Learning Objectives 1.Explain how and why firms choose to decentralize. 2.Explain the difference between absorption and variable costing. Prepare segmented income statements. 3.Compute and explain return on investment (ROI). 4.Compute and explain residual income and economic value added (EVA).
Learning Objectives 5.Explain the role of transfer pricing in a decentralized firm. 6.(Appendix) Explain the uses of the Balanced Scorecard and compute cycle time, velocity, and manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE).
Comment on Decentralization and Responsibility Centers ◙ Companies organize around responsibility centers ◙ This is what organization charts represent ◙ Can become cumbersome for decision making ◙ Organizations can choose to centralize or decentralize ◙ Most organizations are a mix of both
What are some reasons to decentralize? 1.It is easier to gather and use local information 2.It allows for focusing of central management 3.It provides training and motivation for segment managers 4.It enhances competition by exposing business segments to market forces
Illustrate Centralization Vs. Decentralization
Illustration of PepsiCo's Decentralized Divisions
Match Definitions Cost Center Revenue Center A responsibility center in which the manager is only accountable for sales A responsibility center in which the manager is accountable for both revenues and costs Investment Center Profit Center A responsibility center in which the manager is accountable for revenues, costs and investments A responsibility center in which the manager is only accountable for costs
Complete the Chart What type of accounting information is use for measuring performance? Capital CenterCostSalesInvestmentOther Cost Revenue Profit Investment X X X X X X X X X
Differentiate Between Product and Period Costs
Complete Chart How are product and period cost classified under absorption and variable costing? Insert the word “Product” or “Period” were appropriate Costing Method AbsorptionVariable Direct materialsProduct Direct laborProduct Variable overheadProduct Fixed overheadProductPERIOD Selling expensesPeriod Administrative expensesPeriod
How to compute inventory cost under absorption & variable costing. During the most recent year, Fairchild company had the following data associated with the product it makes. Units in beginning inventory0 Units produced12,000 Units sold ($325 each)10,000 Variable costs per unit: Direct materials$60 Direct labor90 Variable overhead60 Fixed costs: Fixed overhead per unit produced$25 Fixed selling and administrative100,
REQUIRED: 1.How many units are in ending inventory? 2.Using absorption costing, calculate the per-unit product cost. What is the value of ending inventory? 3.Using variable costing, calculate the per-unit product cost. What is the value of ending inventory? Calculations: 1.Units in ending inventory = Units in beginning inventory + Units produced – Units sold = ,000 – 10,000 = 2, How to compute inventory cost under absorption & variable costing.
Absorption costing3.Variable costing Direct materials $ 60Direct materials $ 60 Direct labor 90Direct labor 90 Variable overhead 60Variable overhead 60 Fixed overhead 25Unit product cost $ 210 Unit product cost $ 235 Value of ending inventory = 2,000 x $235 = $470,000 Value of ending inventory = 2,000 x $210 = $420,000
How to prepare income statements under absorption & variable costing During the most recent year, Fairchild company had the following data associated with the product it makes. Units in beginning inventory0 Units produced12,000 Units sold ($325)10,000 Variable costs per unit: Direct materials$60 Direct labor90 Variable overhead60 Fixed costs: Fixed overhead per unit produced$25 Fixed selling and administrative100,000
REQUIRED: 1.Calculate the cost of goods sold under absorption costing 2.Calculate the cost of goods sold under variable costing 3.Prepare an income statement under absorption costing 4.Prepare an income statement under variable costing Calculation: 1.Cost of goods sold = Absorption product cost x Units sold = $235 x 10,000 = $2,350,000 2.Cost of goods sold = Variable product cost x Units sold = $210 x 10,000 = $2,100,000 How to prepare income statements under absorption & variable costing. 11-2
How to prepare income statements under absorption & variable costing Fairchild Company Absorption-Costing Income Statement Sales ($325 x 10,000) $3,250,000 Cost of goods sold 2,350,000 Gross Margin $ 900,000 Less: Selling & Administrative Expenses 100,000 Net income $ 800,000
How to prepare income statements under absorption & variable costing Fairchild Company Variable-Costing Income Statement Sales ($325 x 10,000) $3,250,000 Less: Variable expenses: Variable cost of goods sold 2,100,000 Contribution Margin $1,150,000 Less: Fixed expenses: Fixed overhead $300,000 Fixed selling & administrative 100, ,000 Net income $ 750,000
Review the Relationships Between Production, Sales & Income IF THEN 1.Production > SalesAbsorption net income > Variable net income 2.Production < SalesAbsorption net income < Variable net income 3.Production = SalesAbsorption net income = Variable net income
How to prepare a segmented income statement. Audiomatronics, Inc., produces MP3 players and DVD players in a single factory. The following information was provided for the following year. MP3 PlayersDVD Players Sales$400,000$290,000 Variable cost of good sold200,000150,000 Direct fixed cost30,00020,000 A 5% sales commission is paid for each of the two product lines. Direct fixed selling and administrative expense was estimated to be $10,000 for the MP3 line and $15,000 for the DVD line. Common fixed overhead for the factory was estimated at $100,000; common selling and administrative expense was estimated to be $20,
