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Published byAurora Lummis Modified over 2 years ago

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Numbers that are extremely large can be difficult to deal with…sooo Scientists convert these numbers into scientific notation Scientific notation expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors: 1. A number between 1 and 10 (only 1 digit to the left of the decimal!) 2. Ten raised to a power

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For example: A proton’s mass = kg If you put it in scientific notation, the mass of a proton is expressed as x kg Remember: When numbers larger than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is positive When numbers smaller than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is negative

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Try these: Convert 1,392,000 to scientific notation. = x 10 6 Convert 0.000,000,028 to scientific notation. = 2.8 x 10 -8

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Make sure the exponents are the same!! 7.35 x x 10 2 = 9.78 x 10 2 If the exponents are not the same, you have to make them the same!! Tip: if you increase the exponent, you decrease the decimal if you decrease the exponent, you increase the decimal Example: Tokyo pop: 2.70 x 10 7 Mexico City pop: 15.6 x 10 6 = 1.56 x 10 7 Sao Paolo pop: x 10 8 = 1.65 x 10 7 NOW you can add them together and carry thru the exponent Total= 5.91 x 10 7

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Multiplication: Multiply decimals and ADD exponents Ex : (1.2 x 10 6 ) x (3.0 x 10 4 ) = 3.6 x = 10 * Ex: (1.2 x 10 6 ) x (3.0 x ) = 3.6 x (-4) = 2 Division: Divide decimals and SUBTRACT exponents Ex: (5.0 x 10 8 ) ÷ (2.5 x 10 4 ) = 2.0 x – 4 = 4 *Ex: (5.0 x 10 8 ) ÷ (2.5 x ) = 2.0 x – (-4) = 12

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SI units: Systeme Internationale d’ Unites standard units of measurement to be understood by all scientists Base Units: defined unit of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world there are 7 base units some familiar quantities are time, length, mass, and temp

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Time second (s) Many chemical reactions take place in less than a second so scientist often add prefixes, based on multiples of ten, to the base units. ex. Millisecond Length meter (m) A meter is the distance that light travels though a vacuum in 1/ of a second. What is a vacuum? Close in length to a yard. Prefixes also apply…ex. millimeter

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Mass mass is a measurement of matter kilogram (kg) about 2.2 pounds Masses measured in most laboratories are much smaller than a kilogram, so scientists use grams (g) or milligrams (mg). How many grams are in a kilogram? 1000 How many milligrams are in a gram? 1000

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Not all quantities are measured in base units A unit that is defined by a combination of base units is called a derived unit. Volume and Density are measured in derived units.

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Volume The space occupied by an object Unit = cm 3 = mL Liters are used to measure the amount of liquid in a container (about the same volume as a quart) Prefixes also applied…ex. milliliter

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QuantityBase Unit TimeSecond (s) LengthMeter (m) MassKilogram (kg) TemperatureKelvin (K) Amount of a substanceMole (mol) Electric currentAmpere (A) Luminous intensityCandela (cd)

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PrefixSymbolNumerical Value in Base Units Power of 10 Equivalent GigaG1,000,000, MegaM1,000, KiloK Decid Centic Millim Microµ Nanon Picop

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