Presentation on theme: "Introduction to GDP Basic overview: Geographic Data Processing, GIS, what types of data, what applications?"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to GDP Basic overview: Geographic Data Processing, GIS, what types of data, what applications?
Topics GDP part of course Basic knowledge geography, cartography GIS data and representation GIS data sources and acquisition GIS data structures GIS analysis Label placement Terrain algorithms Trajectory algorithms Route planning LiDAR data and processing
This lecture What is a GIS? Examples of applications of GIS Basic functionality of GIS What is typical about GIS? What software and companies? Role of computer science
What is GIS? Definitions A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world (Burrough, 1986) A system for capturing, storing checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth (Dept. of Environment, 1987) An information technology which stores, analyses, and displays both spatial and non-spatial data (Parker, 1988)
Definitions, continued A database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database (Smith et al., 1987) A decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment (Cowen, 1988)
Differences Similarities Set of tools System Database system Decision support system Also: A technology Spatial data is essential At the least an aid for input, storage, manipulation, analysis and visualization of data
Most common use of GIS Management of geographic data –land use –land ownership –date of origin of features (e.g. buildings) –... with a possibility of querying
Important example use Site planning: find locations that satisfy a combination of properties (e.g. for VINEX locations): –not built up –not forest –near a train station –at least 8 km 2 –...
What is typical about GIS? Applications are spatial Problems are not well-defined: multiple criteria must be met simultaneously, concepts often not well- defined (e.g. Groene Hart, surroundings of Arnhem) Data is unreliable, expensive to get, sometimes outdated, sometimes only partially relevant, difficult to integrate,...
Firsts of data storage, I Geometric and attribute data Geometry: several map layers Attribute: as in normal databases municipality Zierikzee population 45.000 …..
Firsts of data storage, II Geometry: vector and raster representation (4.234 Lon, 52.671 Lat) (4.237 Lon, 52.674 Lat)
Output of a GIS Maps - theme choice - stacking order choice - colors, projection, etc. Tables, states Query results: “There is x square meter with the requested properties” Analysis results (e.g., for decision support)
Another example use and output
More examples Pollution Natural disasters Management (road, water,...) Planning earthquakes and break lines outcome of air pollution analysis
GIS in the Netherlands: data Cadastral offices (GBKN) Topographic Service (TOP10vector, raster) Road and Water Management (NWB) Elevation (AHN) Subsurface (TNO) Pollution data, health data (TNO, RIVM) Census bureau: CBS (statistical data) Companies (road networks)
Actueel Hoogtebestand Data comes with metadata –Average error 5 cm –Standard deviation 15 cm –Filtering of houses, trees, cars,... Price: 150,000 for the original data points; 75,000 for the 5m grid
Actueel Hoogtebestand, from 2012 Second version: data for every 0.5 x 0.5 meters 135 billion data values for the Netherlands Price: 455,000 for the original data points; 227,500 for the 0.5m grid
Cadastre/Topographic Service TOP10vectorTOP10roads Subscription, per 1 km 2 : 1.50 For all of NL: 42,500
Cadastre/Topographic Service TOP50rasterTOP250raster TOP10raster without text TOP10raster with text
Cadastre/Topographic Service Postal code regions, 6 digit: 13,325 Postal code regions, 5-digit: 1340 Postal code regions, 4-digit: 178 Cadastral map, 1 parcel: 0.66; from 1,000,000 parcels: 0.40 per parcel GBKN raster, per 0.5 km 2 : 1.45 (the Netherlands has 33,800 km 2 )
GIS in the Netherlands: users RIVM Cadastre (including Topografische Dienst Nederland) TNO (defense, security and safety; built environment and geosciences) Alterra (agricultural research) Rijkswaterstaat (ministery of Verkeer en Waterstaat) Companies Universities (research): physical and human geography, cartography, archeology, biology, meteorology, geophysics, geology, ….
Application areas: general Socio-economic/ government –Health –Local government –Transport planning –Service planning –Urban management Utilities –Network management –Service provision –Telecommunications –Emergency repairs Commerce & business –Market share analysis –Insurance –Fleet management –Direct marketing –Target marketing –Retail site location Environment –Pollution monitoring –Natural hazard assessment –Resource management –Environmental impact assessment
GIS in the Netherlands: research ITC: International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Enschede) Universities (e.g., Delft, Utrecht, Wageningen)
GIS: types of companies GIS, general software (ESRI, Intergraph, MapInfo, Oracle, Geodan, Logica) Route planners (TomTom, Garmin, Siemens, Magellan) Internet (geographic search engines/geographic IR, Google Maps/Earth, MapQuest,...) Data services, training, consultancy, applications
Main GIS company: ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) Since 1969 (!) 70 th largest software company (in 2008)
Software of ESRI ArcGis: GIS ArcView: desktop mapping ArcExplorer: GIS data viewer and query tool via map MapObjects: library to add GIS functionality to Windows applications Spatial Database Engine: client/server software to adjoin GIS to existing DBMS (Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL server, …) ArcLogistics, ArcCAD (GIS functionality in AutoCAD), ArcFM (facilities management), NetEngine (network analysis), Maplex (label placement)
Software of ESRI for Internet ArcIMS (Internet Mapping Solutions): GIS ArcView IMS (Internet Map Server): desktop mapping on the Internet MapObjects IMS: library to add GIS functionality to Windows applications
Software with GIS features Desktop mapping (Freehand, Map Maker, PolyMap) Car Navigation Systems (TomTom, Garmin, Magellan) Landuse Information Systems Software for (geo)statistics, interpolation (SYSTAT)
Computer science issues of GIS Databases (Geometric) algorithms Graphics, scientific visualization Knowledge technology, decision support systems Combinatorial optimization Interface design