Presentation on theme: "POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY 1945-1960 Chapter 26 How did social and economic changes after World War II affect Americans?"— Presentation transcript:
POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY Chapter 26 How did social and economic changes after World War II affect Americans?
An Economic Boom An Economic Boom Section 1 How did the nation experience recovery and economic prosperity after World War II? Vocabulary: -demobilizationproductivity -GI Bill of RightsTaft-Hartley Act -baby boomFair Deal
Standards SSUSH21 The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United States SSUSH21.a Describe the baby boom and the impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act. SSUSH21.b Describe the impact television has had on American culture, including the Presidential Debates (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960), news coverage of the Civil Rights movement. SSUSH21.c Analyze the impact of technology on American life including the development of the personal computer and the cellular telephone. SSUSH21.d Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhower's actions.
An Economic Boom The Nation Recovers From War Main Idea: When World War II ended, Americans worried that the economy would fall back into depression, but ultimately there was economic growth. Truman Overcomes Huge Obstacles Main Idea: When Truman entered office he struggled with labor problems and southerners who wanted to avoid passing civil rights reforms, but he still managed to achieve reforms while in office. Eisenhower Charts a Middle Path Main Idea: Politically, Eisenhower took the middle road as President and the United States had one of the most prosperous times in the twentieth century during his term.
The Nation Recovers From War GI Bill aids returning soldiers Baby Boom fills classrooms Converting from a wartime economy – inflation and strikes U.S. dominates the world economy Technological progress boosts productivity Government spending supports growth
Truman Overcomes Obstacles Grappling with Congress and Labor -Taft-Hartley Act (outlawed the closed shop) Angering segregationists – Congress rejected recommendations to reform civil rights Truman upsets Dewey in Election of 1948 Truman proposed the Fair Deal
Trumans Domestic Policies Moving to a Peacetime economy Taft-Hartley Act – 80-day cooling-off period Fair Deal – 21-point program Republican Congress Election of 1948 – Truman defeats Thomas E. Dewey
The Presidential Election of 1948 GRAPH
Desegregation of the Armed Forces Truman desegregated the Armed Forces and Civil Service Employees
Eisenhower Charts a Middle Path Ike defeated Adlai Stevenson in the Election of 1952 World War II general Did not repeal existing New Deal programs, such as Social Security and the minimum wage Created the Interstate Highway system Spent federal money to improve education Prosperous, peaceful and tranquil time
Dwight Eisenhower Talented diplomat Nixons Checkers Speech Wins election in 1952 and 1956 Modern Republicanism – conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings.
Suburbs and Highways Baby boomers Suburbs – GI Bill Interstate Highway Act, $26 billion to build 40,000 miles of limited access highway
The Postwar Economy Economic Prosperity in the years after World War II brought many changes to American life.
The Mood of the 1950s The Mood of the 1950s Many Americans enjoyed the stability and prosperity of the 1950s, while some young people began to rebel against their parents society THE 1950s After depression and war, Americans value prosperity and security People have more free time to pursue entertainment and fun Many young people stay in school, rather than leaving early and finding jobs Many experience new found commitment to religious beliefs and practices Women are expected to work at home, raise family and help husband New books and rock and roll challenge values of the time
Demand for Civil Rights Demand for Civil Rights After WWII, African Americans began winning important victories in the battle for civil rights
A Society on the Move A Society on the Move Section 2 What social and economic factors changed American life during the 1050s? Vocabulary: -Interstate Highway ActAFL-CIO -service sectorSunbelt -California Master Planfranchise business -franchise businessmultinational -informational industry corporation
A Society on the Move Americans Move to the Suburbs Main Idea: Millions of Americans moved to the suburbs, where new housing developments established ideal communities to raise families. Eisenhower Interstate Highway System Main Idea: Eisenhower authorized the funding of an interstate highway system, which helped to connect major cities, making the move to suburbs possible and increasing the travel industry. Migrating to the Sunbelt Main Idea: Western and Southern states saw a rise in population as Americans moved there for jobs and Latinos migrated there from Mexico and Cuba. The American Economy Changes Focus Main Idea: After World War II, Americans shifted from mostly industry jobs to service jobs. This trend also led to a rise in franchises and multinational corporations and a decline in trade unions.
