Presentation on theme: "POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY Chapter 26"— Presentation transcript:
1POSTWAR CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY 1945-1960 Chapter 26 “How did social and economic changes after World War II affect Americans?”
2An Economic Boom Section 1 “How did the nation experience recovery and economic prosperity after World War II?”Vocabulary:-demobilization productivity-GI Bill of Rights Taft-Hartley Act-baby boom Fair Deal
3StandardsSSUSH21The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United StatesSSUSH21.aDescribe the baby boom and the impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act.SSUSH21.bDescribe the impact television has had on American culture, including the Presidential Debates (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960), news coverage of the Civil Rights movement.SSUSH21.cAnalyze the impact of technology on American life including the development of the personal computer and the cellular telephone.SSUSH21.dDescribe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhower's actions.
4An Economic BoomThe Nation Recovers From WarMain Idea: When World War II ended, Americans worried that the economy would fall back into depression, but ultimately there was economic growth.Truman Overcomes Huge ObstaclesMain Idea: When Truman entered office he struggled with labor problems and southerners who wanted to avoid passing civil rights reforms, but he still managed to achieve reforms while in office.Eisenhower Charts a Middle PathMain Idea: Politically, Eisenhower took the middle road as President and the United States had one of the most prosperous times in the twentieth century during his term.
5The Nation Recovers From War GI Bill aids returning soldiersBaby Boom fills classroomsConverting from a wartime economy – inflation and strikesU.S. dominates the world economyTechnological progress boosts productivityGovernment spending supports growth
9Truman Overcomes Obstacles Grappling with Congress and Labor-Taft-Hartley Act (outlawed the closed shop)Angering segregationists – Congress rejected recommendations to reform civil rightsTruman upsets Dewey in Election of 1948Truman proposed the Fair Deal
10Truman’s Domestic Policies Moving to a Peacetime economyTaft-Hartley Act – 80-day cooling-off periodFair Deal – 21-point programRepublican CongressElection of 1948 – Truman defeats Thomas E. Dewey
12Desegregation of the Armed Forces Truman desegregated the Armed Forces and Civil Service Employees
13Eisenhower Charts a Middle Path “Ike” defeated Adlai Stevenson in the Election of 1952World War II generalDid not repeal existing New Deal programs, such as Social Security and the minimum wageCreated the Interstate Highway systemSpent federal money to improve educationProsperous, peaceful and tranquil time
14Dwight Eisenhower Talented diplomat Nixon’s Checkers Speech Wins election in 1952 and 1956Modern Republicanism – “conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings.”
15Suburbs and Highways Baby boomers Suburbs – GI Bill Interstate Highway Act, $26 billion to build 40,000 miles of limited access highway
16The Postwar EconomyEconomic Prosperity in the years after World War II brought many changes to American life.
17The Mood of the 1950s Many Americans enjoyed the stability and prosperity of the 1950s, while some young people began to rebel against their parents’ societyPeople have more free time to pursue entertainment and funNew books and rock and roll challenge values of the timeAfter depression and war, Americans value prosperity and securityTHE 1950sMany young people stay in school, rather than leaving early and finding jobsWomen are expected to work at home, raise family and help husbandMany experience new found commitment to religious beliefs and practices
18Demand for Civil Rights After WWII, African Americans began winning important victories in the battle for civil rights
19A Society on the Move Section 2 “What social and economic factors changed American life during the 1050s?”Vocabulary:-Interstate Highway Act AFL-CIO-service sector Sunbelt-California Master Plan franchise business-franchise business multinational-informational industry corporation
20A Society on the Move Americans Move to the Suburbs Main Idea: Millions of Americans moved to the suburbs, where new housing developments established ideal communities to raise families.Eisenhower Interstate Highway SystemMain Idea: Eisenhower authorized the funding of an interstate highway system, which helped to connect major cities, making the move to suburbs possible and increasing the travel industry.Migrating to the SunbeltMain Idea: Western and Southern states saw a rise in population as Americans moved there for jobs and Latinos migrated there from Mexico and Cuba.The American Economy Changes FocusMain Idea: After World War II, Americans shifted from mostly industry jobs to service jobs. This trend also led to a rise in franchises and multinational corporations and a decline in trade unions.
