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Connective Tissues. Connective Tissue –Most abundant tissue –Functions are varied Connective tissues bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill.

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Presentation on theme: "Connective Tissues. Connective Tissue –Most abundant tissue –Functions are varied Connective tissues bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Connective Tissues

2 Connective Tissue –Most abundant tissue –Functions are varied Connective tissues bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infection, and repair tissue damage. –Characteristics Specialized cells, relatively few cells, widely scattered Highly vascular Much matrix –Extracellular protein fibers –Ground substance (fluid)

3 Classification of Connective Tissues –Embryonic connective tissues Mesenchymal cells: stem cells that can differentiate into other types of cells found in connective tissue –Adult connective tissues Fluid connective tissue: contains distinctive cells in a watery matrix, includes blood and lymph Supporting connective tissue: contains specialized cells, matrix contains closely packed fibers, includes cartilage and bone Connective tissue proper: many differnet types of cells, thick ground substance, includes adipose tissue (fat) and tendons

4 Embryonic Connective Tissues

5 Cell Types Found in Connective Tissue –Fibroblasts Produce and maintain the protein fibers that are found in the matrix Fixed cells that are slender or stellate (star-shaped –Macrophages (a type of white blood cell) “Big eaters”-engulf damaged cells or pathogens that enter the connective tissue Large ameoboid cells May be fixed or wandering

6 Additional Connective Tissue Cells –Adipocytes Fixed fat cells Contain a large droplet of fat that pushes the cells nucleus to one side, causing the cell to resemble a class ring –Mesenchymal cells Stem cells that can divide (mitosis) and differentiate into other types of cells that can replace damaged connective tissue –Melanocytes Fixed cells that produce and store melanin, a brown pigment that gives tissue a dark color

7 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 –Lymphocytes (another type of white blood cell) Move throughout the body Numbers increase where there is tissue damage May turn into plasma cells, which produce antibodies that fight infection –Microphages (another type of white blood cell) Function life macrophages but are smaller –Mast cells Around blood vessels Wandering cells that produce histamine & heparin, which stimulate inflammation and the allergic response

8 Connective Tissue Fibers –Collagen fibers Most common type Long, straight, unbranched Protein fibers wound together like a rope Flexible, but stronger than steel when pulled from either end Form ligaments, tendons –Reticular fibers Thin Branched and woven into rough, flexible network Form a framework that’s tough but flexible Can resist forces from many different directions Stabilizes cells and blood vessels –Elastic fibers Branched and wavy Thin Stretch and recoil Contain elastin protein

9 Ground Substance –Extracellular fluid in connective tissue –clear, colorless –consistency similar to syrup, which slows the spread of bacteria and other pathogens

10 Types of Adult Connective Tissue

11 Classification of Adult Connective Tissues

12 Connective Tissue Proper: Loose Connective Tissue –Also called areolar tissue –Fibers not abundant –Contains all 3 types of fibers and a wide variety of cells –Serves as “packing material”- fills space between organs, provides cushioning –Allows distortion without damage, is resilient –Examples of locations Between skin and muscles Around digestive tract Around blood vessels

13 Loose Connective Tissue

14 Connective Tissue Proper: Adipose Tissue: –Similar to loose connective tissue –Most of the volume is adipocytes –Provides padding, cushions, slows heat loss, food reserve, packs and fills spaces –Locations Wherever there is loose connective tissue

15 Adipose Tissue

16 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Brown fat -Adipose tissue found in infants and the upper body of young children -Is highly vascularized, which causes it to appear brown -Oxygen provided by the blood vessels allows for the rapid breakdown of the stored fat in this tissue -This breakdown releases much energy that is used to heat circulating blood -This helps to keeps infants and small children warm since their bodies are so small, they have less insulation, and their muscles do nor produce very much heat

17 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Interesting Fact Adipocytes in adults do not divide The number of fat cells is pretty much established in the first few weeks of life It would seem that getting rid of some of these fat cells (ex. liposuction) would result in a permanent loss of fat and weight. However, this is not the case. Even though these adipocytes don’t divide, mesenchymal cells can become adipocytes. Therefore, when adipocytes are removed, mesenchymal cells produce more to take their place!!!

18 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Liposuction?!?

19 Connective Tissue Proper: Reticular Tissue –Reticular fibers form a strong, 3-D network –Provides strength and support –Forms the framework (stroma) of many organs –Supports the cells in many organs such as the liver and spleen

20 Reticular Tissue

21 Dense Connective Tissue –Most of its volume is made of collagen fibers –Types Dense Regular Connective Tissue Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Elastic Connective Tissue

22 Dense Regular Connective Tissue –Lots of collagen fibers that are parallel to one another and are packed tightly –Cells – fibroblasts in rows between bundles –Examples Tendons- connect muscle to bone Ligaments- connect bone to bone, can tolerate moderate stretching Aponeuroses- attach muscle to muscle

23 Dense Regular Connective Tissue

24 Dense Irregular Connective Tissue –Dense woven mesh of collagen fibers –Provides strength and support in various directions –Occurs in sheets –Locations Periosteum (around bone) Perichondrium (around cartilage) Fibrous capsules of some organs (liver, kidney, spleen) Fasciae Dermis (skin)

25 Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

26 Dense Connective Tissue: Elastic Tissue –Lots of elastic fibers –Fibroblasts in spaces between fibers –Provides stretch and strength –Found in respiratory passages and walls of blood vessels –Elastic ligaments are like rubber bands and help to stabilize vertebrae in the spinal column

27 Elastic Connective Tissue

28 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Fluid Connective Tissue: Blood Blood Half of the volume of blood is red blood cells (RBC’s or erythrocytes), which transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide Watery ground substance is called plasma, which contains small number of white blood cells (WBC’s or leukocytes) and large numbers of proteins(antibodies) White blood cells are part of the immune system, protect the body from pathogens, and include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes Platelets are tiny packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes and proteins responsible for clotting u Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

29 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Blood

30 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 White Blood Cells B L

31 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Fluid Connective Tissue: Lymph In the tissues, filtration (diffusion) moves water and solutes out of the blood vessels and into interstitial fluids. Interstitial fluids surround body cells. When interstitial fluids enter small passages called lymphatics, it is called lymph. Lymph contains no antiobodies, and is made almost entirely of lymphocytes.

