Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pregnancy and Childbirth

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth
Labor, Newborns, Postpartum Issues, Caring for baby

2 Labor

3 Early Labor Baby settles deep into mother’s pelvis (dropping)
Losing the mucus plug Water breaking Amniotic fluids’s membrane has broke Contractions Tightening and releasing of uterine muscle Braxton Hicks: weeks before actual labor begins

4 Stages of Labor Stage one: contractions open the cervix
Stage two: the baby is born Stage three: placenta expelled

5 Stage one: Contractions
Cervix dilates (widens) to four inches (10 cm) by the end of the stage Cervix thins out Contractions are approximately 60 seconds long and 5 – 6 minutes apart As the cervix opens, baby moves down into the lower pelvis Breech presentations Baby is not head first At the end of the stage, contractions last up to 90 seconds and are 2 – 3 minutes apart Cervix is fully dilated Transition period

6 Stage two: Here comes baby!
Can last from minutes to hours Contractions are moving the baby down the birth canal Skull is soft and flexible to allow for passage (it overlaps) Episiotomy may be needed Various birthing positions Use of forceps

7 Special Delivery! Natural childbirth Often called prepared childbirth
The woman learns about the birthing process so that she knows what to expect This reduced tension, fear and pain

8 Special Delivery! Bradley method Similar to natural childbirth
Focuses on prenatal care, deep relaxation, little or no medication, and the father is the coach

9 Special Delivery! Lamaze method Named after Dr. Fernand Lamaze
Idea is that women are conditioned to fear childbirth and with Lamaze training, the mother is taught to focus on something other than childbirth Mother using breathing pattern to keep mind off pain (deep breathing or panting) Mother and coach, usually father, attend classes to prepare mentally and physically Mother receive medication if necessary

10 Lamaze via “The Nanny”

11 Special Delivery! Water birth
Mother sits in a tub of warm water, usually heated between 90 & 100 degrees During active stage of labor Physical relief for mother Transition for baby  water temperature is similar to internal temperature of mother Some hospitals provide or allow it

12 Cesarean birth Delivery of baby through a surgical incision in the mother’s abdomen Used when vaginal delivery is unsafe or there are complications Mother’s pelvis is too small or not shaped correctly Baby’s head is too large Baby is in incorrect position for birth 22% of babies are born this way

13 Positioning Squatting Side – lying Hands and knees Upright Standing
Sitting (rocking or on toilet)

14 To drug or not to drug? Anesthetic: the medication that reduces or eliminates pain Systematic: an injection into a muscle or vein that relieves tension, pain and/or nausea (i.e. Demerol) Local Drug injected to numb the vaginal area when birth is near, an incision needs to be made, or stitches are needed (for example, for episiotomies)

15 To drug or not to drug? Regional: numbs a larger area or region of the body Epidural: drug given through a tiny tube placed in the small of the back, just outside the spinal canal Spinal: drug administered into the spinal canal, side effects similar to epidural, but may be more dangerous and severe General Drug given intravenously or by breathing a gas Leaves you unconscious Used for surgical deliveries Has more side effects for mother and baby than other types i.e., Cesarean

16 Stage three: Placenta Expelling of placenta
Contractions help placenta detach from uterine wall Can last from two minutes to thirty minutes post – birth

17 Newborns

18 Newborn at birth Begins breathing Umbilical cord is no longer needed
Blood circulating throughout entire bordy Physical appearance Wobbly, lopsided and pointed head Soft spots on head called fontanels Open spaces where the bones of skull have not yet permanently joined Fat cheeks Short, flat nose Milia Small, white bumps caused by plugged oil ducts

19 Premature babies Less than 5 ½ pounds or born before 36 weeks
Incubator placement Heart and lungs monitored

20 Reflexes Rooting reflex Grasp reflex Startle reflex
Automatic response when touched on the lips or cheek Turns toward touch and begins to suck Grasp reflex Newborn’s hand closes around anything that comes in contact with palm Startle reflex Legs thrown up, fingers spread, arms extended and then brought rapidly back while the fingers close in a grasping action Do this in response to a loud noise or a touch on the stomach

