2 ANCIENT CULTURE IN THE AMERICAS No one is sure when the first Americans arrived, but it is assumed that it may have been 22,000 years agoWhen the ice age receded, water lowered to create a land bridge between Asia and Alaska, as illustrated on the next slide
5 BIG GAME HUNTERS Early Americans were big game hunters As climate grew warmer, big animals no longer thrivedEarly Americans hunted smaller game and became fisherman
6 Many ancient groups continued south into Mexico and South America An agricultural revolution took place 5,000 to 10,000 years ago and they started planting cropsSome N. American cultures remained nomadic, moving from place to place in search of food and water
7 MAYA, AZTEC AND INCAN SOCIETIES FLOURISH Aztecs settle in the valley of Mexico in the 1200sMayan culture existed from 250 to 900ADIn south America around 1400 AD Inca was a powerful and glittering empire that stretched nearly 2500 miles in South America.
9 Native American Societies in the 1400s North America is a region of varying climates, so diverse cultures developedSouthwest – The Pueblo and Pima tribes lived in multistory houses made of stone or adobeNortheast – Beneath the forest canopy the Iroquois nation hunted fish and game.NE relied on hunting and SE people relied on the land for food, farming
10 Common characteristics Patterns of tradeAttitudes toward land useBeliefs and social valuesLAND WAS NOT TRADED – Source of lifeTHERE WAS AN EXTENSIVE TRADE NETWORK – Forest trails and river routes between tribes all over the continent
11 WEST AFRICA Why review this in a US history class?
12 WEST AFRICAImportant to the study of US history because of the slave trade and its impactWest Africa was home to a variety of sophisticated societiesFrom this region originated most of the people who were enslaved and brought to the Americas
13 WEST AFRICAMost West African societies lived in small villages where life revolved around familyMost West Africans believed in a single creatorTrade with the middle east brought about the arrival of IslamPortuguese began the European slave trade
14 Europe in the 1400sIn the late 1400s, most Europeans also lived in small villages bound to the landEuropeans bound to a social hierarchy based on rank. Monarchs/aristocracy/landowning elite, peasantryArtists and Merchants achieved social mobility
15 WHAT WAS THE DOMINANT RELIGION IN EUROPE IN THE 1400s? Christianity was the dominant religion in the 1400sAs Islam and Christianity spread, they came in conflictThis weakened the European nobles and allowed monarchs to consolidate power.Merchants gained power and helped these new governments through taxes
16 The Reformation Occurred in the 1500s, criticized church practices Challenged the authority of the popeCreated the tension that would later cause immigration to North America
17 MAJOR NATIONS TAKING SHAPE PORTUGALSPAINENGLANDFRANCE
18 THE RENAISANCE A CULTURAL AWAKENING IN EUROPE Resulted in an interest in the physical world that characterized Greece and RomeStarted in Italy, spread from there
19 GOLDEurope’s gold and silver mines were running low, so the monarchs looked west for wealth.Longbow and cannons allowed monarchs to dominate first their nobles, than West Africans and Native Americans
20 CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW DID THE FIRST AMERICANS ARRIVE?WHAT WAS THE NAME OF 1 EARLY AND ADVANCED AMERICAN CULTURE?WHY DID WE LOOK AT EUROPE AND AFRICA?
22 Christopher ColumbusCrossed the Atlantic in 1492 while looking for a sea route to AsiaAfter 2 months of sailing he reached landSpent 96 days exploring 4 islandsBrought back gold and slavesSpanish monarches were thrilled with his discoveries and financed 3 more trips
23 NOTES ON COLONIZATIONThe arrival of Europeans devastated the Native Americans with disease, so colonizers turned to AfricaTREATY OF TORDESILLAS – Spain and Portugal agree to divide the Americas between themTHE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE – Trade between native Americans and Europeans
25 SPAIN CLAIMS AN EMPIRESpanish Explorers took to the sea to claim new wealth for SpainTaxes from these merchants enriched the monarchyHernando Cortez landed in Mexico in 1519 with a force of 508 men, 16 horses and 10 cannons.They were amazed at the beauty of Aztec lands
26 Continued… Cortez and his men hungered for gold Montezuma thought that Cortez was a god and gave him some of the empire’s gold supplyEventually the Aztecs rebelled and tried to drive out the Spaniards.However, many Native Americans fell victim because of disease and weaponry.
27 ResultsIn 1521 the Spanish and their Native American allies overran the Aztec Capital Tenochtitlan and the Aztec surrenderedThe Spanish oppressed the Native Americans and forced them to work in an encomienda system where NA farmed, ranched or mined for Spanish lords.
28 CHAPTER 1 SECTION 3 EARLY BRITISH COLONIES JOHN SMITH – ENGLISH MERCHANTLED THE COLONY AT JAMESTOWN
29 SPANISH INFLUENCESPANISH COLONIES FOUNDED BY RULERS/ENGLISH COLONIES BY JOINT STOCK COMPANIES WITH INVESTORSJAMESTOWN COLONISTS LOOKED FOR GOLD AND NEGLECTED FARMING, ALMOST STARVING
30 TOBACCO BECOMES A CASH CROP JOHN SMITH FORCES COLONISTS TO FARM, SOON TOBACCO BECOMES A CASH CROPTobacco required labor, so Virginia offered 50 acres of land to adventurers.Indentured servantsAfrican American Slaves first arrived in 1619
31 New England Puritans, seeking freedom of religion The Pilgrims migrate to America on the MayflowerMayflower compact – Important early step in democracy