What are nouns? Nouns are people, places, things, or ideas Nouns can be common or proper –Proper nouns MUST be capitalized. Examples: –Common: girl, boy, school, town –Proper: Sally, Tom, MCMS, Tomkinsville
Concrete and Abstract Nouns Concrete nouns names something you can see or touch. –Ex. book, house, person Abstract nouns names ideas, qualities, or characteristics. –Ex. love, idea, time, culture
Compound Nouns Nouns made up of two or more words. These can be combined (as in compound word), hyphenated, or more than one word side-by-side. –Ex: birdhouse (compound word), sister-in-law (hyphenated), or dining room (more than one) –Use the rules for making words plural –Hint: compound words, or two words side-by- side, add an ‘s’ to the last word, three words: add an ‘s’ to the first word.
Possessive Nouns A possessive noun shows ownership. They can be singular or plural. For most singular nouns –Make them possessive by adding an apostrophe and –s (‘s). Example: Karen’s new skis are purple. Sarah’s coat is too small.
Possessive Nouns Singular nouns that end in –s: you must add an ‘s –Example: Chris’s shoes are untied. –Thomas’s shoes are tied. Plural nouns ending in –s: Just add an apostrophe (‘) –Example: The skiers’ goggles are sturdy. –The students’ books are at home today.
Singular & Plural Nouns Singular nouns- names one person, place, thing, or idea –Examples: girl, boy, school, Tompkinsville, Lexington Plural nouns-two or more people, places, things, or ideas –Examples: cars, buildings, shoes, clothes, shirts, books
For most plural nouns, you simply add an –s. –Examples: stores, cats, dogs, folders, pens, pencils Other ways to form plural nouns: –Words that end in s, ss, zz, ch, sh, or x Add an –es at the end of the word. –Examples: buzz=buzzes, box=boxes, or bus=buses Singular & Plural Nouns
If the word ends in –o and has a vowel before it you add an –s. –Examples: studio = studios, stereo=stereos If the word ends in –o and has a consonant before it, you add –es, usually. –Examples: hero = heroes, potato = potatoes, echo = echoes Sometimes you only add an –s. –Examples: zero = zeros, photo = photos, piano =pianos. Singular & Plural Nouns
Words that end in –y and have a vowel before it, add –s. –Examples: day = days, turkey = turkeys Words that end in –y and have a consonant before it, change the –y to –i, and add –es, usually. –Examples: family = families, city = cities, penny = pennies Singular & Plural Nouns
When a word ends in f or –fe, change the f or –fe to v, and add –es, usually. –Examples: leaf = leaves, wife = wives, life = lives, wolf = wolves Sometimes you only add an –s. –Examples: roof=roofs, chief=chiefs, belief=beliefs. Singular & Plural Nouns
Collective nouns: Names a group of people, places, things –Examples: team, family, class, group, school
Possessive Nouns Plural nouns not ending in –s: add ‘s –The women’s restroom is out of order. –The men’s sweaters are warm
Collective Nouns Names a group of that is made up of individuals. –Ex: team class crowd swarm
Appositives A noun placed next to another noun to identify or clarify it or to add information about it. –Ex: My dog, Spot, is a golden retriever. An appositive phrase is a group of words that includes an appositive and other words that describe the appositive. –Ex: An expert on food, John worried about food spoilage.