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Presentation on theme: "Neoplasms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neoplasms

2 Definitions: Neoplasm Tumor New growth No new purpose
Swelling, enlargement, mass

3 Types of Neoplasm Benign vs. Malignant Varies with:
Cell characteristics Potential for spread Local , regional, distant spread Degree of anaplasia Cellular differentiation and specificity

4 Benign Neoplasms Slow growing Well defined, less anaplastic cells
Often encapsulated No infiltration of local tissue Unlikely recurrence

5 Malignant Neoplasms Rapidly growing Anaplastic
Metastasize via blood or lymphatics May/often recur after excision Fatality possible Called cancers

6 Cancer Growth & Spread Localized Metastases
Stays at the site of the original tumor (primary) Invades the local tissues Metastases Spreads beyond the site of the primary tumor Regional spread (local lymph nodes often) Distant mets (other organs or organ systems)

7 Risk Factors & Prevention
No single cause of malignancy Some risk factors: Carcinogen exposure Substance that increases the risk of cancer development Radiation, chemicals, tobacco, sun exposure Genetics Diseases that increase cancer risk Example: ulcerative colitis, familial adenomatous polyposis

8 General Preventative Measures
Stop smoking Limit alcohol consumption Protect skin from UV exposure Limit X-rays Limit exposure to harmful chemicals Asbestos, aniline dyes, vinyl chloride, benzene Limit HRT (estrogen therapy)

9 General Preventative Measures
Limit exposure to air pollution, solvent cleaners, paint thinners, pesticides, etc. Eat diet rich in fibrous fruits & vegetables, bran, whole grains. Moderate caloric intake. Exercise Regular medical screening exams Limit salt- & nitrate-cured & smoked foods.

10 Medical Screening Exams and Tests
Rectal exams (prostate Ca) Colonoscopy (colon Ca) Mammography (breast Ca) Pap smear (cervical Ca) PSA (prostate specific antigen) CEA (carcinoembyronic antigen)(colon cancer) Skin exam

11 Cancer Stats (2008) US cancer deaths: 565,650
-Decreasing 1.1%/yr from -Decreasing 2.1%/yr from New cases: 1,437,180 (not including nonmelanoma skin cancers)

12 Cancer Stats (2008) Most common Ca types in US (new cases per year):
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (over 1 million) About 50% all Ca diagnosed in US Lung (215,000) Prostate (186,000) Breast (182,000 females) Colorectal (148,000)

13 Classification of Neoplasms
According to type of body tissue involved Carcinomas Sarcomas Blood and lymph neoplasms

14 Carcinomas Most common type Solid tumors of epithelial origin
Examples: adenocarcinoma

15 Sarcomas Less common than carcinomas
Cancers of connective and supportive tissues Examples: osteosarcoma

16 Blood & Lymph Neoplasms
Leukemias Hodgkin’s Disease Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

17 Leukemias Not a solid tumor Increased number of abnormal WBC
Acute Type Acute myeloblastic leukemia Chronic Types Chronic myelocytic leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

18 Hodgkin’s Disease A type of lymphoma
Painless enlargement of lymph nodes in neck at first Reed-Sternberg cell is characteristic giant cell in this disease

19 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Malignant lymphomas More common than Hodgkin’s
Increasing in incidence Also has painless LN enlargement May involve other non-lymphatic tissues No Reed-Sternberg cells

20 Etiology of Neoplasms No single etiology
Reflects a change in chromosomal material Cell growth is independent & uncontrolled Generally considered a failure of immune system

21 Etiology of Neoplasms Heredity
Breast cancer (female relatives) Colon carcinoma (polyposis coli) Retinoblastoma (dominant trait) Most neoplasms are not inherited disorders

22 Etiology Viral etiology Carcinogens
Epstein-Barr virus (Burkitt’s lymphoma) Herpes simplex virus (cervical Ca) Human papilloma virus (cervical Ca) Carcinogens UV light, X-rays, radiation therapy, tobacco smoke, chewing tobacco, formaldehydes, asbestos, nickel & zinc ores, pesticides, etc.

23 Cancer Progression Hyperplasia Dysplasia Carcinoma in situ Metastases
Increased growth of cells Dysplasia Cells become abnormal in appearance Carcinoma in situ Remains in one place, a primary Metastases Distant spread via the circulation

24 Grading and Staging Grading Staging Describes the degree of anaplasia
Grade I (well differentiated cells) to Grade IV (difficult to tell tissue of origin) Staging Degree to which a cancer has spread TNM system Tumor size, # regional LN, metastases

25 Treatments Surgery Radiation Therapy
Specific, palliative, preventative Radiation Therapy Electromagnetic type (x-rays, gamma rays) Particle type (electrons, neutrons, protons, etc) Given externally or internally Radioisotopes Radiation affects DNA & cell replication of both cancer and normal cells

26 Treatments Chemotherapy
Most effective against cancers that spread widely Affect both cancer & normal cells Frequent adverse effects on bone marrow, GI tract, and skin Most common side effects: nausea, vomiting, anemia, leukopenia, alopecia

27 Treatments Immunotherapy (Biotherapy) Hormonal Therapy
Stimulation & strengthening of immune system Used early in the course of the disease Examples: interferon, bone marrow & stem cell transplantation, cord blood transfusion Hormonal Therapy Adds, blocks, or removes hormones that affect the growth of certain cancers (breast, prostate)

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