Presentation on theme: "ENGT 122 – CAD I CAD I – Outline & Chapter 1 – Intro to AutoCAD"— Presentation transcript:
1ENGT 122 – CAD I CAD I – Outline & Chapter 1 – Intro to AutoCAD Chapter 2 – Getting Startedwith Auto-CAD
2CAD I - Outline Chap 1 – Introduction to AutoCAD Chap 2 – Getting StartedChap 3 – Drawing CommandsChap 4 – Drawing AidsChap 5 – Editing CommandsChap 6 – Editing with GripsChap 7 – Controlling Drawing Display & Creating TextChap 13 – HatchingChap 14 – Blocks
3Outline Chapter 1 –Intro to AutoCAD Chapter 2 - Getting Started CAD IntroStarting and Stopping AutoCADFile Commands (Saving, Opening, Closing)Command input MethodsCoordinates - Systems & Input MethodsDrawing Simple Objects (Lines, Circles)Modifying Objects (Erase, Undo, Move)Display Commands (Zoom, Pan)Basic PlottingHelp System
4What is CAD?Googlism – When this question was posed to Google (the popular internet search engine) this is how it responded:*cad is heading for the future cad is creative cad is more than a machine shop *cad is info database and analyzer cad is changing how we handle this essential building design phase *cad is a designer’s paradise *cad is expensive but becomes more widely available cad is a polygon editing program for 3d professionals and hobbyists *cad is fun *cad is more than just a visual tool cad is perceived cad is different *cad is increasingly more powerful and capable*cad is very powerful and fairly intuitive*cad is a powerful engineering drawing tool Etc……..
6What is CAD?… Really! CAD stands for Computer-Aided Design/Drafting. It involves inputting lines, arcs, dimensions, and text, not onto paper, but into an electronic database for engineering purposes and in compliance with specific industry standards.The ability to manipulate graphical data in many ways during and after completion of any job.There are many types of CAD systems and brand names, but you can break it down into 2D and 3D. In this Program we use AutoCAD 2007 for 2D and Inventor 11 for 3D.
7What do you think are the advantages of CAD over Mechanical Drafting?
8CAD Advantages CAD software is more accurate. Lines are crisp and clean.Text is legible (usually).Erasures are undetectable.More productive.Repetitive operations can be performed with a single command.Symmetrical parts are easily replicated.Editing drawings is much easier.Drawing can be transferred electronically.Storage requirements are minimal.Drawing retrieval process is much easier.Data is reusable.What else?
9What is AutoCAD?AutoCAD is an interactive general purpose CAD (Computer Aided Drafting) program.Developed in California in the early 1980’s by Autodesk Inc.Used in many disciplines: mechanical, civil, architectural, electrical, etc.Performs 2D drafting, 3D wireframe, and 3D solid modeling.Functionality is extremely comprehensive to suit various needs. Difficulty ranges from very easy to very complex, depending on user requirements.The world’s most popular PC-based design software. By knowing AutoCAD, you are more likely to get hired!
10Create a Working Folder To help keep your workspace and folders “clean” we will createa working folder for use during CAD I lectures:Login to your computer.Create a folder called CAD I in your home work space on U: drive (U: MECH##).Under CAD I create a subfolder called CAD I-Lecture(U: MECH##/CAD I/ CAD I-Lecture).This is the space where lecture exercises should be saved and stored.Your other CAD I files can be saved in other folders which YOU create under (U: MECH##/CAD I/).
11DemoShow demo of suggested file folder structure.
12Starting AutoCAD 3 ways to start AutoCAD: Double-Click AutoCAD 2007 icon on your desktop.Use the Start Menu –Start > All Programs > Autodesk > AutoCAD 2007 > AutoCAD 2007Double-Click an AutoCAD .dwg file in Windows Explorer.AutoCADIcon
13Demo Starting AutoCAD Double-Click AutoCAD Icon Start Menu Method Doubleclick Demo1.dwgExplain doubleclick on files if previous version of AutoCAd was used most recently.
14Shutting Down AutoCADTo Exit AutoCADIf you intend to keep the drawing data be sure you SAVE before exiting!Exiting AutoCAD:From Drop Down Menu: File > ExitOr click in upper right corner.Or type EXIT at command prompt followed by [Enter].To Exit AutoCAD
15Exercise: Start AutoCAD 2007 by double-clicking the icon. Examine the layoutInform your instructor of any problems!If you get a Startup Dialog Box,click Cancel with your left mouse button.Exit AutoCAD using the drop down menu.DO NOT save your drawing!Restart AutoCAD using the Start Menu.Exit AutoCAD using the Exit command.Restart AutoCAD by double-clicking the icon.Exit AutoCAD by clicking upper right .
17Demo Show Startup dialog box. Demonstrate changing Startup dialog box. Tools > Options > System > General Options > StartupSet to show Startup Dialog Box.
18Exercise: Start AutoCAD by double-clicking the icon. Examine the Startup dialog box (if you get one).Close the Startup dialog box (if you get one) by clicking Cancel with your left mouse button.Reset the system to either “Show a startup” (if you did not get one) or “Don’t show a startup” (if you did get one).Tools > Options > System > General Options > StartupExit AutoCAD. DO NOT save your drawing!Restart AutoCAD and verify that the system reset according to your expectations.Finish the exercise by resetting the system so that you Do get a Startup dialog box, then exit AutoCAD using the Exit command.
