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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: The study of structure Subdivisions: Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: The study of structure Subdivisions: Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: The study of structure Subdivisions: Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy) Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology) Developmental (e.g., embryology)

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Essential tools for the study of anatomy: Mastery of anatomical terminology Observation Manipulation Palpation Auscultation

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Physiology: The study of function at many levels Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology)

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Essential tools for the study of physiology: Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular) Basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement) Basic chemical principles

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Complementarity Anatomy and physiology are inseparable. Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ___________ is the study of the body’s structure. Histology Anatomy Embryology Physiology

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. __________ is the study of the body’s function. Histology Anatomy Embryology Physiology

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. When the anatomy of a body part is intimately tied to its specific function, scientists call this the principle of ___________. hierarchical organization complementary nature of structure and function homeostasis negative feedback

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Levels of Structural Organization Chemical: atoms and molecules Cellular: cells and their organelles Tissue: groups of similar cells Organ: contains two or more types of tissues Organ system: organs that work closely together Organismal: all organ systems

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 1 Figure 1.1, step 1

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Smooth muscle cell 1 2 Figure 1.1, step 2

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1, step 3

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1, step 4

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1, step 5

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1, step 6

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is a logical organization? Atoms, cells, molecules, tissues Molecules, atoms, cells, tissues Atoms, tissues, molecules, cells Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Organ Systems Note major organs and functions of the 11 organ systems

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3a Nails Skin Hair (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3b Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3c Skeletal muscles (c) Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat.

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3d Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3e Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3f (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood. Heart Blood vessels

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3g Lymphatic vessels Red bone marrow Thoracic duct Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3h Nasal cavity Bronchus Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3i Liver Oral cavity Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Small intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3j Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3k-l Prostate gland Ductus deferens Penis Testis Scrotum Ovary Uterine tube Mammary glands (in breasts) Uterus Vagina Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The __________ level of organization is the main theme presented in this book. cellular tissue organ organ system

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ Systems Interrelationships All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs Organ systems work cooperatively to perform necessary life functions

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2 Digestive system Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) Respiratory system Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Food O2O2 CO 2 Cardiovascular system Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs Interstitial fluid Nutrients Urinary system Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Integumentary system Protects the body as a whole from the external environment Blood Heart Feces Urine CO 2 O2O2

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions 1.Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments Plasma membranes Skin 2.Movement (contractility) Of body parts (skeletal muscle) Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions 3.Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli Withdrawal reflex Control of breathing rate 4.Digestion Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs Absorption of simple molecules into blood

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions 5.Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells Catabolism and anabolism 6.Excretion: The removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion Urea, carbon dioxide, feces

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Necessary Life Functions 7.Reproduction Cellular division for growth or repair Production of offspring 8.Growth: Increase in size of a body part or of organism

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Survival Needs 1.Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins 2.Oxygen Essential for energy release (ATP production)

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Survival Needs 3.Water Most abundant chemical in the body Site of chemical reactions 4.Normal body temperature Affects rate of chemical reactions 5.Appropriate atmospheric pressure For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Of the eight necessary life functions, which of the following is not required for an individual’s survival? Maintaining boundaries Metabolism Reproduction (organismal) Excretion

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. One survival need of humans is appropriate atmospheric pressure. At high altitudes where atmospheric pressure is lower, you might expect that oxygen acquisition would ____________. decrease increase twofold increase threefold remain unchanged

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostasis Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes A dynamic state of equilibrium

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors (variables) Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Components of a Control Mechanism 1.Receptor (sensor) Monitors the environment Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables) 2.Control center Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained Receives input from receptor Determines appropriate response

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Components of a Control Mechanism 3.Effector Receives output from control center Provides the means to respond Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. ReceptorEffector Control Center BALANCE Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE Figure 1.4

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. BALANCE IMBALANCE 1 Figure 1.4, step 1

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Receptor BALANCE IMBALANCE 1 2 Figure 1.4, step 2

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Control Center BALANCE Afferent pathway IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 3

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. ReceptorEffector Control Center BALANCE Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 4

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. ReceptorEffector Control Center BALANCE Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 5

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative Feedback The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus Examples: Regulation of body temperature (a nervous mechanism) Regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine mechanism)

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.5 Sweat glands activated Shivering begins Stimulus Body temperature rises BALANCE Information sent along the afferent pathway to control center Information sent along the afferent pathway to control center Afferent pathway Afferent pathway Efferent pathway Efferent pathway Information sent along the efferent pathway to effectors Information sent along the efferent pathway to effectors Stimulus Body temperature falls Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain Effectors Sweat glands Effectors Skeletal muscles Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain) Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain) Response Evaporation of sweat Body temperature falls; stimulus ends Response Body temperature rises; stimulus ends

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative Feedback: Regulation of Blood Volume by ADH Receptors sense decreased blood volume Control center in hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) ADH causes the kidneys (effectors) to return more water to the blood

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is an example of a negative feedback mechanism? During labor, as uterine contractions begin, levels of the hormone, oxytocin, continuously rise to further stimulate more contractions. The thyroid gland releases thyroid hormone under the influence of the hormone TSH. TSH release decreases when thyroid hormone levels reach their set point. An individual who is incapable of synthesizing thyroid hormone will often develop an enlarged thyroid gland due to continuous TSH stimulation.