The American Dream Characterized by a home in the suburbs and a car in the garage, came true for many people in the postwar years
Car Ownership GRAPH
Americans Move to the Suburbs Suburbs attract young Americans – developers such as William Levitt built homes; FHA provided low-interest loans; GI Bill provided low-interest loans for returning service men and women Car Culture Interstate Highway Act – built for defense and travel
The Interstate Highway System TRANSPARENCY
Migrating to the Sunbelt Sunbelt- Name given to the southern and western states Appealing climate and jobs in defense industries Latinos, including many Cubans escaping Castros regime, moved to the Sunbelt Impact of migration – California became large and Northeast and Midwest lost political power
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects NOTE TAKING
American Economy Changes Focus Service sector grows – information industries; ENIAC, first computer Entrepreneurs start businesses – franchise businesses American corporations go multinational Unions consolidate their gains – AFL-CIO -Most white-collar workers did not join unions -Corruption in the Teamsters Union
Changes in the Workforce By 1956 a majority of American workers held white-collar jobs Growth of the service industry Blue-collar workers saw improved working conditions American Federation of Labor and Congress of industrial Organizations merged into the AFL-CIO
Businesses Reorganize Per capita income, the average income per person, increased from $1,526 to $2,788 Conglomerates, a large corporation that owns many smaller companies that produce entirely different goods and services Franchises, the right to open a restaurant using a parent companys brand name and system
Consumer Credit Grows Credit cards, used to charge goods and services Diners Club, 1950 American express BankAmericard (VISA)
Educational Opportunities Expand Government provides funding for education Education is Democratized – California Master Plan called for three tiers of higher education: research universities, state colleges, and community colleges Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka -1954; segregated schools declared unconstitutional
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas NOTE TAKING
Brown v. Board of Education May 1954 Supreme Court declared that separate but equal was no longer permissible in public education separate facilities are inherently unequal Struck down Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Mass Culture and Family Life Mass Culture and Family Life Section 3 How did popular culture and family life change during the 1950s? Vocabulary: -consumerismBenjamin Spock -median family incomerock-and roll -nuclear familyElvis Presley
Mass Culture and Family Life The Culture of Consumerism Main Idea: New products in the marketplace and an increase in income led to a rise in consumer spending in the 1950s. Family Life in the Fifties Main Idea: In the 1950s, traditional families, which were described at the time as a mother who stayed home, a father as the breadwinner, and children at the focus, became the center of society. Television Takes Center Stage Main Idea: Televisions were purchased quickly by Americans, expanded the mass national culture, and had a huge impact on Americans and society. Rock-and-Roll Shakes the Nation Main Idea: Building on traditional African American rhythm and blues music, Elvis Presley helped to spread the popularity of rock-and-roll to youth in the 1950s.
Culture of Consumerism Median family income rose to $5,417 during the 1950s Buying new conveniences Home appliances By 1953, 90% of all households owned a television
Technology Transforms Life Television Computers- transistors Nuclear Power Advances in Medicine
Technology Challenge Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957 Americans afraid of nuclear attack National Defense Education Act of 1958
Family Life in the Fifties Nuclear family – many women stayed home By 1960, 1/3 of women worked Children are the focus of the family Dr. Benjamin Spock, Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care Religious revival Improved healthcare for baby boomers
Comfort and Security Youth culture Resurgence in religion – Billy Graham Mens roles Womens roles –Betty Friedan
Television and the American Family TRANSPARENCY
Rock-and Roll Shakes the Nation Drawing on African American Roots Attracting a wider audience Elvis Presley
Dissent and Discontent Dissent and Discontent Section 4 Why were some groups of Americans dissatisfied with conditions in post-war America? Vocabulary: -beatnikurban renewal -inner citytermination policy
Dissent and Discontent Critics Reject the Fifties Culture Main Idea: Many intellectuals, artists, and other social critics complained about the conformity of American society after World War II. Rural and Urban Poverty Main Idea: During suburban growth, those in urban and rural areas, especially African Americans suffered from overcrowding, crime, and poverty. Other Americans Face Injustice Main Idea: Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Native Americans were some of the minorities who suffered hardships in housing, employment, and other areas of life.
Critics Reject Fifties Culture Objecting to Conformity – criticized advertising and loss of individualism Beats reject middle-class life – beatniks Refused to conform to accepted ways of dressing, thinking, and acting Disliked materialism of fifties
Challenges to Conformity Films: Rebel Without a Cause Books: The Catcher in the Rye Music: Rock and Roll – Elvis Presley Beat Generation stressed spontaneity and spirituality, challenged traditional patterns of behavior
Rural and Urban Poverty Cities suffer a decline – loss of middle class in cities Urban renewal projects – government cleared large tracts of older housing and built freeways and developments to revitalize downtown areas Poor forced to seek housing in overcrowded neighborhoods Rural poor suffer
Other Americans Face Injustice Puerto Ricans Mexicans Native Americans – termination policy (sought to end tribal government and to relocate Native Americans to the nations cities; terminated federal responsibility for the health and welfare of Native Americans Stressed assimilation
The Struggle for Equality Truman supported civil rights Congress refused to act Truman ended discrimination in hiring federal employees Truman ordered an end to segregation in the armed forces Jackie Robinson – first African American in pro baseball Played for the Brooklyn Dodgers 1947, leagues most valuable player Opened the way for other African American athletes