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Pregnancy and Childbirth Labor, Newborns, Postpartum Issues, Caring for baby.

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth Labor, Newborns, Postpartum Issues, Caring for baby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth Labor, Newborns, Postpartum Issues, Caring for baby


3 Early Labor Baby settles deep into mother’s pelvis (dropping) Losing the mucus plug Water breaking – Amniotic fluids’s membrane has broke Contractions – Tightening and releasing of uterine muscle – Braxton Hicks: weeks before actual labor begins

4 Stages of Labor Stage one: contractions open the cervix Stage two: the baby is born Stage three: placenta expelled

5 Stage one: Contractions Cervix dilates (widens) to four inches (10 cm) by the end of the stage Cervix thins out Contractions are approximately 60 seconds long and 5 – 6 minutes apart As the cervix opens, baby moves down into the lower pelvis Breech presentations – Baby is not head first At the end of the stage, contractions last up to 90 seconds and are 2 – 3 minutes apart Cervix is fully dilated Transition period

6 Stage two: Here comes baby! Can last from minutes to hours Contractions are moving the baby down the birth canal Skull is soft and flexible to allow for passage (it overlaps) Episiotomy may be needed Various birthing positions Use of forceps

7 Special Delivery!


9 Lamaze method – Named after Dr. Fernand Lamaze – Idea is that women are conditioned to fear childbirth and with Lamaze training, the mother is taught to focus on something other than childbirth – Mother using breathing pattern to keep mind off pain (deep breathing or panting) – Mother and coach, usually father, attend classes to prepare mentally and physically – Mother receive medication if necessary

10 Lamaze via “The Nanny”

11 Special Delivery! Water birth – Mother sits in a tub of warm water, usually heated between 90 & 100 degrees – During active stage of labor – Physical relief for mother – Transition for baby  water temperature is similar to internal temperature of mother – Some hospitals provide or allow it

12 Cesarean birth Delivery of baby through a surgical incision in the mother’s abdomen Used when vaginal delivery is unsafe or there are complications – Mother’s pelvis is too small or not shaped correctly – Baby’s head is too large – Baby is in incorrect position for birth 22% of babies are born this way

13 Positioning Squatting Side – lying Hands and knees Upright Standing Sitting (rocking or on toilet)

14 To drug or not to drug? Anesthetic: the medication that reduces or eliminates pain Systematic: an injection into a muscle or vein that relieves tension, pain and/or nausea (i.e. Demerol) Local – Drug injected to numb the vaginal area when birth is near, an incision needs to be made, or stitches are needed (for example, for episiotomies)

15 To drug or not to drug? Regional: numbs a larger area or region of the body – Epidural: drug given through a tiny tube placed in the small of the back, just outside the spinal canal – Spinal: drug administered into the spinal canal, side effects similar to epidural, but may be more dangerous and severe General – Drug given intravenously or by breathing a gas – Leaves you unconscious – Used for surgical deliveries – Has more side effects for mother and baby than other types – i.e., Cesarean

16 Stage three: Placenta Expelling of placenta – Contractions help placenta detach from uterine wall Can last from two minutes to thirty minutes post – birth


18 Newborn at birth Begins breathing Umbilical cord is no longer needed Blood circulating throughout entire bordy Physical appearance – Wobbly, lopsided and pointed head – Soft spots on head called fontanels Open spaces where the bones of skull have not yet permanently joined – Fat cheeks – Short, flat nose – Milia Small, white bumps caused by plugged oil ducts

19 Premature babies Less than 5 ½ pounds or born before 36 weeks Incubator placement Heart and lungs monitored

20 Reflexes Rooting reflex – Automatic response when touched on the lips or cheek – Turns toward touch and begins to suck Grasp reflex – Newborn’s hand closes around anything that comes in contact with palm Startle reflex – Legs thrown up, fingers spread, arms extended and then brought rapidly back while the fingers close in a grasping action – Do this in response to a loud noise or a touch on the stomach


22 Mom post – birth Important for Mommy and baby to bond Mommy will produce colostrum – First breast milk that has important antibodies to protect against disease Emotional health

