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Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 8 What Causes us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 8 What Causes us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 8 What Causes us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig

2 TODAYS MENU I. Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

3 I. Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles Human perception: Process of selecting cues quickly from the environment, organizing them into a coherent pattern and labeling that pattern, and interpreting that pattern in accordance with our expectation. Quick three-step process: Selective attention Selective organization and labeling Selective interpretation.

4 Perception Test YouTube Perception Test YouTube Perception Test How many times does the team wearing white pass the basketball?

5 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes A. Ethnocentrism and Communication Ethnocentrism: derived from two Greek words: Ethno: ones own ethnic or cultural group Centrism: Ones own group should be looked upon as the center of the world Degrees of ethnocentrism: Distance of disparagement (high ethnocentrism) Distance of avoidance (moderate ethnocentrism) Distance of indifference (low ethnocentrism)

6 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Developed by Janet Bennett & Milton Bennett A Popular Intercultural Training Model: Three states of ethnocentrism Three states in development of ethnorelativism

7 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity

8 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Stereotype content model (SCM): Formed along two dimensions: Perception of warmth dimension Perception of competence dimension

9 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes A Two-Dimensional Stereotype Content Model

10 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Stereotyping is inevitable; key is to distinguish between inflexible and flexible stereotyping. Inflexible stereotyping: holds onto negative stereotypes by operating on automatic pilot. Flexible stereotyping: mindfully minding our mind.

11 Automatic pilot reaction Rigid categories Premature closure Polarized evaluations Information distortion Unwilling to change categories Mindful of categorization Open-ended categories First best-guesses Loose interpretations Information openness Willingness to change categories II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Flexible Stereotyping Inflexible Stereotyping Table 8.1

12 II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes Click here Click here Click here Click here to view UCLA student Alexandra Wallaces rant on Asian students in the library What are your interpretations? Apology accepted? Forgive & forget? Forgive but not forget? Click here Click here Click here Click here to view Jimmy Wongs reaction to Alexandra Wallace What did you think of Wongs response to Alex?

13 B. Stereotypes and Communication Stereotypes: Exaggerated pictures about a group of people on the basis of inflexible beliefs and expectations about the characteristics or behaviors of the group. What are some factors that shape stereotypes? Click here Click here Click here Click here to view a clip from The Color of Friendship II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes

14 III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership Boundaries Ingroup and Outgroup Attribution Differences

15 III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership Boundaries A. Us versus Them Social identity theory: Study of ingroup, outgroup membership, how emotional attachment to social group plays key role in forming social/personal identity. Ingroup: feel connected to. Outgroup: feel emotionally and psychologically detached.

16 III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries B. Group Membership Struggle C. Intergroup Attribution Biases Attributions: the explanationsthe meanings of why people behave as they do. Fundamental attribution error Principle of negativity Favorable self-bias and other-derogation principle Self-effacement bias

17 III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries Media Analysis: Crash film clip Reflection Questions: Where did the wife acquire her fear and biases? Do you think stereotypesboth negative and positivehave their place? How so? Where do we learn our stereotypes?

18 IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Prejudice: Describes an individuals feelings and predispositions toward outgroup members in a pejorative or negative direction, but can also mean the opposite: One can be indiscriminately for or against members of a particular group. Four explanations for development of prejudice: Exploitation theory Scapegoating theory Authoritarian personality approach Structural approach

19 IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism B. Prejudiced Remarks...or Innocent Jokes? Click here Click here to watch a clip on how some ingroup members treat their own members like outgroup members. Where to draw the line question is difficult to answer... Click hereClick here to move toward the conscious competence stage with respect to stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. (*Caution – these clips contain offensive language).

20 IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism C. Four Discriminatory Practices Discrimination: Verbal and nonverbal actions that carry out prejudiced attitudes. Four practices: Isolate discrimination: Small-group discrimination Direct institutional discrimination Indirect institutional discrimination

21 IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism D. Different Types of Racism Racism involves three principles: Feelings of superiority based on biological or racial differences; Strong ingroup preferences and the rejection of outgroups, different in customs or beliefs; and Doctrine that conveys special advantage to those in power. Three basic examples of racism: Racial profiling Perpetuating stereotypic images Hate crimes

22 V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables Be honest about your own biases. Understand where you learn your stereotypes. Seek accurate identity membership knowledge. Get involved in diverse identity communities. Cultivate constructive, intergroup contacts. Work on positive, interdependent task goals. Personalized the relationships & build trust. Learn to listen and share…

23 Parting Thoughts… In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery and death. ~ Anne Frank


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