Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Splash Screen.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: The Roots of Progressivism Section 2: Roosevelt and Taft
Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Roots of Progressivism Section 2: Roosevelt and Taft Section 3: The Wilson Years Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 Can Politics Fix Social Problems?
Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded, working conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social reforms. • What reforms do you think progressives wanted to achieve? • Which of these reforms can you see in today’s society? Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Timeline

5 Chapter Timeline

6 The Roots of Progressivism
Why did many citizens call for reforms? Chapter Intro 1

7 Roosevelt and Taft What were the policies and achievements of the Roosevelt and Taft presidencies? Chapter Intro 2

8 The Wilson Years What reforms did President Wilson undertake?
Chapter Intro 3

9 Chapter Preview-End

10 Big Ideas Group Action The progressives sought to improve life in the United States with social, economic, and political reforms. Section 1-Main Idea

11 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary muckraker direct primary
initiative referendum recall suffrage prohibition Academic Vocabulary legislation advocate Section 1-Key Terms

12 People and Events to Identify
Jacob Riis Robert M. La Follette Carrie Chapman Catt Section 1-Key Terms

13 Section 1-Polling Question
Do any areas of American society need to be reformed today? A. Yes B. No A B Section 1-Polling Question

14 The Rise of Progressivism
Progressives tried to solve the social problems that arose as the United States became an urban, industrialized nation. Section 1

15 The Rise of Progressivism (cont.)
Progressivism was a series of responses to problems in American society that had emerged from the growth of industry. Facts about progressives: Their ideas were a reaction against laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an unregulated market. They believed that industrialization and urbanization had created many social problems. Section 1

16 The Rise of Progressivism (cont.)
They belonged to both major political parties. Most were urban, educated, middle-class Americans. They believed that government had to be fixed before it could fix other problems. They had a strong faith in science and technology. Section 1

17 The Rise of Progressivism (cont.)
Among the first people to articulate progressive ideas was a group of crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption, also called muckrakers. Photojournalist Jacob Riis highlighted the plight of immigrants living in New York City in his book How the Other Half Lives. Lincoln Steffens exposed corruption in urban political machines. Section 1

18 A. Charles Edward Russell B. Ida Tarbell C. Lincoln Steffens
Who published photographs and descriptions of the poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many immigrant neighborhoods in New York City? A. Charles Edward Russell B. Ida Tarbell C. Lincoln Steffens D. Jacob Riis A B C D Section 1

19 Reforming Government Progressives tried to make government more efficient and more responsive to citizens. Section 1

20 Reforming Government (cont.)
One group of progressives focused on making government more efficient by using ideas from business. Progressives supported two proposals to reform city government: The first, a commission plan, divided city government into several departments, each one under an expert commissioner’s control. New Types of Government Section 1

21 Reforming Government (cont.)
The second approach was a council-manager system. Another group of progressives focused on making the political system more democratic and more responsive to citizens. New Types of Government Section 1

22 Reforming Government (cont.)
Led by Republican governor Robert M. La Follette, Wisconsin became a model of progressive reform. He attacked the way political parties ran their conventions and pressured the state legislature to pass a law requiring parties to hold a direct primary. Section 1

23 Reforming Government (cont.)
Progressives also pushed for three additional reforms: the initiative, the referendum, and the recall. To counter Senate corruption, progressives called for direct election of senators by the states’ voters. In 1913, the Seventeenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. Section 1

24 Which of the following reforms permitted a group of citizens to introduce legislation and required the legislature to vote on it? A. The initiative B. The referendum C. The recall A B C Section 1

25 Suffrage Many progressives joined the movement to win voting rights for women. Section 1

26 Suffrage (cont.) The debate over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments split the suffrage movement into two groups: The New York City-based National Woman Suffrage Association The Boston-based American Woman Suffrage Association The Woman Suffrage Movement Section 1

27 Suffrage (cont.) This split weakened the movement, and by 1900 only four states had granted women full voting rights. In 1890, the two groups united to form the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Alice Paul left NAWSA and formed the National Woman’s Party so that she could use protests to confront Wilson on suffrage. Section 1