19Startup Dialog Box Explanation Options:Open a DrawingStart from ScratchImperialMetricUse a TemplateUse a WizardAdvanced SetupQuick Setup
20Startup - Opening a Drawing Shows most recently modified drawing files.Browse Button – to access other drawing files in directory structure.AutoCAD drawing files have a unique extension .dwgExample: bracket.dwg or hub.dwgMost recently modified filesBrowse to open other file
21Startup - Start From Scratch Starts blank drawing file using standard template:Imperial -units = feet and inchesTemplate file = acad.dwtMetric -units = millimetersTemplate file = acadiso.dwtTemplates – standardized file formats with preset internal variables. Provided with AutoCAD or created by user.Limits (drawing length and width)Text HeightDimension ScaleLinetype ScaleAutoCAD template files have a distinct extension .dwt
22Startup - Use a Template Starts a drawing file using standard AutoCAD or user defined template (.dwt).Drawing settings will match defined template properties.AutoCAD Templates:Standardized formats provided with AutoCAD.Typically found in AutoCADsubfolder called Templates.User defined templates:Template file containing commonly used settings and objects.Use Browser to locate user template.
23Startup - Use a Wizard Uses prompted info for drawing setup. Quick Setup Prompts:UnitsWork area (width & Length)Advanced Setup Prompts:AngleAngle MeasureAngle DirectionWork Area (width & Length)
24Demo Show Startup dialog box options. Open a Drawing Start from ScratchUse a TemplateUse a Wizard
25Exercise: Start AutoCAD by double-clicking the icon. Examine the Startup dialog box.Start a drawing by using a Wizard with Quick Setup.Exit AutoCAD. DO NOT save your drawing!Restart AutoCADStart a drawing using Template Ansi a – color dependent plot styles.dwt.Start a drawing by using Start From Scratch with English units.Start a drawing by using a Wizard with Advanced Setup.
27Saving Your Work!As you work on an AutoCAD drawing, all data for the drawing resides in RAM memory on the computer.If you close the AutoCAD session or some other misfortunate event occurs, ALL DATA WILL BE LOST! AND CANNOT BE RECOVERED! It’s enough to make a grown man (or woman) cry!…that is unless you have SAVED your session!
28Top 8 Events that will make you cry! Saving Your Work!Top 8 Events that will make you cry!Accidentally exiting AutoCAD.AutoCAD bugs.Failure of Microsoft Windows OS.Power failure (frequent occurrence).Unrecoverable error in drawing.Network issues or shutdown.Disrupting a network or power cable.Missing an assignment due to above!
29Saving Your Work!*Important – You should save to a folder on your NETWORK drive whenever possible! Network drives are backed up daily and can be recovered in the event of system failure. If you save to your local hard drive and the disk fails you are S.O.L.! If you save to your flash drive and loose it, you are S.O.L.!Hint: No excuses for late assignments unless its due to a network problem!
30Saving Your Work! Smart Save Tips: Save often! – it’s a good idea to save after every major change to a drawing.Create sensible file names that indicate the content.Create a running history of your save files for each particular assignment or project;Ex: Assign1_Bracket A.dwg 1st major saveAssign1_Bracket B.dwg 2nd major saveEtc.Create a logical folder structure to save to;Create folders for each course (Draft I, CAD I, etc)Create subfolders for assignments.Create separate subfolder for class exercises (show subfolder example).
31Saving Your Work!Most common ways to Save are the File drop down menu commands:Save & Save As…First time file is saved, a file name must be supplied. Either command will bring up the “Save As” dialog box for file name entry.Subsequent saves:Save – saves to the existing drawing file name. No prompts or dialog box occurs.Save As - brings up same dialog box. If new name is provided, data is saved to that new file and current drawing session name is updated.
32Saving Your Work! Save As Dialog Box: *NOTE: All AutoCAD files have a .dwg extension. This is how you identify them.Saving Your Work!Save As Dialog Box:Click to browse for a folderSelects folder where file is savedMoves folder up one level.Pre-existing file name may be selected from this list. File will be overwritten.Enter file name to save to. Drawing name will update as well.Not necessary to include .dwg extension. Added automatically.Click Save after folder and file name are entered
33Saving Your Work!Toolbar Quick Save: saves to the existing drawing file name. No prompts or dialog box occurs. Acts identical to Save from drop down menu.
34Demo Save – Drop Down Menu: Open a new drawing and examine default file name.Show Save & Save As in drop down menu.Show First save & subsequent saves.
35Opening and Closing Files You can open and close files at any time without leaving AutoCAD.Typically, such operations are performed with the File drop down menu.Starts a new file. Initiates Start-Up dialog box (same as when you started AutoCAD).Opens an existing file. Initiates Select-File dialog box. Allows you to browse for desired file.Closes the active session. If the session has not been saved, a prompt to save will be initiated.
36Demo Opening and Closing Files: Open an existing file. Open a new file.Close a file.
