Presentation on theme: "Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 8What Causes us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups?Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. ChungOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
2TODAY’S MENU I. Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesIII. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership BoundariesIV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
3I. Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles Process of selecting cues quickly from the environment, organizing them into a coherent pattern and labeling that pattern, and interpreting that pattern in accordance with our expectation.Quick three-step process:Selective attentionSelective organization and labelingSelective interpretation.
4Perception TestYouTube Perception Test How many times does the team wearing white pass the basketball?Link to YouTube Selective Attention test.
5II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes A. Ethnocentrism and CommunicationEthnocentrism: derived from two Greek words:Ethno: “one’s own ethnic or cultural group”Centrism: “One’s own group should be looked upon as the center of the world”Degrees of ethnocentrism:Distance of disparagement (high ethnocentrism)Distance of avoidance (moderate ethnocentrism)Distance of indifference (low ethnocentrism)
6II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)Developed by Janet Bennett & Milton BennettA Popular Intercultural Training Model:Three states of ethnocentrismThree states in development of ethnorelativism
7II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity
8II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Stereotype content model (SCM):Formed along two dimensions:Perception of warmth dimensionPerception of competence dimension
9II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes A Two-Dimensional Stereotype Content ModelTake note of the various country abbreviations (GER = Germany; SPA = Spain, etc.)
10II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Stereotyping is inevitable; key is to distinguish between inflexible and flexible stereotyping.Inflexible stereotyping: holds onto negative stereotypes by operating on automatic pilot.Flexible stereotyping: “mindfully minding our mind.”
11II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Table 8.1Inflexible StereotypingFlexible StereotypingAutomatic pilot reaction Rigid categories Premature closure Polarized evaluations Information distortion Unwilling to change categoriesMindful of categorization Open-ended categories First best-guesses Loose interpretations Information openness Willingness to change categories
12II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Click here to view UCLA student Alexandra Wallace’s rant on Asian students in the libraryWhat are your interpretations?Apology accepted? Forgive & forget? Forgive but not forget?Click here to view Jimmy Wong’s reaction to Alexandra WallaceWhat did you think of Wong’s response to Alex?YouTube link to Alexandra Wallace’s video:YouTube link to Jimmy Wong’s video:
13II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes B. Stereotypes and CommunicationStereotypes:Exaggerated pictures about a group of people on the basis of inflexible beliefs and expectations about the characteristics or behaviors of the group.What are some factors that shape stereotypes?Click here to view a clip from The Color of FriendshipLink to YouTube.com The Color of Friendship 3/9View from start until 3:37
14III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership Boundaries Ingroup and Outgroup Attribution Differences
15III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership Boundaries A. Us versus ThemSocial identity theory:Study of ingroup, outgroup membership, how emotional attachment to social group plays key role in forming social/personal identity.Ingroup: feel connected to.Outgroup: feel emotionally and psychologically detached.
16III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries B. Group Membership StruggleC. Intergroup Attribution BiasesAttributions: the explanations—the meanings of why people behave as they do.Fundamental attribution errorPrinciple of negativityFavorable self-bias and other-derogation principleSelf-effacement bias
17III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries Media Analysis: Crash film clipReflection Questions:Where did the wife acquire her fear and biases?Do you think stereotypes—both negative and positive—have their place? How so?Where do we learn our stereotypes?
18IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Describes an individual’s feelings and predispositions toward outgroup members in a pejorative or negative direction, but can also mean the opposite: One can be indiscriminately for or against members of a particular group.Four explanations for development of prejudice:Exploitation theoryScapegoating theoryAuthoritarian personality approachStructural approach
19IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism B. Prejudiced Remarks . . .or Innocent Jokes?Click here to watch a clip on how some ingroup members treat their own members like outgroup members.Where to draw the line question is difficult to answer. . .Click here to move toward the conscious competence stage with respect to stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination.(*Caution – these clips contain offensive language).*Caution – these clips contain offensive language.YouTube video:This clip created by students for a project on how to stop stereotyping.
20IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism C. Four Discriminatory PracticesDiscrimination:Verbal and nonverbal actions that carry out prejudiced attitudes. Four practices:Isolate discrimination:Small-group discriminationDirect institutional discriminationIndirect institutional discrimination
21IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism D. Different Types of RacismRacism involves three principles:Feelings of superiority based on biological or racial differences;Strong ingroup preferences and the rejection of outgroups, different in customs or beliefs; andDoctrine that conveys special advantage to those in power.Three basic examples of racism:Racial profilingPerpetuating stereotypic imagesHate crimes
22V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables Be honest about your own biases.Understand where you learn your stereotypes.Seek accurate identity membership knowledge.Get involved in diverse identity communities.Cultivate constructive, intergroup contacts.Work on positive, interdependent task goals.Personalized the relationships & build trust.Learn to listen and share…
23Parting Thoughts… ~ Anne Frank In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart.I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery and death.~ Anne Frank