28 Suffrage (cont.) In 1915 Carrie Chapman Catt became NAWSA’s leader and tried to mobilize the suffrage movement in one final nationwide push. On August 26, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect. Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 Section 1

29 Which group wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amendment?
A. National Woman Suffrage Association B. American Woman Suffrage Association A B Section 1

30 Reforming Society Many progressives focused on social welfare problems such as child labor, unsafe working conditions, and alcohol abuse. Section 1

31 Reforming Society (cont.)
Probably the most emotional progressive issue was the campaign against child labor. Many adult workers also labored in difficult conditions, so some changes went into effect. Section 1

32 Reforming Society (cont.)
Some of the changes included: Workers’ compensation laws Zoning laws Building and health codes Government regulation of business to protect workers Section 1

33 Reforming Society (cont.)
The temperance movement emerged from the concern that alcohol explained many of society’s problems. This movement later pressed for prohibition. Section 1

34 Reforming Society (cont.)
Many progressives agreed that big business needed regulation. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission both helped with regulation. Some progressives even advocated socialism—the idea that the government should own and operate industry for the community. Section 1

35 Why did the Supreme Court uphold Oregon’s right to limit hours for women working in laundries?
A. Healthy mothers were the state’s concern. B. They viewed women as more fragile than men. C. The state needed these women for other jobs as well. D. The women needed to care for husbands and children as well. A B C D Section 1

36 Section 1-End

37 Big Ideas Individual Action Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft worked to improve labor conditions, control big business, and support conservation. Section 2-Main Idea

38 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary Social Darwinism arbitration
insubordination Academic Vocabulary regulate environmental Section 2-Key Terms

39 People and Events to Identify
Square Deal United Mine Workers Hepburn Act Upton Sinclair Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act Gifford Pinchot Richard A. Ballinger Children’s Burea Section 2-Key Terms

40 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you feel that protecting our environment should be an important political issue? A. Yes B. No A B Section 2-Polling Question

41 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency
Theodore Roosevelt, who believed in progressive ideals for the nation, took on big business. Section 2

42 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
Roosevelt’s reform programs became known as the Square Deal. To Roosevelt, it was not inconsistent to believe in Social Darwinism and progressivism at the same time. Roosevelt believed that trusts and other large business organizations were very efficient and part of the reason for America’s prosperity. However, he also wanted to ensure that trusts did not abuse their power. Section 2

43 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
Roosevelt also believed that it was his job to keep society operating efficiently by mediating conflicts between different groups and their interests. He urged the United Mine Workers (UMW) and mine owners to accept arbitration. Section 2

44 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
In 1903, Roosevelt convinced Congress to create the Department of Commerce and Labor to investigate corporations and publicize the results. However, he later agreed to advise the companies privately and allow them to correct their problems without taking them to court. Therefore, Roosevelt was able to regulate big business without sacrificing economic efficiency. Section 2

45 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
In keeping with his belief in regulation, Roosevelt pushed the Hepburn Act through Congress in 1906. By 1905 consumer protection had become a national issue. Many Americans were equally concerned about the food they ate. In 1906 Upton Sinclair published his novel The Jungle, which resulted in the Meat Inspection Act being passed in 1906. Section 2

46 Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.)
The Pure Food and Drug Act passed the same day. Section 2

47 Who was Roosevelt’s first target when he decided to make an example of major trusts that were abusing their power? A. J. P. Morgan B. Jay Gould C. James J. Hill D. John D. Rockefeller A B C D Section 2

48 Conservation New legislation gave the federal government the power to conserve natural resources. Section 2

49 Conservation (cont.) Roosevelt put his stamp on the presidency most clearly in the area of environmental conservation. In 1902, Roosevelt supported passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which paid for irrigation and land development projects in the West. Section 2

50 Conservation (cont.) Roosevelt also backed efforts to save the nation’s forests through careful management of the timber resources of the West. He appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the United States Forest Service, established in 1905. Section 2

51 Under Roosevelt, the power of which branch of government dramatically increased?
A. Legislative B. Executive C. Judicial A B C Section 2