23 Bonding with Baby Bonding with Mommy Skin – to – skin contact Eye – to – eye contact Talk to your baby Feeding, especially if breastfeeding Bonding with Daddy Participating in labor and delivery Feeding Reading or singing to baby Letting baby touch you

24 3 categories Baby blues Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis

25 Baby Blues Occurs within the first 2 weeks after giving birth Between 50 and 80% of all new mothers experience baby blues Because this disorder is so common, it is commonly not classified as a postpartum mood disorder

26 Baby Blues: How can I tell? Weepiness Mood swings Irritability Anxiety Loneliness Restlessness Impatience

27 Baby Blues: Why me? Attributed to: – A sudden change in hormones – Emotional and physical hardships of giving birth – Fatigue

28 Baby Blues: How can I get over it? Exercise Eat healthy Take some “me” time Split up parenting responsibilities, if possible

29 Postpartum Depression Affects approximately 10% of new mothers Progresses off of baby blues – If your baby blues lasts longer than 2 weeks

30 Postpartum Depression: Symptoms Loss of appetite Insomnia Intense irritability or anger Overwhelming fatigue Lack of joy in life Feelings of guilt, shame and inadequacy Difficulty bonding with baby Thoughts of harming yourself or baby

31 Postpartum Depression: Why me? Changing hormone levels Difficulty breastfeeding Sick baby fatigue Risk factors – History of depression – PPD after previous pregnancy – Unplanned/unwanted pregnancy – Marital conflict – Pregnancy/previous stressors – Weak or no support system

32 Postpartum Depression: Help is on the way Medications Therapy Possible hospitalization

33 Postpartum Psychosis The mother loses touch with reality Afflicts 1 to 2 women per 1,000 live births

34 Postpartum Psychosis: Symptoms Confusion Disorientation Hallucinations Delusions Paranoia Attempts to harm baby and/or self

35 Postpartum Psychosis: Will I be affected? Risk factors – History of depression – History of psychosis – Previously had PPP with another pregnancy – History of bipolar disorder – History of other medical problems / imbalances

36 Postpartum Psychosis So will 1 to 2 every 1,000 children be killed by their mothers? – Infanticide is rare – Many PPP sufferers do not act upon their homicidal thoughts – Reportedly occurs in less than 1 per 50,000 live births

37 Postpartum Psychosis Help Treatment includes – Medications – Therapy – Immediate hospitalization

38 References

39 Postpartum Depression

40 Postpartum Psychosis The Andrea Yates Story


42 Caring for a newborn Food Sleep Exercise Safety Bathing Medical care Toys Love

43 Baby language Each cry is for something different

44 Temperament Way they react to the world and others Be sensitive to a baby’s individual style

45 SIDS S udden I nfant D eath S yndrome Also known as “crib death” Victims are typically healthy infants between 2 weeks and 6 months Infants die in their sleep with no warning, no cry, and no evidence of pain

46 SIDS To reduce the risk of SIDS – Place infants on their backs for sleep – Provide a firm crib, covered by a sheet – Keep soft materials, such as comforters, pillows, and stuffed toys out of the crib – Make sure the sleeping area is a comfortable temperature to keep infants from becoming overheated

47 Shaken Baby Syndrome Signs and symptoms resulting from violent shaking or shaking and impacting of the head of an infant or small child.

48 Shaken Baby Syndrome What Happens: The brain rotates within the skull cavity, injuring or destroying brain tissue. When shaking occurs, blood vessels feeding the brain can be torn, leading to bleeding around the brain. Blood pools within the skull, sometimes creating more pressure within the skull and possibly causing additional brain damage. Retinal (back of the eye) bleeding is very common Why? Babies' heads are relatively large and heavy, making up about 25% of their total body weight. Their neck muscles are too weak to support such a disproportionately large head. Babies' brains are immature and more easily injured by shaking. Babies' blood vessels around the brain are more susceptible to tearing than older children or adults.