37AutoCAD Screen Layout Drop Down Menu Toolbar Menus Graphics Window Curser CrosshairWorld CS OriginCommand WindowEnvironment TabsCurser CoordinatesStatus Bar Buttons
38Making AutoCAD Do Stuff AutoCAD uses Commands, Command Data, and System Variables in order to perform a particular function.Commands – user selected instructions telling AutoCAD which operation to perform.Example: Line – creates a lineExample: Circle – creates a circleCommand Input Data – additional input data supplied by the user when issuing a command.Example: End points for creating a line with the Line commandSystem Variables – Internal AutoCAD data settings which determine how a particular AutoCAD command is performed.
39Command Input Redundant Commands – A specific command can typically be issued by various methods.Don’t let this confuse you, it simply allows options for you to work in a manner you prefer.Methods for issuing a command:Keyboard / Command LineDrop Down MenusToolbar Button MenusBe Observant - for all methods the Command Window prompts for command input data, indicates command status, and lists command history.
40Demo Show AutoCAD layout. Show various methods to issue one command. Show response in Command Window.
41Keyboard / Command Line: Type a command at command line prompt Command: followed by [Enter]Command prompt (Command:) must first be displayed, otherwise a previous command is still active.Use [Esc] to cancel previous command.Advantages:Often faster than searching through menus.Disadvantages:Requires memorizing command names.Must switch between mouse and keyboard.Command historyCommand line prompt or data input prompt
42Select command with left mouse button. Advantages: Drop Down Menus:Menus are cascading.Select command with left mouse button.Advantages:Commands and options are listed.Easier for beginners.Disadvantages:Requires memorizing menu structure.Slow to access command.Arrows indicate additional options or commandsCommand historydata input prompt
43Select command icon with left mouse button. Advantages: Toolbar Menus:Hold mouse pointer over toolbar command to display tool-tip (name of command).Select command icon with left mouse button.Advantages:Quick access to displayed toolbar commands.Easier for beginners.Disadvantages:Requires memorizing icons.Only displayed toolbars are accessible.Not all command options are available.Toolbar menus can get crowded.Tool-Tip for Line commandCommand historydata input prompt
44Toolbar commands are grouped in logical categories; Toolbar Menus:Toolbar commands are grouped in logical categories;Draw Toolbar, Modify Toolbar, etc.Toolbar menus are configurable;Can be displayed or hidden.Can be reshaped.Can be arranged anywhere on the screen.Toolbar visibility is controlled by;Right mouse click on any toolbar.Right click on toolbar
45Demo Issue command by keyboard. Show contents of drop down menus. Issue command by drop down menu.Show toolbar menus using tool-tips. Issue command by toolbar.Configure toolbar;Change visibilityChange locationChange Shape
46Toolbar VisibilityTypically, toolbar visibility is controlled by a right mouse click on any toolbar.Q: What if all toolbars are turned off?A: You must use the –TOOLBAR command.Command: -TOOLBAREnter toolbar name or [ALL]: STANDARDEnter an option [Show/Hide/Left/Right/Top/Bottom/Float] <Show>:This command is also useful for turning ALL toolbars on (Show) or off (Hide).
47Demo Show –TOOLBAR command. Turn on (Show) all toolbars. Turn off (Hide) all toolbars.Turn on the STANDARD toolbar.
48Exercise:Use the –TOOLBAR command to hide all toolbars.Then use the –TOOLBAR command to show only the Standard toolbar.Use right mouse click to display the Dimension toolbar.Move Dimension toolbar to the middle of the screen.Reshape Dimension toolbar until approximately square.Use right mouse click to display the Object Snap toolbar.Embed Object Snap as a vertical column into the menu on the right side of the graphics screen.Display the View and Inquiry toolbars and embed them in the menu under the Standard toolbar.
49Standard ToolbarExercise:Use –TOOLBAR command to first hide all toolbars, and then to show only the Standard toolbar. Place as shown.Display the Draw and Modify toolbars and arrange as shown.This layout will be used for class demonstrations. You should also maintain this toolbar arrangement for the initial portion of the course. We will add additional toolbars as the class progresses.Draw & ModifyToolbars
50Coordinate SpaceIn AutoCAD, geometry such as lines and circles are created by locating points in space.A Coordinate System is used as a reference for locating such points. In AutoCAD the primary CS is the World Coordinate System.Points can be placed in the WCS using several Coordinate System Input Methods:2D Rectangular Coordinates2D Polar Coordinates3D Cartesian Coordinates3D Cylindrical Coordinates3D Spherical Coordinates
51Coordinate Space 2D Rectangular Coordinates (Cartesian): Plane defined by horizontal X and vertical Y axes.Origin (0,0) is intersection of X and Y axes.X coordinate measures horizontal distance from origin.Y coordinate measures vertical distance from origin.Coordinates of a point are indicated by X, Y pairs.Ex: -3,5-X+X+Y-YXY
52Exercise: What are the X & Y coordinates of point: A B C D E Locate point at:-5, -46, 1.82.4, -1-5, 4-3,-5YBEAXDC
53Coordinate Space 2D Polar Coordinates : Alternate method of defining points in an X-Y plane.Location defined by radial distance from origin and an angle.Radius (R) is the direct radial distance from origin to point.Origin4.5<60θ+-Theta (Ө) is angle between +X axis and radial line to point;Counter-clockwise about origin is positive angle.Clockwise about origin is negative angle.Convenient for defining inclined lines & used often in AutoCAD.
