Presentation on theme: "U.S. HISTORY SECTION 1.1 AND 1.2 MR. ALLEN. ANCIENT CULTURE IN THE AMERICAS No one is sure when the first Americans arrived, but it is assumed that it."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. HISTORY SECTION 1.1 AND 1.2 MR. ALLEN
ANCIENT CULTURE IN THE AMERICAS No one is sure when the first Americans arrived, but it is assumed that it may have been 22,000 years ago When the ice age receded, water lowered to create a land bridge between Asia and Alaska, as illustrated on the next slide
BIG GAME HUNTERS Early Americans were big game hunters As climate grew warmer, big animals no longer thrived Early Americans hunted smaller game and became fisherman
Many ancient groups continued south into Mexico and South America Many ancient groups continued south into Mexico and South America An agricultural revolution took place 5,000 to 10,000 years ago and they started planting crops An agricultural revolution took place 5,000 to 10,000 years ago and they started planting crops Some N. American cultures remained nomadic, moving from place to place in search of food and water Some N. American cultures remained nomadic, moving from place to place in search of food and water
MAYA, AZTEC AND INCAN SOCIETIES FLOURISH Aztecs settle in the valley of Mexico in the 1200s Mayan culture existed from 250 to 900AD In south America around 1400 AD Inca was a powerful and glittering empire that stretched nearly 2500 miles in South America.
MAYA, AZTEC AND INCAN SOCIETIES FLOURISH
Native American Societies in the 1400s North America is a region of varying climates, so diverse cultures developed Southwest – The Pueblo and Pima tribes lived in multistory houses made of stone or adobe Northeast – Beneath the forest canopy the Iroquois nation hunted fish and game. NE relied on hunting and SE people relied on the land for food, farming
Common characteristics Patterns of trade Attitudes toward land use Beliefs and social values LAND WAS NOT TRADED – Source of life THERE WAS AN EXTENSIVE TRADE NETWORK – Forest trails and river routes between tribes all over the continent
WEST AFRICA Why review this in a US history class?
WEST AFRICA Important to the study of US history because of the slave trade and its impact West Africa was home to a variety of sophisticated societies From this region originated most of the people who were enslaved and brought to the Americas
WEST AFRICA Most West African societies lived in small villages where life revolved around family Most West Africans believed in a single creator Trade with the middle east brought about the arrival of Islam Portuguese began the European slave trade
Europe in the 1400s In the late 1400s, most Europeans also lived in small villages bound to the land Europeans bound to a social hierarchy based on rank. Monarchs/aristocracy/landowning elite, peasantry Artists and Merchants achieved social mobility
WHAT WAS THE DOMINANT RELIGION IN EUROPE IN THE 1400s? Christianity was the dominant religion in the 1400s As Islam and Christianity spread, they came in conflict This weakened the European nobles and allowed monarchs to consolidate power. Merchants gained power and helped these new governments through taxes
The Reformation Occurred in the 1500s, criticized church practices Challenged the authority of the pope Created the tension that would later cause immigration to North America
MAJOR NATIONS TAKING SHAPE PORTUGALSPAINENGLANDFRANCE
THE RENAISANCE A CULTURAL AWAKENING IN EUROPE Resulted in an interest in the physical world that characterized Greece and Rome Started in Italy, spread from there
GOLD Europes gold and silver mines were running low, so the monarchs looked west for wealth. Longbow and cannons allowed monarchs to dominate first their nobles, than West Africans and Native Americans
CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW DID THE FIRST AMERICANS ARRIVE? WHAT WAS THE NAME OF 1 EARLY AND ADVANCED AMERICAN CULTURE? WHY DID WE LOOK AT EUROPE AND AFRICA?
CHAPTER 1 SECTION 2 Spanish North America
Christopher Columbus Crossed the Atlantic in 1492 while looking for a sea route to Asia After 2 months of sailing he reached land Spent 96 days exploring 4 islands Brought back gold and slaves Spanish monarches were thrilled with his discoveries and financed 3 more trips
NOTES ON COLONIZATION The arrival of Europeans devastated the Native Americans with disease, so colonizers turned to Africa TREATY OF TORDESILLAS – Spain and Portugal agree to divide the Americas between them THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE – Trade between native Americans and Europeans
SPAIN CLAIMS AN EMPIRE
Spanish Explorers took to the sea to claim new wealth for Spain Taxes from these merchants enriched the monarchy Hernando Cortez landed in Mexico in 1519 with a force of 508 men, 16 horses and 10 cannons. They were amazed at the beauty of Aztec lands
Continued… Cortez and his men hungered for gold Montezuma thought that Cortez was a god and gave him some of the empires gold supply Eventually the Aztecs rebelled and tried to drive out the Spaniards. However, many Native Americans fell victim because of disease and weaponry.
Results In 1521 the Spanish and their Native American allies overran the Aztec Capital Tenochtitlan and the Aztec surrendered The Spanish oppressed the Native Americans and forced them to work in an encomienda system where NA farmed, ranched or mined for Spanish lords.
CHAPTER 1 SECTION 3 EARLY BRITISH COLONIES JOHN SMITH – ENGLISH MERCHANT LED THE COLONY AT JAMESTOWN
SPANISH INFLUENCE SPANISH COLONIES FOUNDED BY RULERS/ENGLISH COLONIES BY JOINT STOCK COMPANIES WITH INVESTORS JAMESTOWN COLONISTS LOOKED FOR GOLD AND NEGLECTED FARMING, ALMOST STARVING
TOBACCO BECOMES A CASH CROP JOHN SMITH FORCES COLONISTS TO FARM, SOON TOBACCO BECOMES A CASH CROP Tobacco required labor, so Virginia offered 50 acres of land to adventurers. Indentured servants African American Slaves first arrived in 1619
New England Puritans, seeking freedom of religion The Pilgrims migrate to America on the Mayflower Mayflower compact – Important early step in democracy