Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The Roots of Progressivism Section 2:Section 2:Roosevelt and Taft Section 3:Section."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The Roots of Progressivism Section 2:Section 2:Roosevelt and Taft Section 3:Section 3:The Wilson Years Visual Summary
Chapter Intro Can Politics Fix Social Problems? Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded, working conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social reforms. What reforms do you think progressives wanted to achieve? Which of these reforms can you see in todays society?
Chapter Intro 1 The Roots of Progressivism Why did many citizens call for reforms?
Chapter Intro 2 Roosevelt and Taft What were the policies and achievements of the Roosevelt and Taft presidencies?
Chapter Intro 3 The Wilson Years What reforms did President Wilson undertake?
Section 1-Main Idea Big Ideas Group Action The progressives sought to improve life in the United States with social, economic, and political reforms.
Section 1-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Jacob Riis Robert M. La Follette Carrie Chapman Catt
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Do any areas of American society need to be reformed today? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 The Rise of Progressivism Progressives tried to solve the social problems that arose as the United States became an urban, industrialized nation.
Section 1 Progressivism was a series of responses to problems in American society that had emerged from the growth of industry. Facts about progressives: The Rise of Progressivism (cont.) Their ideas were a reaction against laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an unregulated market. They believed that industrialization and urbanization had created many social problems.
Section 1 They belonged to both major political parties. Most were urban, educated, middle-class Americans. They believed that government had to be fixed before it could fix other problems. They had a strong faith in science and technology. The Rise of Progressivism (cont.)
Section 1 Among the first people to articulate progressive ideas was a group of crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption, also called muckrakers. muckrakers The Rise of Progressivism (cont.) Photojournalist Jacob Riis highlighted the plight of immigrants living in New York City in his book How the Other Half Lives. Lincoln Steffens exposed corruption in urban political machines.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Who published photographs and descriptions of the poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many immigrant neighborhoods in New York City? A.Charles Edward Russell B.Ida Tarbell C.Lincoln Steffens D.Jacob Riis
Section 1 Reforming Government Progressives tried to make government more efficient and more responsive to citizens.
Section 1 One group of progressives focused on making government more efficient by using ideas from business. Progressives supported two proposals to reform city government: Reforming Government (cont.) The first, a commission plan, divided city government into several departments, each one under an expert commissioners control. New Types of Government
Section 1 The second approach was a council- manager system. Another group of progressives focused on making the political system more democratic and more responsive to citizens. Reforming Government (cont.) New Types of Government
Section 1 Led by Republican governor Robert M. La Follette, Wisconsin became a model of progressive reform. He attacked the way political parties ran their conventions and pressured the state legislature to pass a law requiring parties to hold a direct primary.direct primary Reforming Government (cont.)
Section 1 Progressives also pushed for three additional reforms: the initiative, the referendum, and the recall.initiative referendumrecall To counter Senate corruption, progressives called for direct election of senators by the states voters. Reforming Government (cont.) In 1913, the Seventeenth Amendment was added to the Constitution.
A.A B.B C.C Section 1 Which of the following reforms permitted a group of citizens to introduce legislation and required the legislature to vote on it? A.The initiative B.The referendum C.The recall
Section 1 Suffrage Many progressives joined the movement to win voting rights for women.
Section 1 The debate over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments split the suffrage movement into two groups:suffrage Suffrage (cont.) The New York City-based National Woman Suffrage Association The Boston-based American Woman Suffrage Association The Woman Suffrage Movement
Section 1 This split weakened the movement, and by 1900 only four states had granted women full voting rights. In 1890, the two groups united to form the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Alice Paul left NAWSA and formed the National Womans Party so that she could use protests to confront Wilson on suffrage. Suffrage (cont.)
Section 1 In 1915 Carrie Chapman Catt became NAWSAs leader and tried to mobilize the suffrage movement in one final nationwide push. On August 26, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect. Suffrage (cont.) Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920
A.A B.B Section 1 Which group wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amendment? A.National Woman Suffrage Association B.American Woman Suffrage Association
Section 1 Reforming Society Many progressives focused on social welfare problems such as child labor, unsafe working conditions, and alcohol abuse.
Section 1 Probably the most emotional progressive issue was the campaign against child labor. Many adult workers also labored in difficult conditions, so some changes went into effect. Reforming Society (cont.)
Section 1 Some of the changes included: Reforming Society (cont.) Workers compensation laws Zoning laws Building and health codes Government regulation of business to protect workers
Section 1 The temperance movement emerged from the concern that alcohol explained many of societys problems. Reforming Society (cont.) This movement later pressed for prohibition. prohibition
Section 1 Many progressives agreed that big business needed regulation. Reforming Society (cont.) The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission both helped with regulation. Some progressives even advocated socialismthe idea that the government should own and operate industry for the community.advocated
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why did the Supreme Court uphold Oregons right to limit hours for women working in laundries? A.Healthy mothers were the states concern. B.They viewed women as more fragile than men. C.The state needed these women for other jobs as well. D.The women needed to care for husbands and children as well.