54Coordinate Space Right Hand Rule: Used to determine positive direction of rotation about an axis.Point thumb along positive Z-axis, fingers point to positive rotation.Useful for determining sign of angle in polar coordinate system.*Note - counter clockwise is positive (default positive rotation in ACAD)YZX
55Exercise: What are the Polar coordinates of point A (ex: 630º) B C D Give approximate Cartesian coordinates for the following points;(490º)(2180º)(4-15º)(6330º)YBEAXDC
56AutoCad Coordinate System: Actual 3D Cartesian Coordinate System (X, Y, Z axes).Standard Graphics Screen looks & acts like a 2D Rectangular Coordinate System;X and Y axes shownZ coordinate = 0 (+Z axis directed out from screen).Axes located at bottom left on graphic window.Positive Y directionCoordinate AxesOriginPositive X direction
58Drawing Lines Lines are the most fundamental objects in drafting. We will start by creating straight lines.Several methods for creating straight lines;Command line we will start with this method.Toolbar menuDrop down menuSimultaneously, we will learn some commands for other basic functions which we will need.
59Drawing Lines Straight Lines – Command Method Example:Command: LINESpecify first point:Specify next point or [Undo]:Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Input 1st point (mouse pick or typed coordinates). Input 2nd point or Undo (allows point to be reselected. Type U then [Enter]). Input next point, Undo, or Close (draws line from last point to first point forming a closed polygon. Type C then [Enter]).Command can be terminated at any time;Press [Enter], [Esc], or [Spacebar].Right click mouse and select Enter or Cancel from pop-up menu.
60Demo Show LINE command (command line & menu) Show (U)ndo option. Show (C)lose option.Show command termination methods.[Enter], [Esc], or [Spacebar].Right mouse click. Show escape from previously issued command.
61Drawing Lines Straight Lines – Menu Methods Draw > Line from drop down menuLine icon from Draw toolbarStraight Lines – Menu MethodsThe same LINE command can be issued by using the Drop Down & Toolbar menus.
62Drawing Lines Straight Lines – Continue Option If line(s) have been created by executing the LINE command, and a new LINE command is issued, the Continue option can be invoked.Continue starts a new line from the endpoint of the last series of lines.If a LINE command has been previously executed, continue as follows:Command: LINEProgram Response: Specify first point:Press [Enter] or [Spacebar] to initiate line at previous endpoint, then continue defining line(s).
64Object SelectionMany commands require a drawn object (i.e. line) to be selected in order to modify it or create a new object.Object selection can be performed in various ways;Left mouse pick on a single object .Type all at the Select object: prompt.Select multiple objects by Window Option or Crossing Option.Left to right selects only items fully enclosed in box.Right to left selects all items partially enclosed in box.11Blue:WindowGreen: Crossing Box22Window Option – Left to RightCrossing Option – Right to Left
65Demo Load file DEMO2.DWG. For MOVE command show selection by; Cursor Pick & unselect by [Shift] keyALLWindow OptionCrossing Option
66Erasing Objects Command: ERASE Select objects to erase using selection methods discussed.When done selecting, complete command by either;Pressing [Enter] or [Spacebar].Right clicking mouse.Alternate Method:Pre-Select objects by any method.Press [Delete] key.
67Erasing Objects Menu Methods for Erasing Objects: ERASE command using Modify ToolbarERASE command using Modify drop down menu
68Demo Load file DEMO2.DWG. Show object selection methods. Show Erase commands.
69Exercise:1If not already started, start a drawing by using Start From Scratch with Imperial units.Use the typed LINE command and mouse picks to draw approximately the shapes shown.Use the Undo option and ERASE command to correct mistakes.Use the Close option and Continue options when appropriate.Experiment with various termination methods;[Enter], [Esc], [Spacebar], and Right mouse click.After I’ve seen your results, practice erasing with various selection options.2345
70Basic Display Commands Zooming and Panning:These are basic display functions used to manipulate your view of the object (graphic image).Zooming – visually reduces or enlarges the display image and (actual size & dimensions not altered).To zoom in (enlarge image) – rotate the scroll wheel on your mouse away from you.To zoom out (reduce image) – rotate the scroll wheel on your mouse towards you.Panning – visually translates the display image on the screen (actual location in World CS is not altered).Depress the scroll wheel button and translate mouse in desired direction for display image movement.Many other methods & options. These are just 2 to get started.
71Demo Load file DEMO2.DWG. Show Mouse Zoom Show Mouse Pan. Show double-click of middle mouse button for extents.
72Exercise:For Figure 1:Draw the red segments (top to bottom) using the drop down menu Line command, then issue [Esc] to end the command.Use toolbar Line command with the Continue option to draw the green segments.Erase all line segments.For Figure 2:Draw your own rendition of a house using the Line command and options. Use Erase as necessary.12
73Undoing a Command Redo Undo In the previous exercises, you probably made some mistakes which required you to erase and redraw.The undo command sequentially reverses the effects of each command previously executed.To undo the last executed command:Command: UOr select Undo from the Standard Toolbar.If the undo was unintentional, the REDO command reverses the effects of the last undo only.Command: REDORedo from the Standard Toolbar allows multiple redo.
74Undoing a Command Subtleties of Undoing a command: The UNDO command can be issued repeatedly to backtrack and undo several commands in sequence.The typed REDO command only works once and must be issued immediately after the U command. REDO from the toolbar allows multiple undos in succession.All graphics display commands are included in the Undo list.Don’t get confused!The U command should not be confused with the [Undo] option for line creation.Even more confusing!There is another undo commandCommand: UNDO rather than Command: UCommand: UNDO is a more sophisticated form of undo which we will look at later.
