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Water Quantity and Quality. What is Water Pollution? any physical (temperature, oxygen), chemical (mercury), or biological (disease, sewage) change to.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Quantity and Quality. What is Water Pollution? any physical (temperature, oxygen), chemical (mercury), or biological (disease, sewage) change to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Quantity and Quality

2 What is Water Pollution? any physical (temperature, oxygen), chemical (mercury), or biological (disease, sewage) change to water that adversely effects its use by living things

3 Cuyahoga River, Ohio November 1952 Some river! Chocolate- brown, oily, bubbling with subsurface gases, it oozes rather than flows. "Anyone who falls into the Cuyahoga does not drown," Cleveland's citizens joke grimly. "He decays.” Time Magazine, August 1969

4 Groundwater Pollution

5 Types of Water Pollution 1.Biological 2.Chemical 3.Physical Measured in: Percent (%) Parts per thousand (‰) Parts per million (ppm) Parts per billion (ppb)

6 Biological Water Pollution 1.Infectious Disease (Pathogens) 2.Oxygen-Demanding Waste Direct (microbes in water): Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis… Entamoeba histolytica

7 Biological Water Pollution 1.Infectious Disease (Pathogens) 2.Oxygen-Demanding Waste Indirect (Water breeding carriers): malaria, yellow fever, west nile virus… Treehole mosquito (carried La Crosse ensephalitis)

8 Water Borne Disease

9 U.S. Water Borne Disease

10 Coliform Test Detection: Solutions: Sewage treatment Immunization

11 Biological Water Pollution 1.Infectious Disease (Pathogens) 2.Oxygen-Demanding Waste

12 Dissolved Oxygen Added by: turbulent water and photosynthesis Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and respiration/decomposition Good: > 6 ppm (mosquitoes can survive in 1 ppm) (also measured in % of maximum - Good = 60-80%)

13 Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Added by: respiration/decomposition & weathered rock Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and photosynthesis Good: 1-10 ppm (usually about 1 ppm)

14 Oxygen Sag

15 Measuring DO and other chemical properties

16 Chemical Water Pollution 3.Nutrients (Fertilizers) 4.Toxic Inorganic Materials 5.Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) Nitrogen, phosphorous

17 Eutrophication Dissolved inorganic nitrogen in Baltic Sea & Blue Baby Syndrome

18 Nitrates Typically: ppm Unpolluted usually below 1 ppm Sewage pollution increase up to 20 ppm

19 Chemical Water Pollution 3.Nutrients (Fertilizers) 4.Toxic Inorganic Materials 5.Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) 1.Heavy metals  mercury,lead, tin… 2.Super Toxic Elements  Arsenic, selenium… 3.Acids, salts, chlorine 4.Radioactive Isotopes

20 Arsenic in U.S. Waters

21 Some We Will Measure Copper natural, fungicides, insecticides, copper pipes can be lethal to some at 0.1 ppb, algae – 1-10 ppb, fish 500ppb water standard 0.3 ppm Acidity (pH) normal (rainwater is usually a little acidic) >9 – harmful to fish (inc. salmon) <5.5 releases metals in seds, bacteria die and organics don ’ t decay <5 insects die and fish eggs don ’ t hatch <4 lethal to adult salmon

22 Some We Will Measure Salinity Saltwater 3.5% Freshwater ppm usually >100 ppm is bad for freshwater organisms >250 ppm tastes salty (max for drinking water) Total Dissolved Solids (Ca,Mg,Hco3, NH4, NO3, PO4, SO4, Na, Cl, Na, K) from dissolved rock, fertilizer, urban runoff, irrigation, acid rainfall “ watchdog ” – high numbers or rapid changes may indicate problem typically ppm Drinking water must be below 500 ppm

23 Chemical Water Pollution 3.Nutrients (Fertilizers) 4.Toxic Inorganic Materials 5.Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s)

24 Artificial Chemicals

25 The Dirty Dozen

26 Physical Water Pollution 6.Sediment 7.Thermal Pollution 8.Solid Waste Chattahoochee River, GA Yellow River, China

27 Measured in: NTU ( Nephelometric Turbidity Units) Normal levels: 1-50 NTU Drinking Water: NTU Visible: >5 NTU Higher during storms

28 Physical Water Pollution 6.Sediment 7.Thermal Pollution 8.Solid Waste Causes:  industry  dams  removal of vegetation Optimum – Fish 5-20°C (salmon <12°C)

29 Physical Water Pollution 6.Sediment 7.Thermal Pollution 8.Solid Waste

30 Pollution Sources: Point Source 1.Sewage pipes 2.Leaky gas tanks 3.Industrial sites 4.Injection wells

31 Pollution Sources: Nonpoint Source 1.Agriculture (soil, fertilizer,pesticides) 2.Urban runoff (from pavement) 3.Construction sites 4.Air Pollution

32 Controlling Water Quality What can we do?

33 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment

34 Clean Water Act Established water quality standards 2.System for ID’ing point sources 3.Pretreatment for industry 4.Federal funding for sewage treatment 5.Provided for enforcement Worked well for point sources Nonpoint sources still a problem

35 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment 1.Remove lead from gasoline 2.Reduce road salting 3.Decrease erosion 4.Banning phosphates in detergents 5.Reduce fertilizer use, etc.

36 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment 1.Stormwater treatment 2.Reduce clearcutting 3.Preserve wetlands 4.Better construction practices

37 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment

38 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment Water hyacinths absorb arsenic

39 Solutions 1.Legislation 2.Source Reduction 3.Improved Land Use Practices 4.Remediation 5.Sewage Treatment West Point Treatment Plant, Seattle

40

41 Sewage in King County


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