Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 United States and Canada Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1 United States and Canada Geography LessonsReviewMapsGraphic OrganizerHow do people adapt to where they live?Teacher NotesThe Big Idea: How do people adapt to where they live?United States and Canada GeographyUnit 1 United States and Canada Geography
2Environmental Challenges LessonsReviewMapsGraphic OrganizerLesson 1Major LandformsLesson 2Major WaterwaysLesson 3Natural ResourcesLesson 4Climate RegionsClick on a Lesson.Lesson 5Environmental ChallengesLesson 6Hurricane Katrina and New OrleansLessons
3Major Landforms Vocabulary Reading Skill Lesson 1VocabularytundramegalopolisprairieContinental DividecanyonReading SkillWhat are some of the major landforms of North America?Teacher NotesEssential Question: What are some of the major landforms of North America?Compare and Contrast
4The United States and Canada Major LandformsThe United States and CanadaU.S. and Canada share most of North America.In the north, tundra covers Arctic lands where only grasses and mosses can grow.In the South, lush grasses grow on the Gulf of Mexico coast.Canada is divided into 13 provinces and territories and is the second largest country in the world after Russia.U.S is the world’s third largest country.Teacher NotesCompare and contrast: Ask the students to name two ways the United States and Canada are alike.
5Lowlands and Highlands Major LandformsLowlands and HighlandsThe Atlantic Coastal Plain runs along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.The Gulf Coastal Plain lies along the Gulf of Mexico.Natural harbors along the Atlantic coast have led to the growth of shipping ports.The Appalachian Mountains run from eastern Canada to Alabama and divide the Northeastern states from the Midwestern states.Teacher NotesLowland—Atlantic Coastal Plain:Mention that soil is thin and rocky except for the Piedmont, which lies in the eastern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains alongside the Atlantic Coastal Plain.Gulf Coastal Plain:Wider than the Atlantic Coastal Plain and richer soil than in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.Excellent for farming (cotton is a major crop)Highland Areas—Appalachian Mountains:Oldest mountains in North America.Highest peak is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina.Europeans who settled in the Appalachian Mountains were mainly Scots-Irish.
6Major Landforms Interior Lowlands The Canadian Shield wraps around Hudson Bay. It has rocky hills, lakes, and evergreen forests, poor soil, and a cold climate.The Central Lowland lies south of the Canadian Shield and west of the Appalachian Mountains. It has grassy hills, rolling flatlands, thick forests, and fertile farmland.The Great Plains are west of the Mississippi River. In some parts, farmers grow grains in their fertile soil. In other parts, ranchers raise cattle on the land.Teacher NotesMention that the Canadian Shield has many minerals – iron ore, copper, and nickel. And mining and logging are thriving industries. Mention that the Central Lowland contains important waterways such as the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River.Mention that the Great Plains are at or above sea level and have flat prairies and rolling hills covered with grass.
7Mountains and Plateaus Major LandformsMountains and PlateausThe Rocky Mountains begin in Alaska and run south to New Mexico. They are divided into the Canadian Rockies and Northern Rockies, the Middle Rockies, the Southern Rockies, and the Colorado Plateau.The Continental Divide is an imaginary line in the Rockies. East of the divide, rivers drain into the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. West of the divide, rivers flow into the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California.In the Colorado Plateau lies the Grand Canyon. It was carved out by the Colorado River during the last 6 million years.Teacher NotesJohn Wesley Powell led the first exploration of the Grand Canyon in An example of erosion—the canyon was created by the Colorado River as it eroded the soil and rock along its course.
8Major Waterways Vocabulary Reading Skill Lesson 2VocabularynavigabletributaryglacierwetlandReading SkillCompare and ContrastHow do people use some of the region’s major waterways?Teacher NotesEssential Question: How do people use some of the region’s major waterways?
9Major Waterways The Mississippi River Native Americans were the first to travel and trade on the North American waterways.Mississippi River Basin drains over 1 million square miles of land and the surrounding land is suitable for farming.Products from port cities such as St. Louis and Memphis are shipped down the river to other ports because the river is easy to navigate.Teacher NotesMention that the Missouri River is the longest river in the United States while the Mississippi River is the second longest river.