52 Taft’s Reforms William Howard Taft broke with progressives on tariff and conservation issues. Section 2

53 Taft’s Reforms (cont.) William Howard Taft called Congress into a special session to lower tariff rates. The tariff debate divided progressives, and in the end, Taft signed into law the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, which cut tariffs hardly at all and actually raised them on some goods. Section 2

54 Taft’s Reforms (cont.) Many progressives were unhappy when Taft replaced Roosevelt’s secretary of the interior, James R. Garfield, an aggressive conservationist, with Richard A. Ballinger, a more conservative corporate lawyer. Gifford Pinchot charged Ballinger with having once plotted to turn over valuable public lands in Alaska to a private business group for personal profit. Section 2

55 Taft’s Reforms (cont.) Taft’s attorney general decided the charges were groundless, but Pinchot leaked the story to the press and asked Congress to investigate. Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination. Section 2

56 Taft’s Reforms (cont.) Despite his political problems, Taft had many successes: He brought twice as many antitrust cases in four years as his predecessor had in seven. He established the Children’s Bureau in 1912. He set up the Bureau of Mines in 1910. Section 2

57 Taft’s Reforms (cont.) Frustrated with Taft over the issue of trusts, Roosevelt announced that he would enter the presidential campaign of 1912. Section 2

58 The Bureau of Mines did all of the following EXCEPT
A. monitor the activities of mining companies. B. expand the national forests. C. prohibit children from working in the mines. D. protect waterpower sites from private development. A B C D Section 2

59 Section 2-End

60 Big Ideas Individual Action Woodrow Wilson increased the control of the government over business. Section 3-Main Idea

61 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary income tax
unfair trade practices Academic Vocabulary academic unconstitutional Section 3-Key Terms

62 People and Events to Identify
Progressive Party New Nationalism New Freedom Federal Reserve Act Federal Trade Commission Clayton Antitrust Act National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Section 3-Key Terms

63 Section 3-Polling Question
Do you feel that discrimination is still an issue in the United States today? A. Yes B. No A B Section 3-Polling Question

64 The Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson was elected after Republican voters split between Taft and Roosevelt. Section 3

65 The Election of 1912 (cont.) Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican Party and became the presidential candidate for the newly formed Progressive Party in the election of 1912. Conservative Republicans rallied behind William Howard Taft. Woodrow Wilson was a progressive Democrat. Section 3

66 The Election of 1912 (cont.) The election of 1912 was a contest between two progressives with different approaches to reform. Roosevelt called his program the New Nationalism. Wilson countered with what he called the New Freedom. New Nationalism Versus New Freedom Section 3

67 The Election of 1912 (cont.) Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican voters, enabling Wilson to win. New Nationalism Versus New Freedom Section 3

68 Which candidate believed that monopolies should be destroyed and that freedom was more important than efficiency? A. Woodrow Wilson B. Theodore Roosevelt A B Section 3

69 Wilson’s Reforms President Wilson reformed tariffs and banks and oversaw the creation of the Federal Trade Commission. Section 3

70 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
Five weeks after taking office, Wilson appeared before Congress to present his bill to reduce tariffs. In 1913, Congress passed the Underwood Tariff, and Wilson signed it into law. This law reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about 30 percent of the value of the goods and provided for levying an income tax. Section 3

71 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
To restore public confidence in the banking system, Wilson supported the establishment of a federal reserve system. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created 12 regional banks to be supervised by a Board of Governors, appointed by the president. Progressives Reform the Economic System Section 3

72 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
In the summer of 1914, at Wilson’s request, Congress created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to monitor American business. The FTC had the power to investigate companies and issue “cease and desist” orders against companies engaging in unfair trade practices. Section 3

73 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
Wilson wanted the FTC to work toward limiting business activities that unfairly limited competition, as opposed to breaking up big business. Unsatisfied by Wilson’s approach, progressives in Congress responded by passing the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914. Section 3

74 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
In 1916, Wilson signed the first federal law regulating child labor. The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act prohibited the employment of children under the age of 14 in factories producing goods for interstate commerce. The Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional in 1918. Section 3