21 Postpartum issues

22 Mom post – birth Important for Mommy and baby to bond
Mommy will produce colostrum First breast milk that has important antibodies to protect against disease Emotional health

23 Bonding with Baby Bonding with Mommy Bonding with Daddy
Skin – to – skin contact Eye – to – eye contact Talk to your baby Feeding, especially if breastfeeding Participating in labor and delivery Feeding Reading or singing to baby Letting baby touch you

24 3 categories Baby blues Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis

25 Baby Blues Occurs within the first 2 weeks after giving birth
Between 50 and 80% of all new mothers experience baby blues Because this disorder is so common, it is commonly not classified as a postpartum mood disorder

26 Baby Blues: How can I tell?
Weepiness Mood swings Irritability Anxiety Loneliness Restlessness Impatience

27 Baby Blues: Why me? Attributed to: A sudden change in hormones
Emotional and physical hardships of giving birth Fatigue

28 Baby Blues: How can I get over it?
Exercise Eat healthy Take some “me” time Split up parenting responsibilities, if possible

29 Postpartum Depression
Affects approximately 10% of new mothers Progresses off of baby blues If your baby blues lasts longer than 2 weeks

30 Postpartum Depression: Symptoms
Loss of appetite Insomnia Intense irritability or anger Overwhelming fatigue Lack of joy in life Feelings of guilt, shame and inadequacy Difficulty bonding with baby Thoughts of harming yourself or baby

31 Postpartum Depression: Why me?
Changing hormone levels Difficulty breastfeeding Sick baby fatigue Risk factors History of depression PPD after previous pregnancy Unplanned/unwanted pregnancy Marital conflict Pregnancy/previous stressors Weak or no support system

32 Postpartum Depression: Help is on the way
Medications Therapy Possible hospitalization

33 Postpartum Psychosis The mother loses touch with reality
Afflicts 1 to 2 women per 1,000 live births

34 Postpartum Psychosis: Symptoms
Confusion Disorientation Hallucinations Delusions Paranoia Attempts to harm baby and/or self

35 Postpartum Psychosis: Will I be affected?
Risk factors History of depression History of psychosis Previously had PPP with another pregnancy History of bipolar disorder History of other medical problems / imbalances

36 Postpartum Psychosis So will 1 to 2 every 1,000 children be killed by their mothers? Infanticide is rare Many PPP sufferers do not act upon their homicidal thoughts Reportedly occurs in less than 1 per 50,000 live births

37 Postpartum Psychosis Help
Treatment includes Medications Therapy Immediate hospitalization

38 References

39 Postpartum Depression

40 Postpartum Psychosis The Andrea Yates Story

41 Caring for newborn

42 Caring for a newborn Food Sleep Exercise Safety Bathing Medical care
Toys Love

43 Baby language Each cry is for something different

44 Temperament Way they react to the world and others
Be sensitive to a baby’s individual style

45 SIDS S udden I nfant D eath S yndrome Also known as “crib death”
Victims are typically healthy infants between 2 weeks and 6 months Infants die in their sleep with no warning, no cry, and no evidence of pain

46 SIDS To reduce the risk of SIDS Place infants on their backs for sleep
Provide a firm crib, covered by a sheet Keep soft materials, such as comforters, pillows, and stuffed toys out of the crib Make sure the sleeping area is a comfortable temperature to keep infants from becoming overheated

47 Shaken Baby Syndrome Signs and symptoms resulting from violent shaking or shaking and impacting of the head of an infant or small child.

48 Shaken Baby Syndrome What Happens: Why?
The brain rotates within the skull cavity, injuring or destroying brain tissue. When shaking occurs, blood vessels feeding the brain can be torn, leading to bleeding around the brain. Blood pools within the skull, sometimes creating more pressure within the skull and possibly causing additional brain damage. Retinal (back of the eye) bleeding is very common Babies' heads are relatively large and heavy, making up about 25% of their total body weight. Their neck muscles are too weak to support such a disproportionately large head. Babies' brains are immature and more easily injured by shaking. Babies' blood vessels around the brain are more susceptible to tearing than older children or adults.