75Demo Show undo via command U. Show redo via command REDO. Show undo/redo via toolbar button.Show undo/redo via toolbar button drop down.
76Specifying Coordinates for Points Thus far…end points for lines have been specified by approximate mouse picks in the drawing plane.What are the problems with using this method?4 Accurate Methods for Defining Coordinates in AutoCAD:Absolute Rectangular CoordinatesRelative Rectangular CoordinatesRelative Polar CoordinatesDirect Distance Entry
77Specifying Coordinates for Points Absolute RectangularCoordinates:Coordinates given with respect to origin (0,0) of World coordinate system.Same as 2D Cartesian coordinate system discussed earlier.Points specified as X,Y pairs separated by comma.Example:Command: lineSpecify first point: -4,-2Specify next point or [Undo]: 2,-2Specify next point or [Undo]: 2,1Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: -4,1Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: closeWorld
78Use the grid spacing to draw the object using Absolute Rectangular coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Exercise:Pnt Coord.3,13,54,55,26,57,57,11 C
79Specifying Coordinates for Points Relative Rectangular Coordinates:Coordinates given with respect to last input point (not the origin of the World CS).Behaves as if origin relocated to last input point.Points specified as X,Y pairs preceded with symbol and separated by a comma.Example:Command: lineSpecify first point: 1,0 (Absolute Coords.)Specify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point or [Close/Undo]: close@2,2@-4,0@4,0
80Exercise:Use the grid spacing to draw the object using Relative Rectangular coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Pnt Coord.3,1@4,0@-1,1@1,0@0,1@-1,2@-1,-1@-1,-2@0,-11 @-1,-1
82Specifying Coordinates for Points Example:Command: lineSpecify first point: 1,0 (Absolute Coords.)Specify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point or [Close/Undo]: closeRelative Polar Coordinates:Coordinates given with respect to last input point (not origin of World CS).Locate by entering distance from last point to new point and angle of line between points from Positive X-axis.Point specified by distance r and angle preceded with symbol. = positive for rotation. = negative for rotation.@4.2<135@1<90@3<0
83Another Example of Polar Coordinates Example A:Command: lineSpecify first point: 1,0Specify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point or [Close/Undo]:Example B:Command: lineSpecify first point: 1,0Specify next point orSpecify next point orSpecify next point or [Close/Undo]:All line lengths = 2 units@2<-45@2<315@2<210@2<-150Example A:Example B:
84Exercise:Using only the dimensions on the drawing, draw the martini glass using relative polar coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Pnt Coord.1.5,email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<-firstname.lastname@example.org<-901 @0.25<-90Hint: this part is symmetric
85Specifying Coordinates for Points Direct Distance:Coordinates given with respect to the last input point (not the World CS origin).Similar to Relative Polar Coordinates but angle is determined by cross-hair position with respect to last point. Distance between the points is entered from keyboard.Points specified by distance r and cursor position.
86Demo Show use of Direct Distance for defining points. Show Ortho Mode (F8).Show Polar Tracking.
87Exercise:Use Direct Distance Entry to draw the given object. You must first set your polar tracking angle to 45º to draw the angled corners.Hint: this part is symmetric
88Modifying Objects MOVE Command: Used to relocate and assemble objects. Selected object(s) are displaced within the World CS.Command: MOVESelect objects:Specify base point or [Displacement]:Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Select objects by any method discussed then press [Enter] or [Spacebar]. Pick or enter a point defining start of displacement path then press [Enter].Pick or enter a 2nd point defining end of displacement path then press [Enter]. Selected objects move parallel to displacement path.
89Demo Load Demo4.dwg Show use of MOVE command. Absolute Coordinates Relative Coordinates
90Move Command – Menu Method Modify > Move from drop down menuMove icon from Modify toolbar
91Exercise: Draw the following object using the LINE command. Use the MOVE command to move entire object so its lower left corner is at absolute coordinate (6,6). Zoom and Pan to center object on screen.Move object 3 units to right and 2 units down.Move lower horizontal line 1 unit down.Move upper horizontal line 1 unit up.Each block = 1 unit(2,2) Absolute Coordinates
93Drawing CirclesQ: There are 6 methods for creating circles. Why so many options?.Circle Creation Options:Center and RadiusCenter and Diameter3 Point2 PointTangent Tangent RadiusTangent Tangent Tangent
94Drawing Circles CIRCLE – Center & Radius (default): Command: CIRCLE P1CIRCLE – Center & Radius (default):Command: CIRCLESpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:Pick or enter center point for circle.Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <0.750>:Press [Enter] to accept default radiusOr Enter new radius (i.e. 3).Or Enter a point which lies on circumference (absolute or relative to center point).Or Pick a point which lies on circumference (Drag circle).Command:P2
95Demo Load Demo4.dwg Circle – Center and Radius Default radius. Enter radius.Pick a point which lies on circumference.Enter absolute point which lies on circumference.Enter relative point which lies on circumference.
