2The Italian Renaissance PreviewStarting Points Map: EuropeMain Idea / Reading FocusThe Beginning of the RenaissanceRenaissance IdeasQuick Facts: Causes of the RenaissanceRenaissance ArtFaces of History: Two Renaissance Masters
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4The Italian Renaissance Main IdeaIn Italy the growth of wealthy trading cities and new ways of thinking helped lead to a rebirth of the arts and learning. This era became known as the Renaissance.Reading FocusWhat changes in society and in cities stimulated the beginning of the Renaissance?What ideas formed the foundation of the Italian Renaissance?What contributions did artists make to the Renaissance?
5The Beginning of the Renaissance Michelangelo’s painting was different from the art of the Middle Ages, and only one way in which European society began changing after the 1300s.1300, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtaken EuropeCatastrophic events, enormous loss of life may have led to changes of the 1300sDecrease in population led to:Increase in food productionDecline in food pricesMore money to spendSpecialization in productsChanges in SocietyUrban areas specialized, particularly in ItalyItaly divided into several large city-states in north, various kingdoms, Papal States southCatholic Church, nobles, merchants, artisans dominated society in city-statesMany sought to display new wealth with knowledge of artsThe Rise of City-States
6VeniceWith access to sea, Venice built economy, reputation on tradeHad long history of trading with other ports on Mediterranean SeaShipbuilding prospered, sailors traveled to Near EastWealthy Venetian merchants built unique city, “work of art”Milan, FlorenceMilan, west of Venice, based economy on agriculture, silk, weaponsFlorence, to south, famous for banking, clothMonarchs appealed to Florentine bankers for money to fund warsMerchants refined raw wool into fine clothBankers, merchants created city to rival any in Europe
7How did society and cities change in the 1300s? Find the Main IdeaHow did society and cities change in the 1300s?Answer(s): Specialization in agriculture increased, resulting in more trade; urban areas became centers of commerce; merchants and artisans became important; some cities became displays of wealth.
8Inspiration from the Ancients Renaissance IdeasAs the economy and society changed, new ideas began to appear. This period of interest and developments in art, literature, science and learning is known as the Renaissance, French for “rebirth.”Venetian ships carried goods for trade and Greek scholars seeking refugeScholars brought ancient works thought to be lostInspiration from the AncientsItalians who could read looked for more informationRead Arabic translations of original textsSearched libraries, found lost textsNew World of IdeasAs they read, began to think about philosophy, art, science in different waysBegan to believe in human capacity to create, achieveDifferent Viewpoints
9Humanism Humanities Roots Interest in ancient Greek, Roman culture Characteristics of good educationScholastic education gave way to classics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, GreekSubjects came to be known as humanities, movement they inspired known as humanismHumanists emphasized individual accomplishmentHumanitiesRoots traced to work of Dante; work contained glimpses of what would become focus on human natureHistorians believe Renaissance began with two humanists who lived after Dante—Giovanni Boccaccio, Francesco PetrarchBoth wrote literature in everyday language not LatinAdvances were made in medicine, as well as astronomyRoots
10Secular Writers Service Renaissance Man Early 1500s life in Italy seemed insecure, precariousChurch no longer served as source of stability, peaceForm of humanism developed from Petrarch’s ideas; focus was secular, was worldly rather than spiritualHumanists argued that individual achievement, education could be fully expressed only if people used talents, abilities in service of cities.ServiceIdeal Renaissance man came to be “universal man,” accomplished in classics, but also man of action, who could respond to all situations.Renaissance Man
11Examples of Renaissance Men How to ActItalian diplomat Baldassare Castiglione wrote book, The CourtierDescribed how perfect Renaissance gentleman, gentlewoman should actBook includes fictional conversation between duke, guestsCastiglione’s AdviceCastiglione gave nobles new rules for refined behavior in humanist societySpeak of serious, as well of amusing subjects; know Latin, GreekBe well-acquainted with poetry, history; be able to write prose, poetryHow to RulePhilosopher, statesman Niccolò Machiavelli also wrote influential bookExperiences with violent politics influenced opinions on how governments should rule in The Prince
12MachiavelliMachiavellian advice seemed to encourage harsh treatment of citizens, rival statesDescribes men as “ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers”Advises rulers to separate morals from politicsPower, ruthlessness more useful than idealismRuler must do whatever necessary to maintain political power, even if cruelMachiavelli’s theory that “the end justifies the means” deviated from accepted views of correct behaviorIdea that state an entity in itself, separate from its ruler, became foundation for later political philosophy
13Science of the Renaissance Scientific InformationHumanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical textsDiscovered wealth of scientific informationNatural WorldFocus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geographyNew ideas about natural world began to be explored alsoScientific ChallengesScience soon became important avenue of inquiryChurch’s teachings about world were challenged, particularly that Earth center of universeEarth, SunNicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universeGalileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun
15What were some important new ideas of the Renaissance? Draw ConclusionsWhat were some important new ideas of the Renaissance?Answer(s): inspiration from the ancient Greeks and Romans; humanism; secular focus; new theories in science
16Competition Among Patrons Renaissance ArtThe arts a reflection of the new humanist spiritMedieval artists—idealized and symbolic representationsRenaissance artists depicted what they observed in natureMedieval times, anonymous artists who worked for church created artRenaissance artists worked for whoever offered them highest priceBuyers of art, patrons, might be wealthy individuals, city governments, or churchPatrons of the ArtsWealthy individuals competed, displaying wealth, modernity through purchase of artworksFlorence, Lorenzo de Medici supported most talented artistsMilan, ruling Sforza family benefactors of artists, othersCompetition Among PatronsRenaissance artists wanted to paint the natural world as realistically as possible.
17Styles and TechniquesStudied perspective, represented three-dimensional objectsExperimented with using color to portray shapes, texturesSubject matter changed; artists began to paint, sculpt scenes from Greek, Roman mythsArtists MethodsReligious paintings focused on personalityHumanist interest in classical learning, human natureBuilding design reflected humanist reverence for Greek, Roman cultureClassical architecture favoredClassical Influence
18Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Sculpture, Painting Highly talented in all fieldsHis paintings are still studied and admiredWrote out ideas, filling 20,000 pages of notesHis interests, enthusiasm boundlessStudied anatomyAge 24, won fame with Pietà, sculpture of Jesus’ mother Mary holding son’s dead bodySculpture communicates grief, love, acceptance, immortalityMichelangeloMarble statue of DavidMost famous painting, artwork on ceiling of Sistine ChapelScenes from Old Testament considered one of greatest achievements in art historySculpture, Painting
19Other Artists Raphael Bramante Raffaello Sanzio, became known as RaphaelRenowned painter, accomplished architectMost famous work, The School of Athens, fresco—painting made on fresh, moist plasterAlso well known for many paintings of the Madonna, mother of JesusRaphaelRenaissance architecture reached height with work of Donato BramanteHad already achieved fame when chosen architect of RomeDesign for St. Peter’s Basilica influenced appearance of many smaller churchesBramante