Presentation on theme: "The Vietnam War Years The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties."— Presentation transcript:
1The Vietnam War YearsThe United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home.
2Section 1: Moving Toward Conflict To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States uses its military to support South Vietnam.
4French Rule in VietnamLate 1800s–WW II, France rules most of IndochinaHo Chi Minh—leader of Vietnamese independence movement- helps create Indochinese Communist Party1940, Japanese take control of VietnamVietminh—organization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign ruleSept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation
6France Battles the Vietminh French troops move into Vietnam; French fight, regain cities, South1950, U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communismThe Vietminh Drive Out the FrenchDomino theory—countries can fall to communism like row of dominoes1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrendersGeneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get northElection to unify country called for in 1956
10Diem Cancels Elections Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distributionS. Vietnam’s anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses electionU.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in SouthDiem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts BuddhismVietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officialsHo sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail
14Kennedy and VietnamLike Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisersDiem’s popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reformDiem starts strategic hamlet program to fight Vietcong- villagers resent being moved from ancestral homesDiem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protestU.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated
22President Johnson Expands the Conflict The South Grows More Unstable Succession of military leaders rule S. Vietnam; country unstableLBJ thinks U.S. can lose international prestige if communists winThe Tonkin Gulf ResolutionAlleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution gives him broad military powersAmericans killed, LBJ orders sustained bombing of NorthU.S. combat troops sent to S. Vietnam to battle Vietcong
26Section 2: U.S. Involvement and Escalation The United States sends troops to fight in Vietnam, but the war quickly turns into a stalemate.
27Strong Support for Containment LBJ hesitates breaking promise to keep troops out; works with:- Secretary of Defense Robert McNamaraSecretary of State Dean RuskCongress, majority of public support sending troopsThe Troop Buildup AcceleratesGeneral William Westmoreland—U.S. commander in South VietnamThinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ineffectiveRequests increasing numbers; by ,000 U.S. troops
30Vietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civilians An Elusive EnemyVietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civiliansTunnels help withstand airstrikes, launch attacks, connect villagesTerrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by U.S., VietcongA Frustrating War of AttritionWestmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong morale through attritionVietcong receive supplies from China, U.S.S.R.; remain defiantU.S. sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as battle for survival
38The Battle for “Hearts and Minds” U.S. wants to stop Vietcong from winning support of rural populationWeapons for exposing tunnels often wound civilians, destroy villages-napalm: gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to jungle- Agent Orange: leaf-killing, toxic chemicalSearch-and-destroy missions move civilian suspects, destroy propertyVillagers go to cities, refugee camps; 1967, over 3 million refugees
44Sinking MoraleGuerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of progress lower moraleMany soldiers turn to alcohol, drugs; some kill superior officersGovernment corruption, instability lead S. Vietnam to demonstrateFulfilling a DutyMost U.S. soldiers believe in justice of halting communismFight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling their duty
45The Great Society Suffers War grows more costly with more troops; inflation rate risingLBJ gets tax increase to pay for war, check inflation- has to accept $6 billion funding cut for Great SocietyThe Living-Room WarCombat footage on nightly TV news shows stark picture of warCritics say credibility gap between administration reports and eventsSenator J. William Fulbright’s hearings add to doubts about war
46Section 3: A Nation Divided An antiwar movement in the U.S. pits supporters of the government’s war policy against those who oppose it.
47http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=vCWdCKPt nYE The Times They Are A’Changin’Bob Dylan, 1963Come gather 'round peopleWherever you roamAnd admit that the watersAround you have grownAnd accept it that soonYou'll be drenched to the bone.If your time to youIs worth savin'Then you better start swimmin'Or you'll sink like a stoneFor the times they are a-changin'./watch?v=vCWdCKPt nYE
48Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your penAnd keep your eyes wideThe chance won't come againAnd don't speak too soonFor the wheel's still in spinAnd there's no tellin' whoThat it's namin'.For the loser nowWill be later to winFor the times they are a- changin'.Come writers and criticsWho prophesize with your penAnd keep your eyes wideThe chance won't come againAnd don't speak too soonFor the wheel's still in spinAnd there's no tellin' whoThat it's namin'.For the loser nowWill be later to winFor the times they are a-changin'.
49Come senators, congressmen Please heed the callDon't stand in the doorwayDon't block up the hallFor he that gets hurtWill be he who has stalledThere's a battle outsideAnd it is ragin'.It'll soon shake your windowsAnd rattle your wallsFor the times they are a-changin'.
50Come mothers and fathers Throughout the landAnd don't criticizeWhat you can't understandYour sons and your daughtersAre beyond your commandYour old road isRapidly agin'.Please get out of the new oneIf you can't lend your handFor the times they are a-changin'Come mothers and fathersThroughout the landAnd don't criticizeWhat you can't understandYour sons and your daughtersAre beyond your commandYour old road isRapidly agin'.Please get out of the new oneIf you can't lend your handFor the times they are a-changin'.