96Drawing Circles CIRCLE – Center & Diameter: Command: CIRCLE P1CIRCLE – Center & Diameter:Command: CIRCLESpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:Pick or enter center point for circle.Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <0.7158>:Enter D [Enter] for diameter option.Specify diameter of circle <2.500>:Press [Enter] to accept default diameter.Enter new diameter (i.e. 6).Enter a point (absolute or relative) - defines diameter by distance between point and center point.Pick a point - defines diameter by distance between point and center point. (Drag circle).Command:P2
97Demo Load Demo4.dwg Circle – Center and Diameter Enter diameter. Enter absolute point which defines diameter.Enter relative point which defines diameter.Pick a point which defines diameter.
98Exercise:Each block = 1 unitUse the CIRCLE command with the default center & radius option to create the pink circle in figure A.Use the CIRCLE command with the center & diameter option to create the blue circle in figure A.Use the MOVE command to center the pink circle in the blue circle as shown in figure B.A(0,0) Absolute CoordinatesB
99Drawing Circles CIRCLE – 3 Point Circle Any 3 non-linear points can define a circle.Command: CIRCLESpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:Enter 3P [Enter] for 3 point option .Specify first point on circle:Pick or enter first point on circleSpecify second point on circle:Pick or enter 2nd point on circleSpecify third point on circle:Pick or enter 3rd point on circleCommand:P1P2P3
100Drawing Circles CIRCLE – 2 Point Circle Any 2 points can define a circle diameter.Command: CIRCLESpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:Enter 2P [Enter] for 2 point option .Specify first end point of circle's diameter:Pick or enter first point.Specify second end point of circle's diameter:Pick or enter 2nd point.Command:P1P2
101Exercise:Create the following circles as specified.45321
102TangencyOur next circle creation method requires understanding the meaning of Tangent.Two objects (curves) are tangent if they touch at a single point without intersecting and have the same slope (direction) at that point.Circle Tangent to CircleCircle Tangent to Line
103Drawing Circles CIRCLE – Tangent Tangent Radius P1P2CIRCLE – Tangent Tangent RadiusCreates a circle tangent to two objects(line, arc, or circle) and with specified radius.Command: CIRCLESpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:Enter T [Enter] for tan tan radius option .Specify point on object for first tangent of circle:Pick point on first object to which circle will be tangent.Specify point on object for second tangent of circle:Pick point on second object to which circle will be tangent.Specify radius of circle:Enter value.Define radius by distance between 2 picked points.Define radius by distance between 2 entered points.Command:R
104Drawing Circles CIRCLE – Tangent Tangent Radius Pick locations determine configuration of tangencies.Some combinations may have no solution!P1P2P1P2Radius = 2
106Drawing Circles – Menu Methods Circle command on Draw Drop down menu has one additional option (tan tan tan). Tan tan tan option requires picking 3 objects for tangency, but no radius is input.Circle Icon on Draw toolbar operates the same way as CIRCLE command
107Exercise: Create the following: Line 1 - end points (4,1) (10,2). Circle 2 - center (2,4) and radius=2.Circle 3 - through points (8,4) (10,6) (5.5,5.5).Circle 4 – Tangent to Line 1, Circle 2, and Circle 3.Circle 5 – Tangent to Line 1 and Circle 3, radius=1.5.Circle 6 – Tangent to Line 1 and Circle 2, radius=2.75Exercise:354216
108REVIEW Quick Review of Commands We Have Learned: Command: LINE - Create a lineCommand: ERASE - Erase or delete an objectCommand: U - Undo last commandCommand: REDO - Reverse effects of last undo.Command: MOVE - Moves object(s) a prescribed distance and direction.Command: CIRCLE - Creates a circle with various options.
109Display CommandsZOOM – Reduces or enlarges display image. Similar to zoom function using scroll wheel on mouse, but with additional options.ObjectZooms & centers selected object to full screenWindow(default) Use Bounding box to select area you want to zoom in on.ZOOMScaleAllExtentsAll drawing objects are fitted to fill graphics window.PreviousDisplay from previous zoom is regenerated.CenterDynamic
110Display Commands ZOOM Command Command: ZOOM Specify corner of window, enter a scale factor (nX or nXP), or [All/Center/Dynamic/Extents/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] <real time>:Window – specify bounding box.Extents – Type E [Enter].Alternate method: Don’t issue command; instead quickly double-click the scroll-wheel button on your mousePrevious – Type P [Enter].Object – Type O [Enter]. Then select object to zoom to.
112Display CommandsPan RealtimeZoom RealtimeZoom PreviousZoom WindowZoom and Pan functions can also be accessed from the Standard Toolbar menu
113Exercise: Create circles and lines approximately as shown. Use the typed Zoom command with options as directed:Display all geometry - Extents option.Display only red circle – Object option.Display all geometry – Previous option.Display blue line & green circle – Window option.When finished, experiment with toolbar zoom & pan options.
115Automatic Timed Saves …Save early, Save Often! Automatic Timed Saves: As a precaution against lost data, AutoCAD automatically saves your file to a temporary folder at periodic intervals while you work ( every 120 min without you knowing).In other words, if you lose a file or data it may still be retrievable. You will need to see me to find out how.A WORD OF CAUTION: do not use this feature as an excuse for sloppy file management … the files may still be unrecoverable!…Save early, Save Often!