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive Feedback The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect Usually controls infrequent events e.g.: Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin Platelet plug formation and blood clotting

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Positive feedback loop Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. Released chemicals attract more platelets. Platelet plug forms Figure 1.6

57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. 1 Figure 1.6, step 1

58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. 1 2 Figure 1.6, step 2

59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Positive feedback loop Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. Released chemicals attract more platelets Figure 1.6, step 3

60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Positive feedback loop Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. Released chemicals attract more platelets. Platelet plug forms Figure 1.6, step 4

61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis Increases risk of disease Contributes to changes associated with aging May allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over (e.g., heart failure)

62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Anatomical Position Standard anatomical body position: Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward

63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.7a Cervical (a) Anterior/Ventral Pubic (genital) Cephalic Frontal Orbital Nasal Oral Mental Thoracic Axillary Mammary Sternal Abdominal Umbilical Pelvic Inguinal (groin) Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Antecubital Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Manus (hand) Palmar Pollex Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Patellar Crural (leg) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Tarsal (ankle) Metatarsal Digital Hallux Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum)

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1

69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Terms Two major divisions of body: Axial Head, neck, and trunk Appendicular Limbs Regional terms designate specific areas

70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.7a Cervical (a) Anterior/Ventral Pubic (genital) Cephalic Frontal Orbital Nasal Oral Mental Thoracic Axillary Mammary Sternal Abdominal Umbilical Pelvic Inguinal (groin) Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Antecubital Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Manus (hand) Palmar Pollex Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Patellar Crural (leg) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Tarsal (ankle) Metatarsal Digital Hallux Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum)

71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.7b Cervical Back (dorsal) (b) Posterior/Dorsal Scapular Vertebral Lumbar Sacral Gluteal Perineal (between anus and external genitalia) Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Olecranal Antebrachial (forearm) Manus (hand) Metacarpal Digital Lower limb Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Calcaneal Plantar Cephalic Otic Occipital (back of head) Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum)

72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes Plane: Flat surface along which body or structure is cut for anatomical study

73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes Sagittal plane Divides body vertically into right and left parts Produces a sagittal section Midsagittal (median) plane Lies on midline Parasagittal plane Not on midline

74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes Frontal (coronal) plane Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse (horizontal) plane Divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts Produces a cross section Oblique section Cuts made diagonally

75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8 Transverse plane Median (midsagittal) plane Frontal plane Liver Spleen Pancreas Aorta Vertebral column Spinal cord Subcutaneous fat layer Body wall Rectum Intestines Left and right lungs LiverHeart Stomach Spleen Arm (a) Frontal section (through torso) (b) Transverse section (through torso, inferior view) (c) Median section (midsagittal)

76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Anatomical Variability Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place Small muscles may be missing

77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Cavities Dorsal cavity Protects nervous system Two subdivisions: Cranial cavity Encases brain Vertebral cavity Encases spinal cord

78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Cavities Ventral cavity Houses internal organs (viscera) Two subdivisions (separated by diaphragm): Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity

79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9a-b Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Cranial cavity Superior mediastinum Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Pleural cavity Vertebral cavity Abdomino- pelvic cavity Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view(b) Anterior view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavities Thoracic cavity subdivisions: Two pleural cavities Each houses a lung Mediastinum Contains pericardial cavity Surrounds thoracic organs Pericardial cavity Encloses heart

81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavities Abdominopelvic cavity subdivisions: Abdominal cavity Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver Pelvic cavity Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9a-b Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Cranial cavity Superior mediastinum Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Pleural cavity Vertebral cavity Abdomino- pelvic cavity Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view(b) Anterior view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Serous Membrane (Serosa) Thin, double-layered membrane separated by serous fluid Parietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.10a-b Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium (b) The serosae associated with the heart.

85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdominopelvic Regions Nine divisions used primarily by anatomists

86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.11 Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdominopelvic Quadrants Divisions used primarily by medical personnel

88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.12 Epigastric region Umbilical region Right lumbar region Left lumbar region Right hypochondriac region Left hypochondriac region Hypogastric (pubic) region Right iliac (inguinal) region Left iliac (inguinal) region Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Appendix Cecum Diaphragm Stomach Descending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder (a) Nine regions delineated by four planes(b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs

89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive cavities Nasal cavity Orbital cavities Middle ear cavities Synovial cavities

90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. If someone has broken a leg, he or she has damaged the ________ division of the body. dorsal appendicular superficial axial

91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The __________ division of the body is necessary for supporting life. axial superficial appendicular appendage

92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The term ___________ refers to internal organs, while the term _________ refers to body cavity walls. serosa; pleural visceral; ventral serosa; parietal visceral; parietal


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