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 Numbers that are extremely large can be difficult to deal with…sooo  Scientists convert these numbers into scientific notation  Scientific notation.

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Presentation on theme: " Numbers that are extremely large can be difficult to deal with…sooo  Scientists convert these numbers into scientific notation  Scientific notation."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Numbers that are extremely large can be difficult to deal with…sooo  Scientists convert these numbers into scientific notation  Scientific notation expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors: 1. A number between 1 and 10 (only 1 digit to the left of the decimal!) 2. Ten raised to a power

4 For example: A proton’s mass = kg If you put it in scientific notation, the mass of a proton is expressed as x kg Remember: When numbers larger than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is positive When numbers smaller than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is negative

5 Try these: Convert 1,392,000 to scientific notation. = x 10 6 Convert 0.000,000,028 to scientific notation. = 2.8 x 10 -8

6 Make sure the exponents are the same!! 7.35 x x 10 2 = 9.78 x 10 2 If the exponents are not the same, you have to make them the same!! Tip: if you increase the exponent, you decrease the decimal if you decrease the exponent, you increase the decimal Example: Tokyo pop: 2.70 x 10 7 Mexico City pop: 15.6 x 10 6 = 1.56 x 10 7 Sao Paolo pop: x 10 8 = 1.65 x 10 7 NOW you can add them together and carry thru the exponent Total= 5.91 x 10 7

7  Multiplication:  Multiply decimals and ADD exponents  Ex : (1.2 x 10 6 ) x (3.0 x 10 4 ) = 3.6 x = 10  * Ex: (1.2 x 10 6 ) x (3.0 x ) = 3.6 x (-4) = 2  Division:  Divide decimals and SUBTRACT exponents  Ex: (5.0 x 10 8 ) ÷ (2.5 x 10 4 ) = 2.0 x – 4 = 4  *Ex: (5.0 x 10 8 ) ÷ (2.5 x ) = 2.0 x – (-4) = 12

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9  SI units: Systeme Internationale d’ Unites  standard units of measurement to be understood by all scientists  Base Units: defined unit of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world  there are 7 base units  some familiar quantities are time, length, mass, and temp

10 Time  second (s)  Many chemical reactions take place in less than a second so scientist often add prefixes, based on multiples of ten, to the base units.  ex. Millisecond Length  meter (m)  A meter is the distance that light travels though a vacuum in 1/ of a second.  What is a vacuum?  Close in length to a yard.  Prefixes also apply…ex. millimeter

11 Mass  mass is a measurement of matter  kilogram (kg)  about 2.2 pounds  Masses measured in most laboratories are much smaller than a kilogram, so scientists use grams (g) or milligrams (mg).  How many grams are in a kilogram?  1000  How many milligrams are in a gram?  1000

12  Not all quantities are measured in base units  A unit that is defined by a combination of base units is called a derived unit.  Volume and Density are measured in derived units.

13 Volume  The space occupied by an object  Unit = cm 3 = mL  Liters are used to measure the amount of liquid in a container (about the same volume as a quart)  Prefixes also applied…ex. milliliter

14 QuantityBase Unit TimeSecond (s) LengthMeter (m) MassKilogram (kg) TemperatureKelvin (K) Amount of a substanceMole (mol) Electric currentAmpere (A) Luminous intensityCandela (cd)

15 PrefixSymbolNumerical Value in Base Units Power of 10 Equivalent GigaG1,000,000, MegaM1,000, KiloK Decid Centic Millim Microµ Nanon Picop


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