2 Election of Jackson seen as triumph of the “common man” or “King Mob” Founders believed common man should vote to protect himself but superior man would leadWestern states increasingly dropped property qualifications for voting and made more offices elective rather than appointive
3 By Jackson’s time most presidential electors were selected by popular vote The beginning of the free school movementIncreasing literacy and numbers of newspaperNumbers of voters increased every election as people became more politically aware
4 As voting increased, so did competition between candidates Growth of political partiesParty organization became more importantParties first formed at state levelThe Election of 1828 stimulated formation of political parties as both nominees had nationwide stature- especially in states where neither candidate was strongLoyal party workers were rewarded with political office (the spoil system)
5 The party system began the day Adams took office due to the “Corrupt Bargain” Jackson did not take firm stands so as not to offend possible votersCampaign was full of lies and character assassination – but did bring out the votersJackson won and Adams refused to attend the inauguration
6 Jackson a symbol of the new democracy – a man of the people He was intensely patrioticHe drew support from every region and social classHe believed in equality of opportunity
7 Jackson entered the presidency intent on punishing those who had attacked his wife He “cleaned house” in Washington by appointing political loyalists – believed in the principle of “rotation”Rotation also replaced trained workers that soon made government inefficient (except the War & Navy departments)Jackson held expert knowledge in contempt believing ordinary Americans capable of anything
8 The Bank of the United States’ policies, under Nicholas Biddle, succeeded in keeping state banks soundBiddle’s policies, though sound, provoked opposition by those who distrusted paper money, bankers who wanted more freedom to make loans, New Yorkers who disliked the power of the Bank in Philadelphia, and those who were against monopoliesNicholas Biddle
9 Renew the bank’s charter! Yes! And we’ll get Jackson too! Jackson was ignorant of intricate bank dealings and was suspicious of all money institutionsBiddle gravitated towards Henry Clay and the New Republicans as Jackson became more threateningDaniel Webster and Clay sought to use the issue against Jackson and urged Biddle to renew the bank’s charterRenew the bank’s charter!WebsterYes! And we’ll get Jackson too!Clay
10 You will NOT get your bank! The re-charter bill passed Congress but Jackson vetoed itJackson insisted the bank was unconstitutional and a dangerous monopolyHe withdrew government funds and had his new treasurer, Roger Taney, put them in state banks that were less safe (after getting rid of two treasurers who advised against it)You will NOT get your bank!
11 Taney carried out Jackson’s orders and placed the funds in seven state “pet” banks (one in which he owned stock)By 1836, government money was in 90 state banksWith the deposits drying up in the Bank of the United States, Biddle pressed banks to pay specie for notes hoping Jackson would be blamed for the drying up of specie
12 Commerce came to a standstill as money became scarce and loans ceased Congress complained against JacksonJackson refused to budgeIn the end, Biddle reversed policy and money and lending flowed freely
13 If I become president we will have states’ rights! Jackson was pro-Union and disliked Calhoun personally and his arguments about states’ rightsCalhoun, who was vice-president, also wanted to be president but Jackson was standing in the wayIf I become president we will have states’ rights!
14 Jackson believed Indians were savages and incapable of living among settled society Indians inhabited regions that whites wanted for cotton production so Jackson called for Indian removalSome, like the Choctaw, went without a fight. Others like the Seminole, resisted
15 The Cherokee sought to hold their lands by becoming like the white They began farming and raising livestockDeveloped a written languageDrafted a constitutionNegotiated several treatiesGeorgia would not recognize the Cherokee state – 1828 passed a law voiding all Cherokee laws
16 Jackson backed Georgia The Cherokee challenged the law in the Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831Marshall ruled that the Cherokee could not sue in federal court even though previous rulings recognized Cherokee sovereigntyJackson backed GeorgiaIn 1838, The US forced 15,000 Cherokee to leave Georgia for Oklahoma- 4,000 died (The Trail of Tears)Cherokee Indians
18 New tariff in 1832 and Northern agitation against slavery caused South to talk once again of nullificationSouthern concerns intensified by Nat Turner uprising and planned uprising by slave named VeseyDespite warnings from Jackson, South Carolina passed a law nullifying the tariff. It then raised an army and supplied it with weapons
20 Everybody calm down! Let’s talk this out! Jackson tried diplomacy first in dealing with South Carolina while making military preparationsJackson equated nullification with treason – threatened to hang CalhounCalhoun sought to defuse situation- resigned as vice-president and as senator tried to reach agreementsNew tariff bill was produced along with a force bill that would allow Jackson to enforce the tariffEverybody calm down! Let’s talk this out!
