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Anxiety and Mood Disorders. Anxiety Disorders zPrimary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety zAnxiety.

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Presentation on theme: "Anxiety and Mood Disorders. Anxiety Disorders zPrimary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety zAnxiety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anxiety and Mood Disorders

2 Anxiety Disorders zPrimary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety zAnxiety - diffuse, vague feelings of fear and apprehension yeveryone experiences it ybecomes a problem when it is irrational, uncontrollable, and disruptive

3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) zMore or less constant worry about many issues zThe worry seriously interferes with functioning zPhysical symptoms yheadaches ystomachaches ymuscle tension yirritability

4 Model of Development of GAD zGAD has some genetic component zRelated genetically to major depression zChildhood trauma also related to GAD Genetic predisposition or childhood trauma GAD following life change or major event Hypervigilance

5 Phobias zIntense, irrational fear that may focus on: ycategory of objects yevent or situation ysocial setting

6 Phobias zIt is not phobic to simply be anxious about something Afraid of it Bothers slightlyNot at all afraid of it Being closed in, in a small place Being alone in a house at night Percentage of people surveyed SnakesBeing in high, exposed places MiceFlying on an airplane Spiders and insects Thunder and lightning DogsDriving a car Being in a crowd of people Cats Study of normal anxieties

7 Specific Phobias zSpecific phobias - fear of specific object yanimals (e.g., snakes) ysubstances (e.g., blood) ysituations (e.g., heights) ymore often in females than males

8 Some Unusual Phobias zAilurophobia - fear of cats zAlgobphobia - fear of pain zAnthropophobia - fear of men zMonophobia - fear of being alone zPyrophobia - fear of fire

9 Social Phobias zSocial phobias - fear of failing or being embarrassed in public ypublic speaking (stage fright) yfear of crowds, strangers ymeeting new people yeating in public zConsidered phobic if these fears interfere with normal behavior zEqually often in males and females

10 Development of Phobias zClassical conditioning model ye.g., dog = CS, bite = UCS yproblems: xoften no memory of a traumatic experience xtraumatic experience may not produce phobia zSeligman’s preparedness theory

11 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) zObsessions - irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness zCompulsions - repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions zChecking and washing most common compulsions zHeightened neural activity in caudate nucleus

12 Panic Disorder zPanic attacks - helpless terror, high physiological arousal zVery frightening - sufferers live in fear of having them zAgoraphobia often develops as a result

13 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) zFollows traumatic event or events such as war, rape, or assault zSymptoms include: ynightmares yflashbacks ysleeplessness yeasily startled ydepression yirritability

14 Mood Disorders zDepressive disorders ydepression of mood zBipolar disorders ycycling between depression and mania (extreme euphoria)

15 Depression zSymptoms include: ysadness yfeelings of worthlessness ychanges in sleep ychanges in eating yanhedonia ysuicidal behavior

16 Depression zMajor Depression yprolonged, very severe depression ylasts without remission for at least 2 weeks zDysthymia yless severe, but long-lasting depression ylasts for at least 2 years zCan have both at the same time zWomen diagnosed far more often than men

17 Biological Bases for Depression zNeurotransmitter theories ydopamine ynorepinephrine yserotonin zGenetic component ymore closely related people show similar histories of depression

18 Situational Bases for Depression zPositive correlation between stressful life events and onset of depression yIs life stress causal of depression? zMost depressogenic life events are losses yspouse or companion ylong-term job yhealth yincome

19 Cognitive Bases for Depression zA.T. Beck: depressed people hold pessimistic views of ythemselves ythe world ythe future zDepressed people distort their experiences in negative ways yexaggerate bad experiences yminimize good experiences

20 Cognitive Bases for Depression zHopelessness theory ydepression results from a pattern of thinking yperson loses hope that life will get better ynegative experiences are due to stable, global reasons xe.g., “I didn’t get the job because I’m stupid and inept” vs. “I didn’t get the job because the interview didn’t go well”

21 Seasonal Affective Disorder zCyclic severe depression and elevated mood zSeasonal regularity zUnique cluster of symptoms yintense hunger ygain weight in winter ysleep more than usual ydepressed more in evening than morning

22 Bipolar Disorders zCyclic disorders zMood levels swing from severe depression to extreme euphoria (mania) zNo regular relationship to time of year (like SAD) zBipolar disorder is severe form zCyclothymia is less severe form zStrong heritable component zBipolar disorder often treated with lithium

23 Somatoform Disorders zBodily ailments in absence of any physical disease zExamples are conversion disorder and somatization disorder

24 Psychological Influences on Physical Symptoms and Diseases

25 Conversion Disorder zPerson temporarily loses some bodily function yblindness, deafness, paralyzed portion of body yglove anesthesia zNo physical damage to cause problems

26 Conversion Disorder zRare in western culture now yrelatively common 100 years ago yprominent in Freud’s work/clients zOften see examples in non-Western people exposed to traumatic event ye.g., high rate of psychological blindness in Cambodian women after Khmer Rouge reign of terror in 1970s

27 Somatization Disorder zLong history of dramatic complaints re: different medical conditions ycomplaints usually vague, undifferentiated ye.g., heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea zOften difficult to determine whether complaints are somatization or undetectable physical disease

28 Somatization Disorder zKleinman’s theory ysomatization and depression are different manifestations of the same problem ycross-cultural research xpattern of somatoform disorders affected by cultural beliefs

29 Psychological factors and medical condition zTraumatic Grief ystudied people’s health before and after death of spouse y25 months following death of a spouse xsurviving spouses had increased incidences of flu, heart disease, cancer

30 Psychological factors and cardiovascular disease zFriedman & Rosenman’s studies ytype A personality xcompetitive, aggressive, easily irritated, impatient, workaholic xhave shown increased risk for heart attack xbiggest personality risks are the irritability and hostility, not the hurried life-style

31 Friedman & Rosenman’s studies zType B personality yopposite of type A, more relaxed yHave shown low risk for heart attack zAnxiety and depression also predictive of heart disease zConclusion yprolonged, frequent negative emotions increase risk of heart disease yhard working people who enjoy what they’re doing not at higher risk

32 Immune function & emotional distress zEmotional distress shuts down some bodily defenses against pathogens ymakes person more vulnerable to infectious diseases zSome studies ytemporary decrease in T-cells following frustrating cognitive task yonly in people who also showed other signs of physiological distress to task

33 zExposed group of people to cold virus zQuarantined for 6 days zDistressed develop cold more easily zNot due to other risk factors like: ysmoking ydiet ysleep Cohen, et al. (1991) Score on psychological distress scale Percentage who developed colds


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