Presentation on theme: "According to myth, Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE. Romulus and Remus."— Presentation transcript:
According to myth, Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE. Romulus and Remus
The city of Rome began as a group of small villages located on seven hills on the Tiber River. The villages grew until they became a town and eventually this town grew into an Empire. Around 500 BCE, the Romans overthrew the Etruscan king and established a Republic. Citizens were allowed to vote and to choose the people who would run the government. To keep the Etruscans from regaining power, the Romans begin to attack the surrounding Etruscan cities or establish alliances with them.
The Roman Empire from 500 BCE to 117 BCE
Cities were crowded, dirty and Loud. Most people lived in Apartments which were poorly built and often collapsed. The wealthy lived in large, comfortable houses To keep peace, the government offered “bread and circuses” Bread and circuses: chariot races and Gladiator events. Gladiators fought animals and each other. Most were enslaved people, criminals, or the poor. They were admired similar to sports heroes today.
Family was important Families were large Included: Parents, young children, married children and their families, other relatives and servants. The father was the head of the household. The father punished children for misbehavior and arranged marriages Wealthy families hired tutors for their children, poor families didn’t send their children to school. Older boys studied reading, writing and public speaking at schools while older girls studied reading and writing and household skills at home. Between 14-16 boys celebrated becoming a man. He burnt his toys as offerings
Had some rights but were not full citizens. Had strong influence on their families. Wives of emperors often influenced political decisions A woman’s freedoms depended on the wealth of her husband Women could own land, run a business, and sell property. Managed the household, and servants. They could attend the theater or amphitheater but had to sit in areas separate from men. Women with less freedom spent more time working but could leave the house to shop, visit friends, worship at temple, or go to the baths. They could hold public jobs
Imagine you are from Ancient Rome, write a letter to a friend in Greece telling him or her about your life. what do you do on a daily basis, how is your life different from theirs? What is your family life like? THINK ABOUT THE THINGS WE DISCUSSED WITH THE ETRUSCANS, WHAT YOU SAW IN THE POWER POINTS WITH YOUR GROUP AND WHAT WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT TODAY!!!!!!
Used Greek columns and added their own features such as arches and domes. Vaulted ceilings. Colosseum=arena Pantheon= temple built to honor the Roman Gods Based greatly on the Greek style of art and architecture First to invent and use concrete.
Enjoyed plays which were based on tragedies and comedies. The Roman language of Latin became the language for European government, trade and learning. based on Greek style.Virgil took many of his ideas from Homer. Horace wrote Satire=poked fun at human weaknesses and Odes=told of strong emotions about life. Roman historians recorded the events of their civilizations, Livy wrote History of Rome. Ovid wrote tales based on Greek myths.
Engineers built a massive system of roads and bridges connecting the empires. This made travel and trade more accessible. Built aqueducts to bring water to the cities. They also developed a sewer system Gaylon: a Greek doctor brought the study of Anatomy to Rome Ptolemy from Alexandria, Egypt studied the sky, he mapped over 1,000 stars and studied the movement of the planets and stars.
How has Roman Architecture influenced our world today? How has Roman Literature influenced our world today? How has Roman Science and Engineering influenced our world today? GIVE EXAMPLES……………
POLYTHEISTIC Spirits lived in Natural things like trees and rivers Honored Gods with prayer and offerings
Mars: God of War Jupiter: Chief God/God of the Sky Juno: Wife of the chief god Venus: Goddess of love Diana: Goddess of the hunt Minerva: Goddess of Wisdom Mercury: Messenger God Pluto: God of the underworld Neptune: God of the Sea
Early Romans Wealthy landowners Made up the ruling class. Artisans, Shop keepers, and small farm owners Could not hold public office. Had the right to vote Paid taxes Served in the Army Intermarriage among the Classes was not allowed. Both Plebeians Patricians
Law Makers Government Rulers Judges Triparite Government
Checks and Balances Both have checks & balances to prevent one group from getting too powerful. Rome’s government didn’t separate the powers like the U.S. does.
Senate Peoples’ Assembly Rich noblesCommon People Consuls Replaced kings 2 were elected each term Served one year. Headed the Army Could veto each others decisions. Controlled Government Proposed laws 300 Patrician men Served for life Demanded laws be written and placed in public places Could veto laws
494 B.C. Plebeians went on strike and refused to serve in the Army. Left the city to set up their own republic Led to Plebeian success in gaining power. 471 B.C. Plebeians set up their own body of representatives-The Council of Plebs Plebeians won the right to veto government decisions Plebeians and Patricians were allowed to intermarry Plebeians were allowed to be members of the Council
The Power of Rome Rome became the most powerful state; it gained all control of the Mediterranean World. Conquered cities became provinces of the Rome. As a Roman province, citizens were entitled Right to Vote Pay Taxes Be member of Roman Army Rome became extremely wealthy due to all the taxes being paid by citizens. The rich became richer and poor became poorer
A major contribution to law systems around the world. Rome’s first set of laws= 12 Tables The 12 tables were the basis for all future Roman laws. Established that all free citizens had the right to be treated equally by the legal system. Law of Nations: stated principals of Justice that applied to all people everywhere.
Innocent until Proven Guilty The right to defend yourself in court Requires a judge to look at all evidence carefully before making a decision. This was also known as----Rule of law Rule of law is the basis of OUR legal system today.
First Punic War (264B.C.) Rome & Carthage wanted Control of Sicily Lasted 20 years Romans forced Carthaginians From Sicily, and gained control. Second Punic War (218 B.C.) Rome helped the people living in Spain rebel against Carthage. Carthage sent it’s greatest general Hannibal to attack Rome, beginning the 2 nd Punic war. Once again Rome defeated Carthage and gained control of Spain. Third Punic War After 50 years of peace Carthage began rebuilding. Rome attacked and burned Carthage and ruined it’s fields. The people of Carthage were either killed or sold into slavery
An End to the Republic Rome had become so large it depended on military rulers. In 46 BCE Julius Caesar came into power. Accomplishments of Julius Caesar Built new buildings Reduced taxes Protected the rights of plebeians Soldiers pledged loyalty to Caesar Patricians thought Julius Caesar had too much power and murdered him in 44 BCE.
Pax Romana Octavian, known as Augustus, became emperor in 27 BCE. This is the start of the Roman Empire. He established a 200 year period of peace known as the Pax Romana. He called himself Augustus which means “great.” Accomplishments of Augustus Maintained peace Restored order to army Established fair taxes Constructed new roads and buildings Encouraged art, science, and literature Established a standard currency Increased trade