10The Great Lakes and the Everglades Major WaterwaysThe Great Lakes and the EvergladesThe Great Lakes are the world’s largest group of lakes.St. Lawrence Seaway – a series of canals that helps ships navigate from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. It carries raw materials and manufactured goods from cities like Chicago, Cleveland, and Toronto to the rest of the world.The Everglades are a large area of wetlands in southern Florida that depend on both water and land to support diverse, sometimes endangered, plant and animal life including alligators.Teacher NotesLake Huron, Lake Ontario, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Lake Superior were formed by glaciers about 10,000 years ago. The largest and deepest lake is Lake Superior. The most shallow lake is Lake Erie.
11Natural Resources Vocabulary Reading Skill Lesson 3Vocabularyhydroelectric powerrenewable resourcesscarcityeconomyirrigationReading SkillHow do the United States and Canada use natural resources?Teacher NotesEssential Question: How do the United States and Canada use natural resources?Compare and Contrast
12Mineral and Energy Resources Natural ResourcesMineral and Energy ResourcesIron ore is used to make steel and is found in parts of eastern Canada and the northern United States.The Rocky Mountains have gold, silver, and copper. The Canadian Shield (also called Canada’s Storehouse) has iron ore, copper, nickel, and gold.U.S. uses nearly three times the amount of oil that it produces.Canada’s oil and natural gas reserves lie in or near the province of Alberta (second largest oil reserves of oil in the form of oil mixed with sand).Renewable energy resources include ethanol (a fuel made from corn), solar energy, and wind power.Teacher NotesProducts made from copper include wire, pipes, and frying pans.Niagara Falls is a major source of another renewable resource, hydroelectric energy.
13Natural Resources Scarce Resources Renewable resources such as trees and fish can become scarce resources.Forests used to cover much of the United States and Canada but today cover less than half of Canada and about a third of the United States.Lumber and wood products, such as paper, are major exports of Canada.Great Banks, located off Canada’s southeast coast, were once one of the world’s richest fishing grounds, but because these waters were overfished, the number of fish decreased.Teacher NotesThe Canadian government banned cod fishing from 1992 to The freshwater fishing industry grew as a result. Lake Winnipeg is the biggest contributor to Canada’s freshwater catch.Ask the students to compare how the timber and fishing industries are alike. (They are both renewable resources and experiencing scarcity.)
14Natural Resources Soil Resources Central Valley of California is located between two mountain ranges, the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Ranges. Irrigation brought water to the dry land through ditches and pipes.Canada’s heartland is known as the “Prairie Provinces.” Wheat is a major farm crop. Dairy farms are also important.United States produces corn, soybeans, and grains in the Midwest. Dairy products and livestock are also important to the economy of the Midwest.In the South’s warm, wet climate, farmers in Louisiana and Arkansas grow rice and sugarcane. Farmers in Florida and Texas grow citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons.Teacher NotesIrrigation made California a leading producer of grapes, olives, plums, peaches, tomatoes, artichokes, and more than 150 other fruits and vegetables. Only Texas grows more cotton than California. Only Florida grows more oranges and grapefruit.
15Climate Regions Vocabulary Reading Skill Lesson 4Vocabularytemperate climatecurrentprecipitationdroughtaridReading SkillHow does climate affect how people live?Teacher NotesEssential Question: How does climate affect how people live?Compare and Contrast
16Climate Regions Cold Climates Climate is mainly determined by latitude, but also by landforms such as mountains and large bodies of water.Most people in Canada and the United States live in a temperate climate.In Northern Arctic parts of Alaska and Canada, winters are long and cold while summers are brief and cool.Teacher NotesExplain that a temperate climate has changing seasons and mild weather that is neither too hot nor too cold.
17Climate Regions Warm Climates Ocean currents in the South and the Pacific Northwest provide humid, warm, or even tropical climates.Air over large bodies of water is warmer in winter and cooler in summer.In the Pacific Northwest, ocean currents keep this area’s climate mild and wet, whereas southern California has a climate of warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.Areas near the Tropic of Cancer are warm all year round.Teacher NotesThe Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn have little temperature changes from season to season. Southern Florida has a tropical wet and dry climate while Hawaii has a tropical wet climate that supports tropical rain forests.
18The Desert West and Midwest Climate RegionsThe Desert West and MidwestThe desert of the southwestern United States gets less than 10 inches of precipitation each year.The Great Plains receive moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and from the Arctic.The Dust Bowl was caused by poor farming methods and drought.Teacher NotesDesert plants store water from rainfall for the long dry summers.The eastern part of the Great Plains has a humid climate, with cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers. The western part has light rain.
