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FEMA EMI Higher Education Conference 2009 Is Distance Education For Everyone?

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1 FEMA EMI Higher Education Conference 2009 Is Distance Education For Everyone?

2 FEMA EMI Higher Education Conference 2009 Is Distance Education For Everyone? Dr. Michael J. O’Connor Jr. SUNY Canton

3 Introduction: Undergraduate (L/D & U/D) and Graduate

4 Undergraduate: State University of New York at Canton College of Technology

5 State University of New York Canton College of Technology Located in Canton, New York (North of Located in Canton, New York (North of the Adirondacks and South of the St. Lawrence River) SUNY Canton has recently established bachelor’s degrees in engineering, business, info technology, etc. SUNY Canton has recently established bachelor’s degrees in engineering, business, info technology, etc. Canton has regional and global partners, with agreements at institutions in Massachusetts, Ontario, Wyoming, Russia, Bosnia … just to name a few Canton has regional and global partners, with agreements at institutions in Massachusetts, Ontario, Wyoming, Russia, Bosnia … just to name a few

6 Emergency Management Bachelor’s of Technology Program in EADM founded Fall 2006 Bachelor’s of Technology Program in EADM founded Fall 2006 First (and still only) faculty member hired August 2006 First (and still only) faculty member hired August 2006 First courses offered October 2006 to four EADM majors, CJ majors and the general college population First courses offered October 2006 to four EADM majors, CJ majors and the general college population 50+ majors (current students and those already having paid deposits) already enrolled for Fall majors (current students and those already having paid deposits) already enrolled for Fall 2009

7 Program Organization 201 Fundaments 201 Fundaments 205 Risk and Hazard Impacts Studies 205 Risk and Hazard Impacts Studies 220 Disaster Management 220 Disaster Management 222 Community Preparedness 222 Community Preparedness 307 Legal Issues 307 Legal Issues 400 Incident Command 400 Incident Command 430 Virtual Exercises 430 Virtual Exercises 435 Disaster Simulation 435 Disaster Simulation 480 Internships 480 Internships 485 Senior Projects 485 Senior Projects

8 Course Organization Orientation Orientation Syllabus Syllabus Instructor Biography Instructor Biography Course Documents (MS Word, Excel, Powerpoints, Websites, maybe Podcasts in the future!) Course Documents (MS Word, Excel, Powerpoints, Websites, maybe Podcasts in the future!) Examinations, Surveys (Assessments) Examinations, Surveys (Assessments) Writing Assignments Writing Assignments Announcements Announcements Discussion Boards Discussion Boards

9 Unique Aspects Program is offered online in a 7-week format Program is offered online in a 7-week format Classroom-based coursework may be implemented Fall 2011 (or never) Classroom-based coursework may be implemented Fall 2011 (or never) Courses originally offered via Blackboard now offered via Angel (Fall 2008) Courses originally offered via Blackboard now offered via Angel (Fall 2008) All online courses must receive approval from a faculty committee prior to being offered (online course review process) All online courses must receive approval from a faculty committee prior to being offered (online course review process) All courses are also offered via the SUNY Learning Network (SLN) All courses are also offered via the SUNY Learning Network (SLN)

10 Online Course Review All online courses are reviewed prior to their initial offering and are reexamined on a three-year cycle All online courses are reviewed prior to their initial offering and are reexamined on a three-year cycle Course reviewers utilize a rubric developed by Maryland Online which was sponsored by FIPSE (U.S. Department of Education - Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education) Course reviewers utilize a rubric developed by Maryland Online which was sponsored by FIPSE (U.S. Department of Education - Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education) Based on the Middle States Commission on Higher Education’s standards of best practices in distance learning programs Based on the Middle States Commission on Higher Education’s standards of best practices in distance learning programs

11 Course Review Rubric Criteria Materials are accessible and appropriate Materials are accessible and appropriate Objectives and learning outcomes are consistent with one another Objectives and learning outcomes are consistent with one another Course navigation is logical and unambiguous Course navigation is logical and unambiguous Assessment is built into the course Assessment is built into the course Interaction with learners is provided and support is available Interaction with learners is provided and support is available

12 Graduate: Capella University

13 Capella University Adjunct Graduate Faculty Member Adjunct Graduate Faculty Member School of Human Services Department of Public Safety Leadership PSF5621 Disaster Management PSF5621 Disaster Management PSF5623 Critical Infrastructure Risk Assessment, Evaluation, and Analysis PSF5623 Critical Infrastructure Risk Assessment, Evaluation, and Analysis PSF8632 Philosophy and Practice of Disaster Preparedness PSF8632 Philosophy and Practice of Disaster Preparedness PSF Disaster Preparedness, Mitigation, and Assessments (in development) PSF Disaster Preparedness, Mitigation, and Assessments (in development)

14 Approach to Learning

15 Social Constructivism The Capella (Capella, 2009) and SLN (Shea, Pickett, & Pelz, 2003; Martinez, 2006), models are based on the theory that learning is based on social constructivism approach to learning (Vygotsky, 1962). The Capella (Capella, 2009) and SLN (Shea, Pickett, & Pelz, 2003; Martinez, 2006), models are based on the theory that learning is based on social constructivism approach to learning (Vygotsky, 1962). In Social constructivism learning is a cognitive function. Lave and Wenger has extended this theory, by stating that learning is a product of social interactions (Lave & Wenger, 1991). In Social constructivism learning is a cognitive function. Lave and Wenger has extended this theory, by stating that learning is a product of social interactions (Lave & Wenger, 1991).