21The American DreamCharacterized by a home in the suburbs and a car in the garage, came true for many people in the postwar years
23Americans Move to the Suburbs Suburbs attract young Americans – developers such as William Levitt built homes; FHA provided low-interest loans; GI Bill provided low-interest loans for returning service men and women“Car Culture”Interstate Highway Act – built for defense and travel
26Migrating to the Sunbelt Sunbelt- Name given to the southern and western statesAppealing climate and jobs in defense industriesLatinos, including many Cubans escaping Castro’s regime, moved to the SunbeltImpact of migration – California became large and Northeast and Midwest lost political power
27Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects NOTE TAKING
28American Economy Changes Focus Service sector grows – information industries; ENIAC, first computerEntrepreneurs start businesses – franchise businessesAmerican corporations go multinationalUnions consolidate their gains – AFL-CIO-Most white-collar workers did not join unions-Corruption in the Teamsters Union
30Changes in the Workforce By 1956 a majority of American workers held white-collar jobsGrowth of the service industryBlue-collar workers saw improved working conditionsAmerican Federation of Labor and Congress of industrial Organizations merged into the AFL-CIO
31Businesses Reorganize Per capita income, the average income per person, increased from $1,526 to $2,788Conglomerates, a large corporation that owns many smaller companies that produce entirely different goods and servicesFranchises, the right to open a restaurant using a parent company’s brand name and system
33Consumer Credit Grows Credit cards, used to charge goods and services Diner’s Club, 1950American expressBankAmericard (VISA)
34Educational Opportunities Expand Government provides funding for educationEducation is “Democratized” – California Master Plan called for three tiers of higher education: research universities, state colleges, and community collegesBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka -1954; segregated schools declared unconstitutional
36Brown v. Board of Education May 1954 Supreme Court declared that “separate but equal” was no longer permissible in public education“separate facilities are inherently unequal”Struck down Plessy v. Ferguson , 1896
38Mass Culture and Family Life Section 3 “How did popular culture and family life change during the 1950s?”Vocabulary:-consumerism Benjamin Spock-median family income rock-and roll-nuclear family Elvis Presley
39Mass Culture and Family Life The Culture of ConsumerismMain Idea: New products in the marketplace and an increase in income led to a rise in consumer spending in the 1950s.Family Life in the FiftiesMain Idea: In the 1950s, traditional families, which were described at the time as a mother who stayed home, a father as the breadwinner, and children at the focus, became the center of society.Television Takes Center StageMain Idea: Televisions were purchased quickly by Americans, expanded the mass national culture, and had a huge impact on Americans and society.Rock-and-Roll Shakes the NationMain Idea: Building on traditional African American rhythm and blues music, Elvis Presley helped to spread the popularity of rock-and-roll to youth in the 1950s.
40Culture of Consumerism Median family income rose to $5,417 during the 1950sBuying new conveniencesHome appliancesBy 1953, 90% of all households owned a television
41Technology Transforms Life TelevisionComputers-transistorsNuclear PowerAdvances in Medicine
42Technology Challenge Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957 Americans afraid of nuclear attackNational Defense Education Act of 1958
43Family Life in the Fifties Nuclear family – many women stayed homeBy 1960, 1/3 of women workedChildren are the focus of the familyDr. Benjamin Spock, Common Sense Book of Baby and Child CareReligious revivalImproved healthcare for baby boomers
44Comfort and Security Youth culture Resurgence in religion – Billy GrahamMen’s rolesWomen’s roles –Betty Friedan
51Dissent and Discontent Section 4 “Why were some groups of Americans dissatisfied with conditions in post-war America?”Vocabulary:-beatnik urban renewal-inner city termination policy
52Dissent and Discontent Critics Reject the Fifties CultureMain Idea: Many intellectuals, artists, and other social critics complained about the conformity of American society after World War II.Rural and Urban PovertyMain Idea: During suburban growth, those in urban and rural areas, especially African Americans suffered from overcrowding, crime, and poverty.“Other Americans” Face InjusticeMain Idea: Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Native Americans were some of the minorities who suffered hardships in housing, employment, and other areas of life.
53Critics Reject Fifties Culture Objecting to Conformity – criticized advertising and loss of individualismBeats reject middle-class life – beatniksRefused to conform to accepted ways of dressing, thinking, and actingDisliked materialism of fifties
55Challenges to Conformity Films: Rebel Without a CauseBooks: The Catcher in the RyeMusic: Rock and Roll – Elvis Presley“Beat Generation” stressed spontaneity and spirituality, challenged traditional patterns of behavior
56Rural and Urban Poverty Cities suffer a decline – loss of middle class in citiesUrban renewal projects – government cleared large tracts of older housing and built freeways and developments to revitalize downtown areasPoor forced to seek housing in overcrowded neighborhoodsRural poor suffer
57Other Americans Face Injustice Puerto RicansMexicansNative Americans – termination policy (sought to end tribal government and to relocate Native Americans to the nation’s cities; terminated federal responsibility for the health and welfare of Native AmericansStressed assimilation
58The Struggle for Equality Truman supported civil rightsCongress refused to actTruman ended discrimination in hiring federal employeesTruman ordered an end to segregation in the armed forcesJackie Robinson – first African American in pro baseballPlayed for the Brooklyn Dodgers1947, league’s most valuable playerOpened the way for other African American athletes