Section 2-Main Idea Big Ideas Individual Action Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft worked to improve labor conditions, control big business, and support conservation.
Section 2-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Square Deal United Mine Workers Hepburn Act Upton Sinclair Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act Gifford Pinchot Richard A. Ballinger Childrens Burea
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you feel that protecting our environment should be an important political issue? A.Yes B.No
Section 2 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency Theodore Roosevelt, who believed in progressive ideals for the nation, took on big business.
Section 2 Roosevelts reform programs became known as the Square Deal. To Roosevelt, it was not inconsistent to believe in Social Darwinism and progressivism at the same time.Social Darwinism Roosevelt believed that trusts and other large business organizations were very efficient and part of the reason for Americas prosperity. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) However, he also wanted to ensure that trusts did not abuse their power.
Section 2 Roosevelt also believed that it was his job to keep society operating efficiently by mediating conflicts between different groups and their interests. He urged the United Mine Workers (UMW) and mine owners to accept arbitration. arbitration Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
Section 2 In 1903, Roosevelt convinced Congress to create the Department of Commerce and Labor to investigate corporations and publicize the results. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) However, he later agreed to advise the companies privately and allow them to correct their problems without taking them to court. Therefore, Roosevelt was able to regulate big business without sacrificing economic efficiency.regulate
Section 2 In keeping with his belief in regulation, Roosevelt pushed the Hepburn Act through Congress in By 1905 consumer protection had become a national issue. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) Many Americans were equally concerned about the food they ate. In 1906 Upton Sinclair published his novel The Jungle, which resulted in the Meat Inspection Act being passed in 1906.
Section 2 The Pure Food and Drug Act passed the same day. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Who was Roosevelts first target when he decided to make an example of major trusts that were abusing their power? A.J. P. Morgan B.Jay Gould C.James J. Hill D.John D. Rockefeller
Section 2 Conservation New legislation gave the federal government the power to conserve natural resources.
Section 2 Roosevelt put his stamp on the presidency most clearly in the area of environmental conservation.environmental In 1902, Roosevelt supported passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which paid for irrigation and land development projects in the West. Conservation (cont.)
Section 2 Roosevelt also backed efforts to save the nations forests through careful management of the timber resources of the West. Conservation (cont.) He appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the United States Forest Service, established in 1905.
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 Under Roosevelt, the power of which branch of government dramatically increased? A.Legislative B.Executive C.Judicial
Section 2 Tafts Reforms William Howard Taft broke with progressives on tariff and conservation issues.
Section 2 William Howard Taft called Congress into a special session to lower tariff rates. Tafts Reforms (cont.) The tariff debate divided progressives, and in the end, Taft signed into law the Payne- Aldrich Tariff, which cut tariffs hardly at all and actually raised them on some goods.
Section 2 Many progressives were unhappy when Taft replaced Roosevelts secretary of the interior, James R. Garfield, an aggressive conservationist, with Richard A. Ballinger, a more conservative corporate lawyer. Tafts Reforms (cont.) Gifford Pinchot charged Ballinger with having once plotted to turn over valuable public lands in Alaska to a private business group for personal profit.
Section 2 Tafts attorney general decided the charges were groundless, but Pinchot leaked the story to the press and asked Congress to investigate. Tafts Reforms (cont.) Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination.insubordination
Section 2 Despite his political problems, Taft had many successes: Tafts Reforms (cont.) He brought twice as many antitrust cases in four years as his predecessor had in seven. He established the Childrens Bureau in He set up the Bureau of Mines in 1910.
Section 2 Frustrated with Taft over the issue of trusts, Roosevelt announced that he would enter the presidential campaign of Tafts Reforms (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 The Bureau of Mines did all of the following EXCEPT A.monitor the activities of mining companies. B.expand the national forests. C.prohibit children from working in the mines. D.protect waterpower sites from private development.
Section 3-Main Idea Big Ideas Individual Action Woodrow Wilson increased the control of the government over business.
Section 3-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Progressive Party New Nationalism New Freedom Federal Reserve Act Federal Trade Commission Clayton Antitrust Act National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
A.A B.B Section 3-Polling Question Do you feel that discrimination is still an issue in the United States today? A.Yes B.No
Section 3 The Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson was elected after Republican voters split between Taft and Roosevelt.
Section 3 Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican Party and became the presidential candidate for the newly formed Progressive Party in the election of Conservative Republicans rallied behind William Howard Taft. Woodrow Wilson was a progressive Democrat. The Election of 1912 (cont.)
Section 3 The election of 1912 was a contest between two progressives with different approaches to reform. The Election of 1912 (cont.) Roosevelt called his program the New Nationalism. Wilson countered with what he called the New Freedom. New Nationalism Versus New Freedom
Section 3 Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican voters, enabling Wilson to win. The Election of 1912 (cont.) New Nationalism Versus New Freedom
A.A B.B Section 3 Which candidate believed that monopolies should be destroyed and that freedom was more important than efficiency? A.Woodrow Wilson B.Theodore Roosevelt
Section 3 Wilsons Reforms President Wilson reformed tariffs and banks and oversaw the creation of the Federal Trade Commission.