49 Symptoms of SBS Lethargy / decreased muscle tone Extreme irritability
Decreased appetite, poor feeding or vomiting for no apparent reason Grab-type bruises on arms or chest are rare No smiling or vocalization Poor sucking or swallowing Rigidity or posturing Difficulty breathing Seizures Head or forehead appears larger than usual or soft-spot on head appears to be bulging Inability to lift head Inability of eyes to focus or track movement or unequal size of pupils

50 Consequences of SBS Immediate Long Term
Breathing may stop or be compromised Extreme irritability Seizures Limp arms and legs or rigidity/posturing Decreased level of consciousness Vomiting; poor feeding Inability to suck or swallow Heart may stop Death Learning disabilities Physical disabilities Visual disabilities or blindness Hearing impairment Speech disabilities Cerebral Palsy Seizures Behavior disorders Cognitive impairment Death


52 What do BABIES do? Eat Sleep Have dirty diapers Cry
Most babies cry 2-3 hours a day for the 1st 2 -3 months of life 5 p.m. to Midnight is often a fussy time

53 A parent responding to an infant’s cry is a vital part of
EMOTIONAL NURTURING. It will help the baby to learn to TRUST and BOND with the parents or caregivers.

54 4 Basic Cries: … the HUNGRY Cry … the CRY of PAIN
Rhythmical rise & fall - demanding not desperate … the CRY of PAIN Loud gasp - shrieks … the BORED or GRUMBLING CRY Low pitched - not demanding - increases when ignored … the ANGRY CRY Loud - demanding - not a type of cry until about 6 months of age

55 Check to see if Basic Needs are met:
Hungry Burped Diaper Change Clothing Comfortable Crying to release Stress (Pacifier) Wants to be held Room too hot or cold

56 Check to see if baby is SICK-
Temperature Gums: swollen - red - drooling (teething) Ears Red - warm - draining Vomiting Diarrhea Allergies Runny nose - red eyes Clear = Allergies Green = Infection

57 COLIC: Pull legs up to stomach Breast Feeding LACTOSE Intolerance:
stomach problems / gas Breast Feeding onions, garlic, broccoli, cauliflower, spicy foods, chocolate, etc. LACTOSE Intolerance: √ with doctor / Change formula (soy or goat) Often Outgrows colic by 3-4 months more movement and solid food

58 When the Caregiver is tired & Baby Cries a lot:


60 SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME: Term used to describe the many signs and symptoms resulting from the violent shaking of an infant or young child.





1) Baby’s brain bangs against skull. 2) Small blood vessels are torn - bleeding 3) Blood clots press on brain. 4) Vertebrae crush the spinal cord. BRAIN DAMAGE RETARDATION LEARNING DISABILITIES PHYSICAL DISABILITIES PARALYSIS BLINDNESS and DEATH may occur.

66 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS of SBS Concussion Vomiting Irritability Lethargy
Trouble feeding Sleepy coma

67 STATISTICS: 70% of the perpetrators are MALE
(father, step-father, boyfriend, etc.) 56% of the victims are male babies Average age of shaking is 3-8 months 26 SBS cases in Utah in year 2000 (up from 13 in 1999) 25% of the SBS victims die immediately after being shaken 75% will live with complications because of the shaking. SBS is the leading cause of death in infants due to child abuse/neglect.

68 28% surviving victims return to THEIR HOMES.
11% adopted by GRANDPARENTS 11% placed in FOSTER CARE

69 Dr. William M. Palmer (Medical Director of the Child Protective Team at Primary Children’s Hospital & University Hospital) “Most people do not intend to hurt the child. They lose their impulse control; they just want the baby to shut up.”

70 A HAND SLAP on the face of an infant under 15 months can cause similar damage
THROWING a child up in the air and catching it TWIRLING a child under age 2 by it’s arms or legs BOUNCING ROUGHLY on knee/foot can also have damaging affect on baby

71 HELPFUL HINTS: ALWAYS support the neck of infants, babies and small children. If upset - CALM DOWN before dealing with your child. When playing, never THROW or TOSS your child. Screen all babysitters carefully. Know their temperament.

72 Never Shake a Baby Or TODDLER!

73 USOE Child Development Curriculum, 1994
The Child Abuse Prevention Center Davis County Health Dept.

Download ppt "Pregnancy and Childbirth"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google