116Automatic Backups Automatic Backup Files: When you perform a save to an existing file, AutoCAD first creates a backup of the existing file (using a different extension) and then overwrites the existing file with the current session data.Example: If hub_1.dwg exists and I save to that file;Existing hub_1.dwg data hub_1.bakCurrent session data hub_1.dwgThe file icons for the .bak and .dwg files will appear different in Windows Explorer.Backup file is good in case you accidentally overwrite a file.You can use the backup file by changing its extension from .bak to .dwg.
117Demo Show automatic backup files (.bak). Change backup file to .dwg file and open.
118Opening Multiple Files In AutoCAD, multiple files may be open simultaneously.Allows you to switch between multiple open sessions or display them together in a pattern for comparison via “tile”.Accessed thru the Window drop down.
120Demo Show opening multiple files Show switching between files Show tiling files
121Basic Plotting Basic Plotting Requires Several Steps : Select Plotter – We have two plotters available, so the correct plotter must be selected. Typically, use the Laser Printer for CAD I.Select Paper Size – Choose a paper size which is supported by your selected plotter (remember standard sizes from Drafting I?).Specify Plot Area – The entire drawing or just a portion may be plotted. Determine what portion of the drawing to plot.Set Plot Scale – Most drawings conform to a particular scale (i.e. 1:2, 1:4). For our first exercises this is not required, but for later assignments an appropriate scale MUST be used!
122Basic Plotting Basic Plotting Requires Several Steps : Set the Plot Style Table – Select the More button , then select monochrome.ctb. This ensures all colored lines are black instead of gray scale.Specify Paper Orientation – Portrait or Landscape . We typically use Landscape orientation.Preview Plot – Often times, the plot will not appear as expected. You should ALWAYS preview the plot on your display screen before plotting. This saves wasted paper and toner (save a tree)!Plot – Send the plot to the plotter and retrieve your hardcopy!
123Basic PlottingA Plot can be initiated in 3 ways and they all do the same thing bring up Plot Dialog BoxCommand: PlotFile drop down menu > Plot…Standard toolbar > PlotPlot – Standard toolbar.Plot - File Drop down menu.
124Basic Plotting Plot Dialog Box Select Plotter Select Plot Scale Select Paper Size Specify Plot Area Select More button to expand
125Basic Plotting Set Plot Style Table Plot Dialog Box Select Paper Orientation Preview Plot
126DemoBasic Plotting –Show plot set up and basic options.
127Exercise: Start a new drawing. Draw a QUICK and SIMPLE self portrait (don’t be concerned if it doesn’t look like you…its just so you recognize the drawing when you pick it up at the plotter!).Plot your drawing using the following ;Plotter Device = Ask mePaper Size = 8.5 x 11Plot Area = WindowCenter the Plot = Scale = Scaled to FitPlot Style Table = Monochrome.ctbPaper Orientation = LandscapeFirst do a Print Preview, then print your self portrait, retrieve it from the printer, and gaze in amazement!Your Instructor
128HELP!In some instances (OK many instances) you may be lacking knowledge of a particular AutoCAD topic. Even your instructor may not know the answer (hard to believe, but true)!Command: HelpHelp drop down menu > HelpStandard toolbar > Standard Toolbar HelpHelp Drop Down Menu
130DemoAutoCAD Help SystemShow ContentsShow IndexShow Search methods
131Exercise:Using AutoCAD Help, determine how to create a Donut, then create the drawing below (don’t include dimensions).Origin
132REVIEW Quick Review of Commands We Have Learned: Command: Line - Create a lineCommand: Erase - Erase or delete an objectCommand: U - Undo last commandCommand: Redo - Reverse effects of last undo.Command: Move - Moves object(s) a prescribed distance and direction.Command: Circle - Creates a circle with various options.Command: Zoom - Enlarges or reduces display image.Command: Pan - Translates display image.Command: Qsave -Saves session data to current file name.Command: Plot - Brings up Plot Dialog Box, allowing plot configuration, plot preview, and actual plot.Command: Help - Starts AutoCAD Help dialogue box.
136Opening and Closing Files You can open and close files at any time without leaving AutoCAD.Multiple sessions/files may be open simultaneously.Typically, such operations are performed with the File drop down menu.Starts a new file. Initiates Start-Up dialog box (same as when you started AutoCAD).Opens an existing file. Initiates Select-File dialog box. Allows you to browse for desired file.Closes the active session. If the session has not been saved, a prompt to save will be initiated.
137Saving Your Work! Save – Other Methods: Command: Save Command: Saveas Both of these commands act identical to the Save As… command from the drop down menu. The Save AS dialog box will appear in both cases.Command: QsaveActs identical to the Save command from the drop down menu. No prompt or dialogue box will appear unless it’s the first time saved. The current drawing name file is written over with current session data.Toolbar Quick Save:Acts identical to the command line Qsave.
138Exercise:If not already started, start a drawing by using Start From Scratch with English units.Browse through the various Drop down and toolbar menus and just examine what’s in there.Then locate the following commands as directed, but DO NOT issue the command.Tip: use tool-tips to display the toolbar command names.Polyline command - drop down menus.Circle command - toolbar menus.Array command - toolbar menus.Rotate command - drop down menus.3-Point Arc command - drop down menus.Help command – toolbar menus.
