Presentation on theme: "Jacksonian Democracy. Election of Jackson seen as triumph of the common man or King Mob Founders believed common man should vote to protect himself but."— Presentation transcript:
Election of Jackson seen as triumph of the common man or King Mob Founders believed common man should vote to protect himself but superior man would lead Western states increasingly dropped property qualifications for voting and made more offices elective rather than appointive
By Jacksons time most presidential electors were selected by popular vote The beginning of the free school movement Increasing literacy and numbers of newspaper Numbers of voters increased every election as people became more politically aware
As voting increased, so did competition between candidates Growth of political parties Party organization became more important Parties first formed at state level The Election of 1828 stimulated formation of political parties as both nominees had nationwide stature- especially in states where neither candidate was strong Loyal party workers were rewarded with political office (the spoil system)
The party system began the day Adams took office due to the Corrupt Bargain Jackson did not take firm stands so as not to offend possible voters Campaign was full of lies and character assassination – but did bring out the voters Jackson won and Adams refused to attend the inauguration
Jackson a symbol of the new democracy – a man of the people He was intensely patriotic He drew support from every region and social class He believed in equality of opportunity
Jackson entered the presidency intent on punishing those who had attacked his wife He cleaned house in Washington by appointing political loyalists – believed in the principle of rotation Rotation also replaced trained workers that soon made government inefficient (except the War & Navy departments) Jackson held expert knowledge in contempt believing ordinary Americans capable of anything
The Bank of the United States policies, under Nicholas Biddle, succeeded in keeping state banks sound Biddles policies, though sound, provoked opposition by those who distrusted paper money, bankers who wanted more freedom to make loans, New Yorkers who disliked the power of the Bank in Philadelphia, and those who were against monopolies Nicholas Biddle
Jackson was ignorant of intricate bank dealings and was suspicious of all money institutions Biddle gravitated towards Henry Clay and the New Republicans as Jackson became more threatening Daniel Webster and Clay sought to use the issue against Jackson and urged Biddle to renew the banks charter Webster Clay Renew the banks charter! Yes! And well get Jackson too!
The re-charter bill passed Congress but Jackson vetoed it Jackson insisted the bank was unconstitutional and a dangerous monopoly He withdrew government funds and had his new treasurer, Roger Taney, put them in state banks that were less safe (after getting rid of two treasurers who advised against it) You will NOT get your bank!
Taney carried out Jacksons orders and placed the funds in seven state pet banks (one in which he owned stock) By 1836, government money was in 90 state banks With the deposits drying up in the Bank of the United States, Biddle pressed banks to pay specie for notes hoping Jackson would be blamed for the drying up of specie
Commerce came to a standstill as money became scarce and loans ceased Congress complained against Jackson Jackson refused to budge In the end, Biddle reversed policy and money and lending flowed freely
Jackson was pro-Union and disliked Calhoun personally and his arguments about states rights Calhoun, who was vice- president, also wanted to be president but Jackson was standing in the way If I become president we will have states rights!
Jackson believed Indians were savages and incapable of living among settled society Indians inhabited regions that whites wanted for cotton production so Jackson called for Indian removal Some, like the Choctaw, went without a fight. Others like the Seminole, resisted
The Cherokee sought to hold their lands by becoming like the white They began farming and raising livestock Developed a written language Drafted a constitution Negotiated several treaties Georgia would not recognize the Cherokee state – 1828 passed a law voiding all Cherokee laws
The Cherokee challenged the law in the Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831 Marshall ruled that the Cherokee could not sue in federal court even though previous rulings recognized Cherokee sovereignty Jackson backed Georgia In 1838, The US forced 15,000 Cherokee to leave Georgia for Oklahoma- 4,000 died (The Trail of Tears) Cherokee Indians
New tariff in 1832 and Northern agitation against slavery caused South to talk once again of nullification Southern concerns intensified by Nat Turner uprising and planned uprising by slave named Vesey Despite warnings from Jackson, South Carolina passed a law nullifying the tariff. It then raised an army and supplied it with weapons
Jackson tried diplomacy first in dealing with South Carolina while making military preparations Jackson equated nullification with treason – threatened to hang Calhoun Calhoun sought to defuse situation- resigned as vice- president and as senator tried to reach agreements New tariff bill was produced along with a force bill that would allow Jackson to enforce the tariff Everybody calm down! Lets talk this out!
South Carolinas appeal for support from the rest of the South went unheeded Unionists within the state threatened civil war if the state persisted In 1833, a compromise tariff was passed along with another force bill War was averted but South Carolina was becoming more radicalized- convinced that only secession could protect slavery
Large increases in gold and silver holdings due to Decline in Chinese demand for Mexican silver English capital attracted by higher US interest rates Heavy English purchases of cotton Much of the new money flowed into land speculation Increase in currency caused prices to soar
Land near cities was bought up Farmers borrowed heavily to buy more land Jackson became alarmed at the speculation mania- issued the Specie Circular which made public land sales payable in gold and silver only Demand halted- prices sagged- speculators defaulted on debts Panicked depositors drained banks of specie- forcing banks to close
Jackson approached even small diplomatic problems with forceful and rash behavior Britain finally opened West Indian ports to US trade but snag caused Jackson to threaten boycott on trade with Canada France agreed to pay for damages to US during Napoleonic wars but failure of France to authorize funds caused Jackson to threaten war Jacksons actions gave US bad reputation in Europe
The Jacksonian Democratic Party Suspicion of special privilege and large business corporations Distrust of the Bank of the United States Endorsed freedom of opportunity – few restrictions by government Absolute political freedom (for white males) Belief that any ordinary man could perform the duties of most public offices Jackson
Nucleus was Clays National Republican Party Mostly made up of differing anti-Jackson factions including Calhouns states righters The groups consisted of many intellectuals and wealthy businessmen Lacked a leader and shared ideals
Van Buren Dont hate me just because Im beautiful
Democrats hurt by economic depression Whigs passed over Clay and Webster (their views were known) and nominated William Henry Harrison, Hero of Tippecanoe, and John Tyler Contrasted Harrison as man of the people versus Van Buren as elite Log cabin and cider barrel became symbols of campaign
Harrison elected Harrison did not believe in powerful executive of Jackson – left much of administration up to congress Clay and Webster squabbled over power Harrison died a month after taking office Tyler became president Harrison
Quiz What was the outcome of Gibbons v. Ogden? What political coalition was formed in 1830s to challenge the Democrats? What was the immediate impact of the Erie Canal? What happened after Harrisons inauguration?
Quiz What was Jacksons policy towards the Indians? What tribe was forced to move from Georgia to Oklahoma? What was the only road built by the federal government? What was Liberia? How was Harrison portrayed in the 1840 election?
Quiz What city was most impacted by the Erie Canal? How did Jackson justify his veto of the charter of the national bank? After 1820, where did most immigrants come from? What weapon did Jackson use to attack the national bank?
Quiz The sanctity of contracts was upheld in what case? Jacksons dislike of Calhoun was in part due to what social conflict? Who justified South Carolinas opposition to the tariff? What was the most expansive economic force in the US after 1815?
Quiz Who perfected the first commercially viable steamboat? What was the highway for commerce in the West? Which case upheld the constitutionality of the national bank? What was Jacksons most important foreign policy success?
Quiz What was Jacksons reaction to nullification? What was the greatest advantage for the early canals? What did the Specie Circular require? What did the surge in cotton production cause? In the early 1800s, what did private companies construct?
Quiz What was the major issue of the election of 1832? What were Jacksons group of irregular advisors called? What helped democratize politics during the Age of Jackson? How would you characterize the election of 1828? Which party nominated Harrison?