21 South Carolina’s appeal for support from the rest of the South went unheeded Unionists within the state threatened civil war if the state persistedIn 1833, a compromise tariff was passed along with another force billWar was averted but South Carolina was becoming more radicalized- convinced that only secession could protect slavery
22 Large increases in gold and silver holdings due to Decline in Chinese demand for Mexican silverEnglish capital attracted by higher US interest ratesHeavy English purchases of cottonMuch of the new money flowed into land speculationIncrease in currency caused prices to soar
23 Land near cities was bought up Farmers borrowed heavily to buy more landJackson became alarmed at the speculation mania- issued the Specie Circular which made public land sales payable in gold and silver onlyDemand halted- prices sagged- speculators defaulted on debtsPanicked depositors drained banks of specie- forcing banks to close
24 Jackson approached even small diplomatic problems with forceful and rash behavior Britain finally opened West Indian ports to US trade but snag caused Jackson to threaten boycott on trade with CanadaFrance agreed to pay for damages to US during Napoleonic wars but failure of France to authorize funds caused Jackson to threaten warJackson’s actions gave US bad reputation in Europe
25 The Jacksonian Democratic Party Suspicion of special privilege and large business corporationsDistrust of the Bank of the United StatesEndorsed freedom of opportunity – few restrictions by governmentAbsolute political freedom (for white males)Belief that any ordinary man could perform the duties of most public officesJackson
26 Nucleus was Clay’s National Republican Party Mostly made up of differing anti-Jackson factions including Calhoun’s states’ rightersThe groups consisted of many intellectuals and wealthy businessmenLacked a leader and shared ideals
27 Don’t hate me just because I’m beautiful Van Buren
28 Democrats hurt by economic depression Whigs passed over Clay and Webster (their views were known) and nominated William Henry Harrison, “Hero of Tippecanoe,” and John TylerContrasted Harrison as man of the people versus Van Buren as eliteLog cabin and cider barrel became symbols of campaign
29 Clay and Webster squabbled over power Harrison electedHarrison did not believe in powerful executive of Jackson – left much of administration up to congressClay and Webster squabbled over powerHarrison died a month after taking officeTyler became presidentHarrison
30 Quiz What was the outcome of Gibbons v. Ogden? What political coalition was formed in 1830’s to challenge the Democrats?What was the immediate impact of the Erie Canal?What happened after Harrison’s inauguration?
31 Quiz What was Jackson’s policy towards the Indians? What tribe was forced to move from Georgia to Oklahoma?What was the only road built by the federal government?What was Liberia?How was Harrison portrayed in the 1840 election?
32 Quiz What city was most impacted by the Erie Canal? How did Jackson justify his veto of the charter of the national bank?After 1820, where did most immigrants come from?What weapon did Jackson use to attack the national bank?
33 Quiz The sanctity of contracts was upheld in what case? Jackson’s dislike of Calhoun was in part due to what social conflict?Who justified South Carolina’s opposition to the tariff?What was the most expansive economic force in the US after 1815?
34 Quiz Who perfected the first commercially viable steamboat? What was the “highway” for commerce in the West?Which case upheld the constitutionality of the national bank?What was Jackson’s most important foreign policy success?
35 Quiz What was Jackson’s reaction to nullification? What was the greatest advantage for the early canals?What did the Specie Circular require?What did the surge in cotton production cause?In the early 1800’s, what did private companies construct?
36 Quiz What was the major issue of the election of 1832? What were Jackson’s group of irregular advisors called?What helped democratize politics during the Age of Jackson?How would you characterize the election of 1828?Which party nominated Harrison?