadness and disappointment.Use storybooks that contain emotional examples
22 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Visual – spatialAllows people to use their vision to develop mental imagesThese children need unstructured materials such as building blocks and puzzlesAlso use visual aids, charts and labelsNaturalisticAbility to classify objects in nature such as animals and plantsTo build on this, children need to be able to sort and classify items