139Dialog Boxes Some commands use a dialog box for command data input. Set the required Toggle Buttons, Slider Bars, Edit Boxes, etc. then left click OK.Edit BoxesToggle ButtonsSlide BarsActivate Command with left mouse click
140Coordinate Space 2D Rectangular Coordinate System (Cartesian): Plane defined by X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) axes.Origin (0,0) is intersection of X and Y axes.X coordinate measures horizontal distance from origin.+YY coordinate measures vertical distance from origin.Coordinates of a point are indicated by X, Y pairs. Ex: -3,5Axes divide coordinate plane into 4 quadrants I, II, III, and IV.XYIII-X+XIIIIV-Y
141Exercise: What are the X & Y coordinates of point A B C D E Give the quadrant for the following points;(-5, -4)(6, 1.8)(2.4, -1)(-5, 4)Locate point at;(-3,-5)….YBEAXDC
142Coordinate Space 2D Polar Coordinate System: Alternate method of defining points in an X-Y plane.Location defined by radial distance from origin and an angle.Radius (R) is the direct radial distance from origin to point.Theta (Ө) is the angle between the +X axis and the radial line to the point;Counter-clockwise about +Z axis is positive angle.Clockwise about +Z axis is negative angle.Convenient for defining inclined lines & used often in AutoCAD.4.530ºOriginRӨ
143Coordinate Space 3D Cartesian Coordinate System: 3D space defined by 3 mutually perpendicular axes X, Y, Z.Origin is intersection of X, Y, and Z axes (0,0,0).X and Y coordinates similar to 2D Cartesian system; Z coordinate adds depth.XYZPositive YCoordinates of a point are indicated by X, Y, Z values Ex: (0,4,0)This system used in AutoCAD. For 2D drafting, Z=0 simulates 2D system.Common system used for 3D wireframe & 3D Solid Modeling.Negative ZNegative XPositive ZPositive XNegative Y
144Coordinate Space Right Hand Rule: +YCoordinate SpaceRight Hand Rule:Specifies direction and sign (positive or negative) of the axes (X,Y,Z) for a Cartesian coordinate system.Fingers point in positive direction.-Z-X+X+Z-Y+Y+Y+Z+X+X+X
145Coordinate Space R Ө 3D Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate Systems: Similar to 2D polar system;For Cylindrical system, depth added by additional linear coordinate along Z-axis.For Spherical system, depth added by additional angular coordinate from X-axis in the X-Z plane.3D Cylindrical System3D Spherical SystemRӨ
146Use the grid spacing to draw the object using absolute rectangular coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Exercise:Pnt Coord.3,13,64,64,25,26,37,37,1
147Exercise:Use the grid spacing to draw the object using relative rectangular coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Pnt Coord.3,1@4,0@0,1@-1,0@1,1@0,2@-1,-1@-1,1@0,-2@1,-1@0,-1
148Exercise:Using only the dimensions on the drawing, create the object using relative polar coordinates. Only refer to the table at left if you get stuck.Pnt Coord.1.5,email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<-firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org<180Hint: this part is symmetric
149Exercise:Use Direct Distance Entry to draw the given object. You must set your polar tracking angle to 45º to draw the chamfered corners.
150Exercise: (p.1)Using Windows Explorer, create a folder named CAD I – Class Exercises unless you already have a similar folder.Start up AutoCAD if not already up.Close any open files using Close in the File drop down menu.Start a new file using the File drop down menu (Use start from scratch with English units).Draw a circle.Save your file as Circle 1.dwg in CAD I – Class Exercises using the File drop down menu.Use Explorer to examine the contents of CAD I – Class Exercises. Notice Circle 1.dwg .Save your file again as Circle 1.dwg in CAD I – Class Exercises using the Qsave toolbar.Use Explorer to examine the contents of CAD I – Class Exercises. Notice Circle 1.bak and Circle 1.dwg .
151Exercise: (p.2)Start a new file using the File drop down menu (Use start from scratch with English units).Draw 1 line.Save your file as Line 1.dwg in CAD I – Class Exercises using the File drop down menu.Examine the file name at the top of the AutoCAD screen.Use Explorer to examine the contents of CAD I – Class Exercises.Draw a second line.Save your file as Line 2.dwg in CAD I – Class Exercises using Save As… in the File drop down menu.
152Exercise: (p.3) Click on the Window drop down menu. Notice the folder path and file names of the 2 files at the bottom of the Window drop down menu. These are the session files you currently have open. The check mark indicates the active session (Line 2.dwg).Click on Circle 1.dwg at the bottom of the Window drop down menu. It should become active.Alternately activate each session until you are comfortable with the process.Activate Circle 1.dwg , then close it using the File drop down menu.Open Line 1.dwg , using the File drop down menu.Close Line 2.dwg , using the File drop down menu. Line 1.dwg should be the only active session. Check this by viewing the Window drop down menu.
153Exercise:Using AutoCAD Help, determine how to draw an arc using a Start point, Center point, and End point. Then draw an arc using the folowing data:Start Point = (5, 0)Center Point = (2, 2)End Point = (2, )
154Exercise: SolutionUsing AutoCAD Help, determine how to draw an arc using a Start point, Center point, and End point. Then draw an arc using the folowing data:Start Point = (5, 0)Center Point = (2, 2)End Point = (2, )End (2,5.6056)Center (2,2)(0,0)Start (5,0)
155Exercise:Using AutoCAD Help, determine how to create a filled Donut, then create the drawing below (don’t include dimensions).Origin