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The Nervous System zMajor division - Central vs. Peripheral zCentral or CNS- brain and spinal cord zPeripheral- nerves connecting CNS to muscles and organs.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System zMajor division - Central vs. Peripheral zCentral or CNS- brain and spinal cord zPeripheral- nerves connecting CNS to muscles and organs."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous System zMajor division - Central vs. Peripheral zCentral or CNS- brain and spinal cord zPeripheral- nerves connecting CNS to muscles and organs Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System

2 z3 kinds of neurons connect CNS to the body ysensory ymotor yinterneurons zMotor - CNS to muscles and organs zSensory - sensory receptors to CNS zInterneurons: Connections Within CNS Spinal Cord Brain Nerves

3 Peripheral Nervous System Skeletal (Somatic) SympatheticParasympathetic Autonomic Peripheral Nervous System

4 Somatic System zNerves to/from spinal cord ycontrol muscle movements ysomatosensory inputs zBoth Voluntary and reflex movements zSkeletal Reflexes ysimplest is spinal reflex arc Muscle Motor Neuron Interneuron Skin receptors Sensory Neuron Brain

5 Autonomic System zTwo divisions: ysympathetic yParasympatheitic zControl involuntary functions yheartbeat yblood pressure yrespiration yperspiration ydigestion zCan be influenced by thought and emotion

6 Sympathetic z“ Fight or flight” response zRelease adrenaline and noradrenaline zIncreases heart rate and blood pressure zIncreases blood flow to skeletal muscles zInhibits digestive functions CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Spinal cord SYMPATHETIC Dilates pupil Stimulates salivation Relaxes bronchi Accelerates heartbeat Inhibits activity Stimulates glucose Secretion of adrenaline, nonadrenaline Relaxes bladder Stimulates ejaculation in male Sympathetic ganglia Salivary glands Lungs Heart Stomach Pancreas Liver Adrenal gland Kidney

7 Parasympathetic z“ Rest and digest ” system zCalms body to conserve and maintain energy zLowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain PARASYMPATHETIC Spinal cord Stimulates salivation Constricts bronchi Slows heartbeat Stimulates activity Contracts bladder Stimulates erection of sex organs Stimulates gallbladder Gallbladder Contracts pupil

8 Summary of autonomic differences Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract Decreases SALVATION Increases Perspires SKIN Dries Increases RESPERATION Decreases Accelerates HEART Slows Inhibits DIGESTION Activates Secrete stress hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of stress hormones

9 Central Nervous System zBrain and Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Brain

10 zLeft & Right sides are separate zCorpus Callosum : major pathway between hemispheres zSome functions are ‘lateralized’ ylanguage on left ymath, music on right  Lateralization is never 100% Brain has 2 Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Corpus Callosum Right Hemisphere

11 Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal

12 Sensory Information sent to opposite hemisphere zPrinciple is Contralateral Organization zSensory data crosses over in pathways leading to the cortex zVisual Crossover yleft visual field to right hemisphere yright field to left zOther senses similar Left visual field Right visual field Optic nerves Corpus Callosum Left Visual Cortex Right Visual Cortex

13 Contralateral Motor Control zMovements controled by motor area zRight hemisphere controls left side of body zLeft hemisphere controls right side zMotor nerves cross sides in spinal cord Somatosensory CortexMotor Cortex

14 Corpus Callosum zMajor ( but not only) pathway between sides zConnects comparable structures on each side zPermits data received on one side to be processed in both hemispheres zAids motor coordination of left and right side Corpus Callosum Medial surface of right hemisphere

15 Corpus Callosum zWhat happens when the corpus callosum is cut? zSensory inputs are still crossed zMotor outputs are still crossed zHemispheres can’t exchange data

16 The ‘Split Brain’ studies zSurgery for epilepsy : cut the corpus callosum zRoger Sperry, 1960’s zSpecial apparatus ypicture input to just one side of brain yscreen blocks objects on table from view Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphere

17 Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphere ?? “What did you see?” zPicture to left brain ycan name the object yleft hand cannot identify by touch zPicture to right brain ycan’t name the object yleft hand can identify by touch “Using your left hand, Pick up what you saw.” The ‘Split Brain’ studies I saw an apple. “What did you see?” Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphere

18 Localization of function Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal

19 Occipital Lobe zInput from Optic nerve zContains primary visual cortex ymost is on surface inside central fissure zOutputs to parietal and temporal lobes Occipital Lobe Visual Lobe

20 Temporal Lobe zInputs are auditory, visual patterns yspeech recognition yface recognition yword recognition ymemory formation zOutputs to limbic System, basal Ganglia, and brainstem z Contains primary auditory cortex Temporal Lobe Temporal Lobe Auditory Cortex

21 Parietal Lobe Somatosensory Cortex Parietal Lobe zInputs from multiple senses z contains primary somatosensory cortex z borders visual & auditory cortex z Outputs to Frontal lobe z hand-eye coordination z eye movements z attention

22 Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe zContains primary motor cortex Motor Cortex Motor Cortex Broca’s Area Motor Cortex Working Memory zNo direct sensory input zImportant planning and sequencing areas  Broca’s area for speech zPrefrontal area for working memory

23 Frontal Lobe Disorders zBroca’s area yproductive aphasia zPrefrontal area ylose track of ongoing context yfail to inhibit inappropriate responses zOften measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task

24 Wisconsin Card Sorting Task zPatient is given a deck of 64 different cards zTold to place each card under the one it best matches zTold correct or incorrect after each card zRow of 4 example cards set out zMust deduce what the underlying rule is. Correct!

25 Wisconsin Card Sorting Task

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31 The Nervous System: Summary zMajor structures of the nervous yCNS, Somatic, Autonomic yTwo hemispheres & 4 lobes zOrganization ycontralateral input & output yprimary sensory areas ymotor areas yCommissure zLocalization of functions Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System


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