49 Symptoms of SBS Lethargy / decreased muscle tone Extreme irritability Decreased appetite, poor feeding or vomiting for no apparent reason Grab-type bruises on arms or chest are rare No smiling or vocalization Poor sucking or swallowing Rigidity or posturing Difficulty breathing Seizures Head or forehead appears larger than usual or soft-spot on head appears to be bulging Inability to lift head Inability of eyes to focus or track movement or unequal size of pupils

50 Consequences of SBS Immediate Breathing may stop or be compromised Extreme irritability Seizures Limp arms and legs or rigidity/posturing Decreased level of consciousness Vomiting; poor feeding Inability to suck or swallow Heart may stop Death Long Term Learning disabilities Physical disabilities Visual disabilities or blindness Hearing impairment Speech disabilities Cerebral Palsy Seizures Behavior disorders Cognitive impairment Death


52 What do BABIES do?  Eat  Sleep  Have dirty diapers  Cry  Most babies cry 2-3 hours a day for the 1st 2 -3 months of life  5 p.m. to Midnight is often a fussy time

53  A parent responding to an infant’s cry is a vital part of EMOTIONAL NURTURING.  It will help the baby to learn to TRUST and BOND with the parents or caregivers.

54 4 Basic Cries: … the HUNGRY Cry  Rhythmical rise & fall - demanding not desperate … the CRY of PAIN  Loud gasp - shrieks … the BORED or GRUMBLING CRY  Low pitched - not demanding - increases when ignored … the ANGRY CRY  Loud - demanding - not a type of cry until about 6 months of age

55 Check to see if Basic Needs are met:  Hungry  Burped  Diaper Change  Clothing Comfortable  Crying to release Stress (Pacifier)  Wants to be held  Room too hot or cold

56 Check to see if baby is SICK-  Temperature  Gums:  swollen - red - drooling (teething)  Ears  Red - warm - draining  Vomiting  Diarrhea  Allergies  Runny nose - red eyes  Clear = AllergiesGreen = Infection

57 COLIC: Pull legs up to stomach  stomach problems / gas Breast Feeding  onions, garlic, broccoli, cauliflower, spicy foods, chocolate, etc. LACTOSE Intolerance:  √ with doctor / Change formula (soy or goat) Often Outgrows colic by 3-4 months  more movement and solid food

58 When the Caregiver is tired & Baby Cries a lot:  Natural to feel FRUSTRATED  High Risk of LOOSING CONTROL  PLAN AHEAD WHAT TO DO!


60 SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME: Term used to describe the many signs and symptoms resulting from the violent shaking of an infant or young child.





65 1) Baby’s brain bangs against skull. 2) Small blood vessels are torn - bleeding 3) Blood clots press on brain. 4) Vertebrae crush the spinal cord. BRAIN DAMAGE RETARDATION LEARNING DISABILITIES PHYSICAL DISABILITIES PARALYSIS BLINDNESS and DEATH may occur.

66 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS of SBS  Concussion  Vomiting  Irritability  Lethargy  Trouble feeding  Sleepy  coma

67 STATISTICS:  70% of the perpetrators are MALE (father, step-father, boyfriend, etc.)  56% of the victims are male babies  Average age of shaking is 3-8 months  26 SBS cases in Utah in year 2000 (up from 13 in 1999)  25% of the SBS victims die immediately after being shaken  75% will live with complications because of the shaking.  SBS is the leading cause of death in infants due to child abuse/neglect.

68  28% surviving victims return to THEIR HOMES.  11% adopted by GRANDPARENTS  11% placed in FOSTER CARE

69 Dr. William M. Palmer (Medical Director of the Child Protective Team at Primary Children’s Hospital & University Hospital) “Most people do not intend to hurt the child. They lose their impulse control; they just want the baby to shut up.”

70  A HAND SLAP on the face of an infant under 15 months can cause similar damage  THROWING a child up in the air and catching it  TWIRLING a child under age 2 by it’s arms or legs  BOUNCING ROUGHLY on knee/foot can also have damaging affect on baby

71 HELPFUL HINTS:  ALWAYS support the neck of infants, babies and small children.  If upset - CALM DOWN before dealing with your child.  When playing, never THROW or TOSS your child.  Screen all babysitters carefully. Know their temperament.

72 Never Shake a Baby Or TODDLER!

73 USOE Child Development Curriculum, 1994 The Child Abuse Prevention Center Davis County Health Dept.

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