16 Social and Situational Orientation to Learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991) has focused on the nature of collaborative interactions where learners become part of a knowledge (learning) community of practice (Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007). (Lave & Wenger, 1991) has focused on the nature of collaborative interactions where learners become part of a knowledge (learning) community of practice (Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007). A community of practice exists when practical knowledge is built by interactions between and among practitioners, their practice and their social organizations (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007). A community of practice exists when practical knowledge is built by interactions between and among practitioners, their practice and their social organizations (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007).

17 Community of Practice Wenger (2007) states that three elements differentiate a community of practice from other groups: domain, community, and practice. Wenger (2007) states that three elements differentiate a community of practice from other groups: domain, community, and practice. Domain – a field, discipline, practice, etc., that differentiates members from non- members. Domain – a field, discipline, practice, etc., that differentiates members from non- members. Community – member have significant discussions where they are able to learn from each other because of their shared interest in the domain Community – member have significant discussions where they are able to learn from each other because of their shared interest in the domain Practice – members develop shared experiences, stories, and perspectives Practice – members develop shared experiences, stories, and perspectives

18 Learning Learning is seen as a process of social participation in a community of practice. This concept of “situatedness” (Tennant, 1988, 1997) means that learning takes place as people become full participants in their community of practice and generate meaning as new knowledge is learned by integrating that new knowledge into their existing knowledge base (understanding new information within the context of their community of practice), (Smith, 2001, 2003, 2009). Learning is seen as a process of social participation in a community of practice. This concept of “situatedness” (Tennant, 1988, 1997) means that learning takes place as people become full participants in their community of practice and generate meaning as new knowledge is learned by integrating that new knowledge into their existing knowledge base (understanding new information within the context of their community of practice), (Smith, 2001, 2003, 2009).

19 SUNY Learning Network (SLN)

20 Social Constructivism and Communities of Practice SUNY Learning Network (SLN) builds their instructional model on the social constructivism approach and Lave and Wenger’s extension of this approach via communities of practice. SUNY Learning Network (SLN) builds their instructional model on the social constructivism approach and Lave and Wenger’s extension of this approach via communities of practice. SLN doesn’t discuss Lave and Wenger’s concept of “legitimate peripheral participation” and how it can move to become full participation, but instead discuss deep learning. SLN doesn’t discuss Lave and Wenger’s concept of “legitimate peripheral participation” and how it can move to become full participation, but instead discuss deep learning.

21 Deep vs. Surface Learning Peer collaborations, problem-based instruction, etc., are a part of the teaching and learning paradigm that aims to engaging students to produce “deep” learning – where they seek to integrate new learning into their own cognitive structures Peer collaborations, problem-based instruction, etc., are a part of the teaching and learning paradigm that aims to engaging students to produce “deep” learning – where they seek to integrate new learning into their own cognitive structures Surface learning where students focus on the requirements of the class as defined by the instructor (Marton and Saljo, 1976; Martinez, 2006). Surface learning where students focus on the requirements of the class as defined by the instructor (Marton and Saljo, 1976; Martinez, 2006).

22 Capella University

23 Capella Model Capella derives their model from the work of Ernest Boyer and Donald Schön who work on learning led to the redefinition of learners as scholar-practitioners Capella derives their model from the work of Ernest Boyer and Donald Schön who work on learning led to the redefinition of learners as scholar-practitioners Undergraduates are considered “reflective-practitioners” (faculty help them to apply learning to everyday life) Undergraduates are considered “reflective-practitioners” (faculty help them to apply learning to everyday life) Graduate students are considered “practitioner-scholars” and “scholar- practitioners” (faculty need to provide comprehensive feedback) Graduate students are considered “practitioner-scholars” and “scholar- practitioners” (faculty need to provide comprehensive feedback) Source: Capella University (2009).

24 Capella (continued) Capella seeks to have learners form learning communities where active interactions take place to engage students in collaborative learning experiences so that socially constructed meanings emerge Capella seeks to have learners form learning communities where active interactions take place to engage students in collaborative learning experiences so that socially constructed meanings emerge Capella acknowledge the research into learning styles (such as multiple intelligences, personality traits, etc.), but has found that the field dependent/ Capella acknowledge the research into learning styles (such as multiple intelligences, personality traits, etc.), but has found that the field dependent/ independent cognitive paradigm is most useful (Witkin, 1977) Source: Capella University (2009).