How to prepare a segmented income statement. REQUIRED: Prepare a variable costing segmented income statement for Audiomatronics, Inc., for the coming year Calculation: MP3 PlayersDVD PlayersTotal Sales $ 450,000 $ 320,000 $ 770,000 Variable cost of goods sold (225,000) (160,000) (385,000) Variable selling expense (22,500) (16,000) (38,500) Contribution margin $ 202,500 $ 144, ,500 Less: direct fixed expenses: Direct fixed overhead (30,000) (20,000) (50,000) Direct sell & admin (10,000) (15,000) (25,000) Segment margin $ 162,500 $ 109,000 $ 271,500 Less: common fixed expenses Common fixed overhead (100,000) Common sell & admin (20,000) Net income $ 151,500
List Three Ways Investment Centers are Evaluated
Match Definitions ROI Ave. Operating Assets Sales / Average operating assets Operating income / Sales Turnover Margin Operating income / Average operating assets (Beginning net book value + Ending net book value) / 2
How to calculate average operating assets, margin, turnover & ROI. Celimar Company’s Eastern Division earned operating income of $60,000 on Sales of $600,000. At the beginning of the year the net book value of the assets were $305,700, while at the end of the year they were $354,300. REQUIRED: For the Eastern Division calculate: 1.Average operating assets 2.Margin 3.Turnover 4.ROI 11-4
Calculation: 1.Average operating assets = (Beginning assets + ending assets) / 2 = ($305,700 + $354,300) / 2 = $330,000 2.Margin = Operating income / Sales = $60,000 / $600,000 = 10% or Turnover = Sales / Average operating assets = $600,000 / $330,000 = 1.82 times 4.ROI = Margin x Turnover =.10 x 1.82 = 18.2% or OR ROI = Operating income / Average operating assets = $60,000 / $330,000 = 18.2% How to calculate average operating assets, margin, turnover & ROI. 11-4
What are three advantages of ROI? 1.It encourages managers to focus on the relationship among sales, expenses and investment, as should be the case for a manager of an investment center. 2.It encourages a manager to focus on cost efficiency. 3.It encourages a manager to focus on operating asset efficiency.
How to calculate residual income. Celimar Company’s Eastern Division earned operating income of $60,000 on Sales of $600,000. At the beginning of the year the net book value of the assets were $305,700, while at the end of the year they were $354,300. Celimar requires a minimum rate of return of 12%. REQUIRED: For the Eastern Division calculate: 1.Average operating assets 2.Residual income Calculation: 1. Average operating assets = (Beginning assets + ending assets) / 2 = ($305,700 + $354,300) / 2 = $330, Residual income = Operating income = - (Minimum rate of return x Average operating assets) = $60,000 – (0.12 x $330,000) = $60,000 - $39,600 = $20,
How to calculate EVA Sales $600,000 Cost of goods sold 330,000 Gross Margin $270,000 Less: Sell & Admin Exp. 210,000 Operating income $ 60,000 Less: Income 18,000 Net income $ 42,000 Celimar Company’s Eastern Division earned net income last year as shown in the following income statement: Total capital employed equaled $330,000. Celimar’s actual cost of capital is 10%.
REQUIRED: Calculate EVA for Eastern Division Calculation: EVA= After-tax operating income – (Actual percentage cost of capital x Total capital employed) = $42,000 – (10% x $330,000) = $42,000 - $33,000 = $9,000 How to calculate EVA. 11-6
Discuss Transfer Pricing ◙ This represents the charge Bravo Division pays Romeo Division for the use of Romeo Division’s output. ◙ It represents a complex issue. ◙ It becomes an emotionally charged issue since performance measurement is affected by the value established for the transfer price. ◙ A company can not make a profit from itself. Real profits come from selling to third parties.
Define the three ways to set transfer prices.
How to calculate transfer prices. Omni, Inc., has a number of divisions, including Indigo Division, a producer of microcircuit boards and Lima Division a producer of controllers for heating and controlling manufacturers. Indigo produces the bk-912 model that can be used by Lima Division in the production of its control systems for regulating heating and air conditioning systems. The market price of the bk-912 is $15 and the full cost is $8 REQUIRED: 1. If Omni, Inc. has a transfer pricing policy that requires transfer at full cost, what would the transfer price be? Do you suppose that Indigo and Lima would choose to transfer at that price? 11-7
2. If Omni, Inc. has a transfer pricing policy that requires transfer at market price, what would the transfer price be? Do you suppose that Indigo and Lima would choose to transfer at that price? 3. Now suppose that Omni, Inc., allows negotiated transfer pricing and that Indigo Division can avoid a $3 selling expense by selling to Lima Division. Which division sets the minimum transfer price, and what is it? Which division sets the maximum transfer price and what is it? Do you suppose that Indigo and Lima Divisions would choose to transfer somewhere in the bargaining range? How to calculate transfer prices. 11-7
Calculations: 1.The full cost transfer price is $8. Lima Division would be delighted with that price, but Indigo Division would refuse to transfer since $15 could be earned in the outside market. 2.The market price is $15. Both Indigo and Lima divisions would be willing to transfer at that price (since neither division would be worse off than if it bought/sold in the outside market). How to calculate transfer prices. 11-7
3.Minimum transfer price = $15 - $3 = $12 The price is set by Indigo Division, the selling division. Maximum transfer price = $15 This price is the market price and is set by Lima Division, the buying division. Yes, both divisions would be willing to a accept a transfer price within the bargaining range. Precisely what the transfer price would be depends on the negotiating skills of the Indigo and Lima Division managers. How to calculate transfer prices. 11-7