75 Wilson’s Reforms (cont.)
Wilson also supported the Adamson Act and the Federal Farm Loan Act. Section 3

76 A. The Clayton Antitrust Act B. The Sherman Antitrust Act
Which act became one of the most significant pieces of legislation in American history? A. The Clayton Antitrust Act B. The Sherman Antitrust Act C. The Federal Reserve Act D. The Hepburn Act A B C D Section 3

77 Progressivism’s Legacy and Limits
Progressivism changed many people’s ideas about the government’s role in social issues. Section 3

78 Progressivism’s Legacy and Limits (cont.)
By the end of the Progressive Era, Americans expected the government, particularly the federal government, to play a more active role in regulating the economy and solving social problems. The most conspicuous limit to progressivism was its failure to address racial and religious discrimination. Section 3

79 Progressivism’s Legacy and Limits (cont.)
In 1905 W.E.B Du Bois and 28 other African American leaders met at Niagara Falls to demand full rights for African Americans. This meeting was one of the many steps leading to the foundation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Section 3

80 Progressivism’s Legacy and Limits (cont.)
Jewish people also faced discrimination. Sigmund Livingston started the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) to combat stereotypes and discrimination. Section 3

81 Which of the following women worked to improve the situation of African Americans?
A. Mary White Ovington B. Jane Addams C. Ida Wells-Barnett D. A and B E. All of the above A B C D E Section 3

82 Section 3-End

83 Causes of the Progressive Movement
People thought progress in science and knowledge could improve society. People thought immigration, urbanization, and industrialization had created social problems. People thought laissez-faire economics and an unregulated market led to social problems and that government could fix them. Political corruption prevented the government from helping its citizens. VS 1

84 Effects on Business and Society
Interstate Commerce Commission is strengthened. Consumer protection laws are passed. Federal Trade Commission is created. Federal Reserve System is created to regulate the money supply. Clayton Antitrust Act grants labor unions more rights. Zoning laws and building codes improve urban housing. VS 2

85 Effects on Business and Society (cont.)
Child labor laws are passed, regulating time and conditions for minors to work. Workers’ compensation laws are passed. Temperance movement begins seeking limitations on the production and consumption of alcohol. VS 3

86 Effects on Politics Cities begin adopting commission and city-manager forms of government. States begin to adopt the direct primary system, allowing voters to choose candidates for office. States begin to allow initiatives, referendums, and recall votes. VS 4

87 Effects on Politics (cont.)
Seventeenth Amendment is ratified, requiring direct election of senators. Nineteenth Amendment is ratified, guaranteeing women the right to vote. VS 5

88 VS-End

89 Figure 1

90 Figure 2A

91 Figure 2B

92 Figure 3

93 Figure 4

94 Figure 5a

95 Figure 5b

96 Figure 5c

97 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

98 Why It Matters Trans

99 C & E Trans

100 Unit Timelines Trans

101 DFS Trans 1

102 DFS Trans 2

103 ANSWER: The two approaches were different
ANSWER: The two approaches were different. Roosevelt favored strengthening the federal government’s role in the economy, whereas Wilson favored reducing its role. DFS Trans 3

104 muckraker a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society

105 direct primary a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office Vocab2

106 initiative the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval Vocab3

107 referendum the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature Vocab4

108 recall the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office Vocab5

109 suffrage the right to vote Vocab6

110 prohibition laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages Vocab7

111 legislation a proposed law to be voted on by a governing body Vocab8

112 advocate to propose a certain position or viewpoint Vocab9

113 Social Darwinism based on Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution and natural selection, states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving Vocab10

114 arbitration settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider Vocab11

115 insubordination disobedience Vocab12

116 regulate to govern or direct according to rule Vocab13

117 environmental having to do with the environment; the complex system of plants, animals, water, and soil Vocab14

118 income tax a tax based on the net income of a person or business

119 unfair trade practices
trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of the competition Vocab16

120 academic associated with higher learning at a scholarly institution

121 unconstitutional not in accordance with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society Vocab18

122 To use this Presentation Plus! product:
Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. Help

123 This slide is intentionally blank.
End of Custom Shows

Download ppt "Splash Screen."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google