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By Josh Mellits & Eric Schorr

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1 By Josh Mellits & Eric Schorr
The Tundra Biome By Josh Mellits & Eric Schorr

2 What is a tundra? Vast, nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America Coldest of all biomes A.K.A - Polar grasslands

3 Where is it found? The tundra ecosystems can be generally found along the upper portions of the northern hemisphere

4 How’s the weather? As one can see, the general temperature of the tundra climate during the year is well below 00C. During the summer, temperatures rise up to 5-60C

5 What’s Growing? Tufted Saxifrage Common Name: Saxifrage Genus: Saxifraga Species: caespitosa Saxifraga comes from the Latin word "rock breaker". Pasque Flower Common Name: Pasque Flower Genus: Anemone Species: patens Caribou Moss Common Name: Caribou Moss, Reindeer Lichen Genus: Cladonia Species: rangiferina

6 What’s Growing? (Continued)
Arctic Willow Common Name(s): Rock Willow Genus: Salix Species: arctica Bearberry Common name: Bearberry, Foxberry, and Kinnikinic Genus: Arctostaphylos Species: uva-ursi Leaves of the berry are somtimes added in tobacco or substituted in its place. Tea from the leaves can treat kidney or bladder issues

7 What lives here? Predators of the tundra – the carnivores and secondary consumers Prey of the tundra – the herbivores and omnivores; the primary consumers

8 Predators of the Tundra
Snowy Owl – small; hunt in daytime and nighttime. Adaptation to 24 hour daylight of tundra in summer Change color - brown in summer, white in winter Prey on lemmings – around 12/day They nest on ground on highest and driest portions of biome Arctic Fox - Size of a cat the warmest fur of any mammal Colors change through seasons  brownish in summer and white in winter. Hunt lemmings Tough animals; will travel long distances for food Arctic foxes  very well adapted to the cold - have fur on the bottom of feet

9 Prey of the Tundra Musk Oxen – Insects – Lemmings -
Small herds - 10 or 12 Eat small plants and lichens Very hardy; covered with thick, soft, very warm fur Common prey of non-tundra wolves Horns for protection. When attacked - form a circle with adults facing out and young calves in center.      Insects – Arctic fly: only seen on days above freezing and with no wind Dark in color and hairy to stay warm Some contain antifreeze agents in bodies to prevent freezing of cells and body fluids Lemmings - small rodents eat plants look like hamsters brownish or dark gray in summer in winter lemming fur turns white Burrowers and tunnel makers Breed rapidly

10 Food Web Caribou Arctic lichens Saxifrage Arctic willow

11 Soil Permafrost - frozen portion of ground (can be up to 2000ft thick)
Plants and microorganisms grow within Incapable of absorbing surface water Earth soil forms slowly – gravel, rocks and dirt Build-up of surface water leads to bogs and ponds – moisture for plantlife Landscape formed through freezing process of soil

12 Symbiotic Relationship
Lichens dominate tundra – primary producer Covered in ice  3 years but still live Symbiotic between alga and fungus Mutualistic relationship  Alga gives food; fungus gives water Alga avoids dehydration and fungus avoids starvation Dual-relationship between alga and fungus allows lichen to survive in an area where life naturally struggles

13 Abiotic Factors Abiotic – Cold and dry winds Land formations:
Pingos – hills formed by trapped ponds of water from permafrost Frost boils - widening circles of stones caused by thawing and freezing of water Bumpy ground - variations in ground thawing and freezing Polygons - geometric land forms filled by water Stripes – division of rocks by thawing and freezing Earthquakes Volcanoes Gravity

14 The “human” Factor Damage to the Tundra –
Mines and oil industry cause damage to the land and soil; loss of fossil fuels and draining of resources Development of human civilization interrupts animal migration and food patterns Damage to permafrost by vehicles and rigs Pollution affects delicate ecosystem Pesticides affect migration of insects which leads to changes in eating habits of birds in the tundra Extreme hunting efforts by humans of musk oxen and caribou have led to possible extinction of both animals

15 What can we do? Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center
Wildlife foundations and reserves Federal parks and preservations Drilling for Oil is causing major damage to wildlife and environment Lobbying for better ways of getting fossil fuel oil Beyond petroleum solutions – new energy sources

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