Section 3 Five weeks after taking office, Wilson appeared before Congress to present his bill to reduce tariffs. In 1913, Congress passed the Underwood Tariff, and Wilson signed it into law. This law reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about 30 percent of the value of the goods and provided for levying an income tax.income tax Wilsons Reforms (cont.)
Section 3 To restore public confidence in the banking system, Wilson supported the establishment of a federal reserve system. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created 12 regional banks to be supervised by a Board of Governors, appointed by the president. Wilsons Reforms (cont.) Progressives Reform the Economic System
Section 3 In the summer of 1914, at Wilsons request, Congress created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to monitor American business. Wilsons Reforms (cont.) The FTC had the power to investigate companies and issue cease and desist orders against companies engaging in unfair trade practices. unfair trade practices
Section 3 Wilson wanted the FTC to work toward limiting business activities that unfairly limited competition, as opposed to breaking up big business. Unsatisfied by Wilsons approach, progressives in Congress responded by passing the Clayton Antitrust Act in Wilsons Reforms (cont.)
Section 3 In 1916, Wilson signed the first federal law regulating child labor. The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act prohibited the employment of children under the age of 14 in factories producing goods for interstate commerce. The Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional in unconstitutional Wilsons Reforms (cont.)
Section 3 Wilson also supported the Adamson Act and the Federal Farm Loan Act. Wilsons Reforms (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which act became one of the most significant pieces of legislation in American history? A.The Clayton Antitrust Act B.The Sherman Antitrust Act C.The Federal Reserve Act D.The Hepburn Act
Section 3 Progressivisms Legacy and Limits Progressivism changed many peoples ideas about the governments role in social issues.
Section 3 By the end of the Progressive Era, Americans expected the government, particularly the federal government, to play a more active role in regulating the economy and solving social problems. The most conspicuous limit to progressivism was its failure to address racial and religious discrimination. Progressivisms Legacy and Limits (cont.)
Section 3 In 1905 W.E.B Du Bois and 28 other African American leaders met at Niagara Falls to demand full rights for African Americans. Progressivisms Legacy and Limits (cont.) This meeting was one of the many steps leading to the foundation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Section 3 Jewish people also faced discrimination. Sigmund Livingston started the Anti- Defamation League (ADL) to combat stereotypes and discrimination. Progressivisms Legacy and Limits (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D E.E Section 3 Which of the following women worked to improve the situation of African Americans? A.Mary White Ovington B.Jane Addams C.Ida Wells-Barnett D.A and B E.All of the above
VS 1 Causes of the Progressive Movement People thought progress in science and knowledge could improve society. People thought immigration, urbanization, and industrialization had created social problems. People thought laissez-faire economics and an unregulated market led to social problems and that government could fix them. Political corruption prevented the government from helping its citizens.
VS 2 Effects on Business and Society Interstate Commerce Commission is strengthened. Consumer protection laws are passed. Federal Trade Commission is created. Federal Reserve System is created to regulate the money supply. Clayton Antitrust Act grants labor unions more rights. Zoning laws and building codes improve urban housing.
VS 3 Effects on Business and Society (cont.) Child labor laws are passed, regulating time and conditions for minors to work. Workers compensation laws are passed. Temperance movement begins seeking limitations on the production and consumption of alcohol.
VS 4 Effects on Politics Cities begin adopting commission and city-manager forms of government. States begin to adopt the direct primary system, allowing voters to choose candidates for office. States begin to allow initiatives, referendums, and recall votes.
VS 5 Effects on Politics (cont.) Seventeenth Amendment is ratified, requiring direct election of senators. Nineteenth Amendment is ratified, guaranteeing women the right to vote.
Chapter Trans Menu Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view.
Why It Matters Trans
C & E Trans
Unit Timelines Trans
DFS Trans 1
DFS Trans 2
DFS Trans 3 ANSWER: The two approaches were different. Roosevelt favored strengthening the federal governments role in the economy, whereas Wilson favored reducing its role.
Vocab1 muckraker a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society
Vocab2 direct primary a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office
Vocab3 initiative the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval
Vocab4 referendum the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
Vocab5 recall the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office
Vocab6 suffrage the right to vote
Vocab7 prohibition laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages
Vocab8 legislation a proposed law to be voted on by a governing body
Vocab9 advocate to propose a certain position or viewpoint
Vocab10 Social Darwinism based on Charles Darwins theories of evolution and natural selection, states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving
Vocab11 arbitration settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
Vocab12 insubordination disobedience
Vocab13 regulate to govern or direct according to rule
Vocab14 environmental having to do with the environment; the complex system of plants, animals, water, and soil
Vocab15 income tax a tax based on the net income of a person or business
Vocab16 unfair trade practices trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of the competition
Vocab17 academic associated with higher learning at a scholarly institution
Vocab18 unconstitutional not in accordance with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society
Help Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.