19Climate Regions The East North America’s climate is divided into arid and humid areas of precipitation.Northeast experiences a humid continental climate.Southeast has a humid subtropical climate.Forests in the Northeast have two types of trees: broadleaf trees that change color in autumn and needleleaf evergreens that stay green all year.Teacher NotesExplain that the western half of North America is arid while eastern U.S. and Canada is humid (receive more than 20 inches of precipitation).
20Environmental Challenges Lesson 5Vocabularytornadohurricaneblizzardplate tectonicsglobal warmingWhat environmental challenges do people in the region share?Reading SkillTeacher NotesEssential Question: What environmental challenges do people in the region share?Compare and Contrast
21Tornadoes, Hurricanes and Blizzards Environmental ChallengesTornadoes, Hurricanes and BlizzardsTornado Alley is an area where tornadoes are common from Texas north to Nebraska.Hurricanes generally develop from June to September and often strike along the southeastern Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico.Blizzards are severe winter storms that last for hours and combine high winds with heavy snow that limits how far people can see.Teacher NotesHurricanes are also called cyclones or typhoons in other parts of the world. Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf coast in August of It damaged a wide area from Mobile, Alabama, to New Orleans, Louisiana.More than 1,800 people died from Katrina and hundreds of thousands lost their homes.
22Earthquakes and Volcanoes Environmental ChallengesEarthquakes and VolcanoesPlate tectonics is a theory that states that the surface of the Earth is made up of moving parts. Movements take place along faults, and shifts can cause earthquakes or volcanoes to erupt.Along the coast, earthquakes can cause huge waves called tsunamis.Volcanoes are found in the Pacific Coast Mountains, southern Alaska, and Hawaii.Teacher NotesThe plate tectonics theory states that the surface of Earth is made up of moving plates, or huge slabs of rock. These plates fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. They move—sometimes slowly, sometimes suddenly—atop soft rock. Oceans and continents ride on top of the gigantic plates.
23Environmental Challenges Global WarmingGlobal warming is the overall rise in the temperature of the Earth.Greenhouse effect is heat that is trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere by greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone).Teacher NotesAsk students to describe how humans contribute to global warming. (Humans need to produce less of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming.)As temperatures rise, ice caps melt and ocean waters rise. Global warming can cause extreme weather conditions, an increase in global temperatures, a rise in sea levels, and changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation. These changes can cause floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes.
24Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans Lesson 6Vocabularyleveewater tableReading SkillCompare and ContrastWhy was New Orleans heavily damaged by a hurricane?Teacher NotesEssential Question: Why was New Orleans heavily damaged by a hurricane?
25Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans The StormOn August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast of the United States.Wind, waves, and rain caused flooding from Louisiana to Mississippi and Alabama.Katrina killed 1,800 people and caused $81 billion of property damage.Katrina is considered one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history.Teacher NotesNew Orleans suffered the most damage. Its location and shape played a role in the Katrina disaster because it is almost completely surrounded by water and has a low elevation (third lowest in the U.S.). The city is protected by levees (high walls along the banks of the river and lake) that were broken by the strong winds and rushing storm waters.
26Review Vocabulary A long period without rain is a _________. A treeless plain where only grasses and mosses can grow is called _______.A ________ is a high wall built to protect areas from flooding.A _________ is a giant blanket of ice._______________ is the overall rise in the temperature of the Earth.droughttundraleveeglacierAnswersdroughttundraleveeglacierglobal warmingGlobal warmingtundraleveeglacierglobal warmingdrought
27Review6. Name two ways in which the United States and Canada are alike.7. Why did the U.S. and Canada build the St. Lawrence Seaway?8. Name two renewable resources and why they are renewable.9. Name two nonrenewable resources and why they are nonrenewable.10. What causes earthquakes and volcanoes to occur?Teacher Notes6. Both share most of North America and have coasts on the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.7. They built it to improve access from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.8. Wind, sun, corn, and hydroelectric power (energy generated by falling water) are renewable resources because they can be replaced.9. Oil, natural gas, and coal are nonrenewable because once they are used up, they will be gone.10.They occur where two tectonic plates of the Earth’s crust collide.