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GASES Chapter 14

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**From last chapter… Kinetic Molecular Theory**

Particles in an ideal gas… have no ____________. Have ____________ collisions. are in ____________, random, straight-line motion. Don’t ____________________each other. have an avg. KE directly related to __________________________

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**Real Gases Particles in a ____________ gas…**

have their own volume attract each other Gas behavior is most ideal… At _______ pressures At _________ temperatures In ___________ atoms/molecules

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Properties of Gases __________________ – gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles in a gas Gases __________ to take the shape and volume of their container

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**Factors Affecting Gas Pressure**

_____________________– more particles have more collisions with the container walls and thus create more pressure _______________ – if you reduce the volume of the container, the particles are more compressed and exert a greater pressure on the walls of the container ______________ – increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles, which then strike the walls of the container with more energy

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**Remember? Units of Pressure**

KEY UNITS AT SEA LEVEL kPa (kilopascal) 1 atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 14.7 psi *These are all equivalent amounts of pressure

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**Standard Temperature & Pressure**

STP Standard Temperature & Pressure ____ ______ _____ __________ -OR-

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The Gas Laws 14.2 P V T

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**Boyle’s Law The pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related**

at constant mass & temp P V

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**Gas Law Problem BOYLE’S LAW P V**

A gas occupies 100. mL at 150. kPa. Find its volume at 200. kPa. BOYLE’S LAW GIVEN: V1 = 100. mL P1 = 150. kPa V2 = ? P2 = 200. kPa P V WORK:

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Charles’ Law The volume and absolute temperature (K) of a gas are directly related at constant mass & pressure V T

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**Gas Law Problem CHARLES’ LAW T V**

A gas occupies 473 cm3 at 36°C. Find its volume at 94°C. CHARLES’ LAW GIVEN: V1 = 473 cm3 T1 = 36°C = 309K V2 = ? T2 = 94°C = 367K T V WORK:

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Gay-Lussac’s Law The pressure and absolute temperature (K) of a gas are directly related at constant mass & volume P T

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**Gas Law Problem GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW P T**

A gas’ pressure is 765 torr at 23°C. At what temperature will the pressure be torr? GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW GIVEN: P1 = 765 torr T1 = 23°C = 296K P2 = 560. torr T2 = ? P T WORK:

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Combined Gas Law

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**Gas Law Problem COMBINED GAS LAW P T V V1 = 7.84 cm3 P1 = 71.8 kPa**

A gas occupies 7.84 cm3 at 71.8 kPa & 25°C. Find its volume at STP. COMBINED GAS LAW GIVEN: V1 = 7.84 cm3 P1 = 71.8 kPa T1 = 25°C = 298 K V2 = ? P2 = kPa T2 = 273 K P T V WORK:

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Avogadro’s Law The volume and number of moles of a gas are directly related at constant temperature & pressure V n

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**Gas Law Problem AVOGADRO’S LAW n V GIVEN: V1 = 36.7 L n1 = 1.5 mol**

Consider two sample of N2 gas. Sample 1 contains 1.5 mol of N2 and has a volume of 36.7 L at 25°C and 1 atm. Sample 2 has a volume of 16.5 L at 25°C and 1 atm. Calculate the number of moles of N2 in Sample 2. AVOGADRO’S LAW GIVEN: V1 = 36.7 L n1 = 1.5 mol V2 = 16.5 L n2 = ? n V WORK:

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**UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT**

Ideal Gas Law UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT R= Latm/molK R=8.315 dm3kPa/molK

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**Ideal Gas Law Problem P = ? atm n = 0.412 mol T = 16°C = 289 K**

Calculate the pressure in atmospheres of mol of He at 16°C & occupying 3.25 L. GIVEN: P = ? atm n = mol T = 16°C = 289 K V = 3.25 L R = Latm/molK WORK:

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**14.4 - Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures**

The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure that the gas would exert if it were alone in the container. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures says that the total pressure of a mixture of gas is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of all gases in the mixture. Or, Note: you can calculate the partial pressures of the gases if they behave ideally using the ideal gas law (P = nRT/V)

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Dalton’s Law Example A 2.0 L flask contains a mixture of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas at 25°C. The total pressure of the gaseous mixture is 0.91 atm, and the mixture is known to contain mol of N2. Calculate the partial pressure of oxygen and the moles of oxygen present.

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**Graham’s Law of Effusion**

____________ is the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout ____________ is when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container Gases of _______ molar mass diffuse and effuse _________ than gases of _________ molar mass

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**Graham’s Law of Effusion**

The rate of effusion of a gas is ____________ proportional to the square root of the gas’s molar mass. This equation compares effusion rates for two gases

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Graham’s Law Problem Calculate the ratio of the velocity of hydrogen molecules (H2) to the velocity of carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules at the same temperature.

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**Gas Stoichiometry Yes, we are going back to those 3 step problems…**

______________of a gas is the volume that is occupied by 1 mol of an ideal gas at STP. 1 mol of gas occupies __________ Yes, we are going back to those 3 step problems…

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**Gas Stoichiometry Problem**

Quicklime, CaO, is produced by heating calcium carbonate. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide produced at STP from the decomposition of 152 g of calcium carbonate according to the reaction CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

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Gases Gas Animations. Kinetic Molecular Theory Particles in an ideal gas… –have no volume. –have elastic collisions. –are in constant, random, straight-line.

Gases Gas Animations. Kinetic Molecular Theory Particles in an ideal gas… –have no volume. –have elastic collisions. –are in constant, random, straight-line.

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