32 Supporting Connective Tissues: Cartilage –Dense network of collagenous fibers & elastic fibers –Gel-like matrix contains chondroitin sulfates –Cells – chondrocytes (cartilage cells) in pockets called lacunae Chondroblasts (immature chondrocytes) –Perichondrium – surrounds surface of cartilage, contains two layers: 1.Dense irregular: outer layer, provides support, protection, attachment, 2.Cellular layer: inner layer, contributes to growth and maintenance of cartilage

33 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Cartilage –Growth Interstitial: chondrocytes divide, daughter cells produce more matrix, inflates cartilage like a balloon, occurs only during fetal development Appositional: inner cellular layer of perichondrium cells divide and differentiate into chondrocytes, occurs from fetal development all the way into adolescence

34 Growth of Cartilage

35 Types of Cartilage –Hyaline cartilage –Fibrocartilage –Elastic cartilage

36 Hyaline Cartilage –Most common –Contains collagen fibers that make it tough but flexible –Provides flexibility and support, reduces friction between bones –Locations Ends of bones (joints) Connects ribs and sternum Trachea Larynx Embryonic skeleton

37 Hyaline Cartilage

38 Fibrocartilage –Visible densely interwoven collagenous fibers with scattered chondrocytes –Provides strength and rigidity –Resists compression, absorbs shock, prevents damage from bone to bone contact –Locations Vertebral discs Symphysis pubis Forms pads at the joint(ex.knee)

39 Fibrocartilage

40 Elastic Cartilage –Threadlike network of elastic fibers with chondrocytes –Provides strength and maintains shape, resilient and flexible –Locations Pinna (flap) of ear Tip of nose Eustachian tube

41 Elastic Cartilage

42 Supporting Connective Tissue: Bone –Also called osseous tissue –Solid matrix : one-third consists of collagen fibers, rest is calcium salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate –Collagen fibers make the bone flexible –Calcium salts make the bone hard and strong –Cells – Osteocytes (bone cells) in lacunae(pockets) Osteoblasts (secrete bone) Osteoclasts (break down bone) –Lacunae are connected by cannaliculi- passages that allow lacunae to communicate with each other and to receive oxygen and nutrients

43 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Bone Surrounded by a periosteum, which contains two layers. (see perichondrium layers) Undergoes only appositional growth when the cells of the inner layer of the periosteum divide. Unlike cartilage, bones undergo extensive repair and replacement on a regular basis due to the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bones also respond to stresses placed upon them: A lot of stress- thick and hard, Inactivity- thin and brittle

44 Bone

45 Membranes –Epithelial layer + underlying connective tissue = epithelial membrane –Types Mucous membrane: line cavities that communicate with the outside of the body, are kept moist at all times Serous membrane: line sealed internal body cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum), secrete a fluid called transudate that helps to reduce friction

46 Human Anatomy, 3rd edition Prentice Hall, © 2001 Membranes Cutaneous membrane: the skin, covers the surface of the body, thick, waterproof, and dry Synovial membrane: exist at joints, secrete synovial fluid that lubricates the joints

47 Membranes

48 Fascia –Fascia is the collective term for sheets of connective tissue –Functions Provide strength and stability Maintain positions of internal organs Provide a route for the distribution of blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves –3 major components Superficial fascia Deep fascia Subserous fascia

49 Superficial Fascia –Immediately deep to the skin Separates skin from underlying tissues and organs –Composed of adipose tissue and loose connective tissue –2 layers Outer usually contains fat Inner layer is thin and elastic –Functions Storehouse for water and fat Layer of insulation Protection from blows Pathway for nerves and vessels

50 Deep Fascia –Consists of dense connective tissue –Contains 2 layers Superficial and deep –The dense connective tissue components are continuous with each other Eg. Connective tissue sheaths of muscles, tendons, periosteum –Functions Allows free movement of muscles Carries nerves and blood vessels Fills spaces between muscles Sometimes provides the origin for muscles

51 Subserous Fascia –Composed of loose connective tissue –Lies between the deep fascia and the serous membranes that line body cavities –Functions Forms the fibrous layer of serous membranes Covers and supports the viscera Attaches the parietal layer of serous membranes to the internal surface of the body wall. Allows movements of muscles without distortion of delicate linings.

52 The Fasciae

53 Muscular Tissue –Specialized cells –Function - contraction –3 types Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

54 Skeletal Muscle Tissue –Connected to bones –Striated –Multinucleated –Voluntary

55 Skeletal Muscle Tissue

56 Cardiac Muscle Tissue –Found in the heart –Striations –Intercalated discs –Involuntary

57 Cardiac Muscle Tissue

58 Smooth Muscle Tissue –Found in walls of internal organs –Nonstriated –Involuntary

59 Smooth Muscle Tissue

60 Nervous Tissue –Specialized cells –Function – conduction of electrical impulses –Cells Neurons Neuroglia

61 Nervous Tissue

62 The Development of Cancer

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