51For the times they are a-changin'. The line it is drawnThe curse it is castThe slow one nowWill later be fastAs the present nowWill later be pastThe order isRapidly fadin'.And the first one nowWill later be lastFor the times they are a-changin'.The line it is drawnThe curse it is castThe slow one nowWill later be fastAs the present nowWill later be pastThe order isRapidly fadin'.And the first one nowWill later be lastFor the times they are a-changin'.
52A “Manipulatable” Draft Selective Service System, draft, calls men 18–26 to military serviceThousands look for ways to avoid the draftMany—mostly white, affluent—get college deferment80% of U.S. soldiers come from lower economic levels
53African Americans in Vietnam African Americans serve in disproportionate numbers in ground combatDefense Dept. corrects problem by instituting draft lottery in 1969Racial tensions high in many platoons; add to low troop moraleWomen Join the Ranks10,000 women serve, mostly as military nursesThousands volunteer: American Red Cross, United Services Organization
54The New LeftNew Left—youth movement of 1960s, demand sweeping changesStudents for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free Speech Movement (FSM):- criticize big business, government; want greater individual freedomCampus ActivismNew Left ideas spread across collegesStudents protest campus issues, Vietnam war
57The Movement GrowsIn 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of thousands1966, student deferments require good academic standing- SDS calls for civil disobedience; counselsstudents to go abroadSmall numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popularFrom Protest to ResistanceAntiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violentSome men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada
59War Divides the NationDoves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdrawHawks favor sending greater forces to win the war1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyalJohnson Remains DeterminedLBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and dovesCombat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign
61Feel Like I'm Fixin' To Die Rag Country Joe and the Fish
62Yeah, come on all of you, big strong men, Uncle Sam needs your help again. He's got himself in a terrible jam Way down yonder in Vietnam So put down your books and pick up a gun, We're gonna have a whole lotta fun. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
63Well, come on Wall Street, don't move slow, Why man, this is war au-go-go. There's plenty good money to be made By supplying the Army with the tools of the trade, Just hope and pray that if they drop the bomb, They drop it on the Viet Cong. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam. And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
64Well, come on generals, let's move fast; Your big chance has come at last. Gotta go out and get those reds — The only good commie is the one who's dead And you know that peace can only be won When we've blown 'em all to kingdom come. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
65Well, come on mothers throughout the land, Pack your boys off to Vietnam. Come on fathers, don't hesitate, Send 'em off before it's too late. Be the first one on your block To have your boy come home in a box. And it's one, two, three What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam. And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
66Section 4 1968: A Tumultuous Year An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year.
67A Surprise Attack1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese new year)Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air basesTet offensive lasts 1 month before U.S./S. Vietnam regain controlWestmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Vietcong
69Tet Changes Public Opinion Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40%Mainstream media openly criticizes warLBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of DefenseAfter studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnableLBJ’s popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war
73Johnson WithdrawsSenator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as doveSenator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJ’s poor showing in NHLBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelectionViolence and Protest Grip the NationRiots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killedKennedy wins CA primary; is fatally shot for supporting IsraelMajor demonstrations on over 100 college campuses
75Turmoil in ChicagoVice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nominationOver 10,000 demonstrators go to ChicagoMayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National GuardProtesters try to march to convention; police beat them; riotingDelegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank
78Nixon TriumphsNixon works for party for years, wins Republican nominationCampaign promises: restore law and order, end war in VietnamGovernor George Wallace is third-party candidateChampions segregation, states’ rights; attracts protest-weary whitesNixon wins presidency
82Section 5: The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and America’s longest war finally comes to an end.
83The Pullout BeginsNew president Richard Nixon finds negotiations not progressingNational Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new planVietnamization—U.S. troops withdraw, S. Vietnam troops take over“Peace with Honor”Nixon calls for “peace with honor” to maintain U.S. dignityOrders bombing of N. Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia
85Mainstream AmericaSilent majority—moderate, mainstream people who support warThe My Lai MassacreNews breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai villageLt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisonedThe Invasion of Cambodia1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses
88Violence on CampusNational Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State UniversityGuardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in MS 2n100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support governmentThe Pentagon PapersNixon invades Cambodia; Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf ResolutionPentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJConfirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions
89Tin soldiers and Nixon coming, We're finally on our own Tin soldiers and Nixon coming, We're finally on our own. This summer I hear the drumming, Four dead in Ohio.
90Gotta get down to it Soldiers are cutting us down Should have been done long ago.
91What if you knew her And found her dead on the ground How can you run when you know?
96“Peace is at Hand”1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harborKissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: “Peace is at hand”The Final PushS. Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumesCongress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973The Fall of SaigonCease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975
99American Veterans Cope Back Home 58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in warReturning veterans face indifference, hostility at homeAbout 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorderFurther Turmoil in Southeast AsiaCommunists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million fleeCivil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize powerWant to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people
102The Legacy of VietnamGovernment abolishes military draft1973 Congress passes War Powers Act:- president must inform Congress within 48hours of deploying troops- 90 day maximum deployment withoutCongressional approvalWar contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders