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The Great War and Treaty of Versailles

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1 The Great War and Treaty of Versailles
World War I The Great War and Treaty of Versailles

2 Causes of the Great War 1. Imperialism: All nations involved had empires and ambitions of expanding their influence (Africa, Middle East, Asia, Pacific) 2. Nationalism: In both Imperialist nations and oppressed nations (Serbians) 3. Secret Alliances: Triple Alliance--1882 (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) Triple Entente--1907 (France, Russia, Great Britain) * Created a “domino effect” that started the war.

3 Other Causes 4. Militarism: Build up of military power: men, weapons, tanks, planes, ships Germany’s army by 1914: nearly 5 million men * Enabled nations to go to war with one another. 5. Distrust and Hatred: Germany’s victory in Franco-Prussian War of 1870 still bothered France

4 6. War plans: each power poised and prepared for war
Military leaders devised inflexible military plans and timetables France's Plan XVII focused on offensive maneuvers and attacks Germany's Von Schlieffen plan: swift attack on France, then defensive against Russia

5 Global war

6 The guns of August: triggered a chain reaction
June 1914, Austrian Archduke assassinated by Serbian nationalist Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, July 28 Russia mobilized troops to defend its Serbian ally against the Central Powers Germany: July 31, sent ultimatums to Russia and France, which were ignored Germany declared war on Russia and France, invaded Belgium to reach France August 4: to protect Belgium's neutrality, Britain declared war on Germany

7 Sides of the War Allies: Central Powers: France
Britain (King George V) Russia (Czar Nicolas II) Italy--1915 Belgium United States--1917 Japan Central Powers: Germany (Kaiser Wilhelm II) Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

8 Mutual butchery

9 The western front German invasion of France halted along the river Marne for three years Trenches on the western front ran from the English Channel to Switzerland Italy entered war with Allies, maintained defensive line against Austria-Hungary

10 Stalemate and new weapons

11 New technologies favored defensive tactics over offensive tactics
Poisonous gas: introduced by Germans, used by both sides Eight hundred thousand casualties from mustard gas Armored tanks used to break down trenches toward end of the war Airplanes used mainly for reconnaissance Submarines used especially by Germans against Allied shipping Trench warfare


13 On the eastern front, battle lines more fluid
Austrian-German forces overran Serbia, Albania, and Romania Russia invaded Prussia 1915, but was soon driven out Russians' counterattacks in collapsed in a sea of casualties


15 long, costly battles At Verdun: French "victory" with 315,000 dead, defeated Germans lost 280,000 At the Somme, Britain and Germany saw losses of 420,000 each New rules of engagement Civilians became targets of enemy military operations Air raids against civilians; naval blockades common

16 Conflict in east Asia and the Pacific

17 Expansion of the war beyond Europe
European animosities extended to the colonies British and French forces recruited colonials into their armies Eventually, Japan, United States, Ottoman empire entered the war

18 Japan entered war with the Allies,
Seized German-leased territory in China New Zealand and Australia likewise seized German-held lands in the Pacific The Twenty-One Demands Japan advanced its imperial interests in China The Twenty-One Demands were designed to reduce China to Japanese protectorate Britain intervened, prevented total capitulation of China to Japan

19 Battles in Africa and southwest Asia

20 The war in sub-Saharan Africa
Allies targeted the four German colonies in Africa Togoland fell quickly, but not the others Many Allied soldiers and workers died from tropical diseases Battle of Gallipoli, 1915, in Ottoman Turkey British decided to strike at the weakest Central Power, the Ottomans Battle of Gallipoli a disaster, with 250,000 casualties on each side Weakened ties of loyalty between Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain

21 U.S. intervention and collapse of the Central Powers

22 1914-1916, United States under President Woodrow Wilson officially neutral
American public opposed participation in a European war The submarine warfare helped sway American public opinion German blockade sank merchant ships, intended to strangle Britain 1915, Germans sank Lusitania, a British passenger liner, killing 1,198 passengers

23 United States declared war on Germany, 6 April 1917
Allied Pressure Britain and France nearly bankrupt Russian Revolution of 1917: Russia exits war Zimmerman Telegram Germany asks Mexico to go to war with U.S. United States declared war on Germany, 6 April 1917

24 Collapsing fronts after years of bloodletting
April 1916, Irish nationalists attempted to overthrow British rule Central Powers: shortages, food riots, mutinies 1917, mutiny of fifty thousand French soldiers Spring 1918, massive Germany offensive on western front failed

25 With fresh American troops, Allies broke the front and pushed the Germans back
German army in full retreat Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates to Holland Central Powers collapsed, one after another; accepted armistices November 1918 Austria, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria surrender to Allies

26 Wilson’s Plan for Peace
January 1918: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson presents his plan for post-war world Fourteen Points-- 1. Self-determination: Independence for all colonialized nations 2. Peace without victory: Defeated Central Powers shouldn’t be punished harshly 3. Disarmament: All nations should limit their militaries and weapons 4. Fair treatment for colonial peoples Extend rights and freedoms to colonies 5. League of Nations: International peacekeeping organization that handles world’s problems Alleviates need for secret alliances

27 Big Four President Woodrow Wilson: United States
Prime Minister David Lloyd George: Great Britain Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau: France Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando: Italy

28 Terms of Treaty of Versailles
1. Germany loses territory: Poland and Czechoslovakia gain independence Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania gain independence 2. Austria and Hungary separated Austria looses territory in Balkans Yugoslavia created 3. Ottomans lose all territory outside of Turkey Countries of Middle East given to Britain and France as mandates 4. Germany looses all of its overseas territories: Mandates to France, Britain, Japan 5. Germany forced to demilitarize: Could only have volunteer army: 100,000 men--no draft No artillery, tanks, warplanes Navy could only have small fleet--no submarines 6. Germany forced to pay $33 billion in war reparations 7. League of Nations created--without United States

29 Map of Post-War Europe

30 Revolution in Russia

31 February Revolution of 1917: uprising against shortages, mounting deaths in the war
Facing mutinies, Nicholas II abdicated throne Provisional government established Struggle for power between provisional government and Petrograd soviet New government passed many liberal reforms Did not undertake land reform, did not withdraw from the war

32 V. I. Lenin (1870-1924) stepped into unstable situation
A revolutionary Marxist, exiled in Switzerland Saw importance of a well-organized, disciplined party for revolution German authorities delivered Lenin to Russia, 1917, to take Russia out of war Headed radical Bolshevik Party: demanded power to soviets, withdrawal from war

33 The October Revolution
Minority Bolsheviks gained control of Petrograd soviet Bolsheviks' slogan "Peace, Land, and Bread" appealed to workers and peasants Armed force seized power from provisional government in name of all soviets Russia withdrew from war, made a separate peace with Germany, lost one-third of Ukraine

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