25 Learning Styles Field-dependent learners... tend to be more dependent upon authority and rely on others' ideas and influences when processing information. They tend to prefer situations that require direct communications with others, and tend to be skilled in interpersonal relationships. Field-dependent learners... tend to be more dependent upon authority and rely on others' ideas and influences when processing information. They tend to prefer situations that require direct communications with others, and tend to be skilled in interpersonal relationships. Field-independent learners... are more adept at independently generating and structuring their own knowledge. Such learners tend to rely on themselves when solving problems. They often are not as skilled in interpersonal relationships. Field-independent learners... are more adept at independently generating and structuring their own knowledge. Such learners tend to rely on themselves when solving problems. They often are not as skilled in interpersonal relationships. Source: Capella University (2009).

26 Field Dependent/Independent The field dependent/independent paradigm has implications for instructors on how to work with learners in discussions, communications, group collaborative projects, etc. The field dependent/independent paradigm has implications for instructors on how to work with learners in discussions, communications, group collaborative projects, etc. The field dependent/independent paradigm must be recognized as a continuum where a learner may use a different learning style to deal with different situations The field dependent/independent paradigm must be recognized as a continuum where a learner may use a different learning style to deal with different situations Instructors must also consider their own orientation Instructors must also consider their own orientation Source: Capella University (2009).

27 Questions we seek to answer! Questions we seek to answer!

28 Can Everybody Learn via Online Learning?

29 Predictors of Success in an Online Course For online courses: For online courses: Learners should be directed to be self-regulated learners, and self-regulated learning strategies could be provided to enhance students’ achievementLearners should be directed to be self-regulated learners, and self-regulated learning strategies could be provided to enhance students’ achievement Orientation about the nature of online learning and its requirements should be provided to studentsOrientation about the nature of online learning and its requirements should be provided to students Learners should be encouraged to keep their motivation at a high level through the help of instructional activitiesLearners should be encouraged to keep their motivation at a high level through the help of instructional activities Learners’ performance should be monitored, and individual and timely feedback should be providedLearners’ performance should be monitored, and individual and timely feedback should be provided Interaction through both synchronous and asynchronous communication tools should be encouragedInteraction through both synchronous and asynchronous communication tools should be encouraged Course contents should be of immediate real-life value for the studentsCourse contents should be of immediate real-life value for the students Yukselturk, E. & Bulut, S. (2007). Predictors for student success in an online course. Educational Technology & Society, 10(2), Yukselturk, E. & Bulut, S. (2007). Predictors for student success in an online course. Educational Technology & Society, 10(2),

30 Can Everybody Learn via Online Learning? Answer: Yes! (caveat: learners have a much better chance of success if they are (or can become) self-regulating

31 Can All Subjects be Taught via Online Learning?

32 For example, to teach: For example, to teach: Academic subjects which require (“lecture” type of courses): - learning concepts and principles, - engaging in discussions, - writing papers, or - solving problems – these usually work well in an online format well in an online format Kearsley, G. (1999) Online Education: Learning and Teaching in Cyberspace. Wadsworth.

33 Subjects, continued Those which require the teaching of: Those which require the teaching of: - Motor skills – may require that simulations be developed simulations be developed - Science, Math and Engineering – may require additional software tools require additional software tools (Mathmatica, CAD, etc.) (Mathmatica, CAD, etc.) - Numerous Visual Images – may require the use of CD’s the use of CD’s Kearsley, G. (1999) Online Education: Learning and Teaching in Cyberspace. Wadsworth.

34 Teaching (Online) Undergraduate Undergraduate - Lower Division: Most courses are “lecture-type” courses “lecture-type” courses Use of “measured” course readings, discussion readings, lecture readings, references, and websites) Use of “measured” course readings, discussion readings, lecture readings, references, and websites) Exams and Quizzes (midterms, final, quizzes) Exams and Quizzes (midterms, final, quizzes) Writing Assignments (style, length, evaluation) Writing Assignments (style, length, evaluation) Number and Timing of Assignments Number and Timing of Assignments

35 Teaching, continued - Upper Division: Courses are a mix of “lecture” and science or apprenticeship- “lecture” and science or apprenticeship- style of courses style of courses Video Clips, Podcasts (coming!), etc. Video Clips, Podcasts (coming!), etc. Simulations and Exercises utilizing the following software: Incident Commander, Central City (online “live” tabletop via camera), HSEEP, Hurrevac, Hazus-MH & ESRI ArcView, Virtual Terrorism Response Academy, ICS 100/200 First Person Simulations, AEAS, CAMEO, ALOHA, etc., Simulations and Exercises utilizing the following software: Incident Commander, Central City (online “live” tabletop via camera), HSEEP, Hurrevac, Hazus-MH & ESRI ArcView, Virtual Terrorism Response Academy, ICS 100/200 First Person Simulations, AEAS, CAMEO, ALOHA, etc.,

36 Teaching, continued Graduate Graduate - Most courses are “lecture-type” courses courses Textbooks, course readings, discussion readings, video clips Textbooks, course readings, discussion readings, video clips Discussion boards Discussion boards Writing assignments Writing assignments Case Studies Case Studies Number and Timing of Assignments Number and Timing of Assignments

37 Teaching Online: Special Issues Internships Internships Senior Projects Senior Projects Simulations Simulations Conferences Conferences Club Club Fieldtrips (and yes, field exercises!) Fieldtrips (and yes, field exercises!)

38 Internships Students are doing senior projects or internship with the New York State Emergency Management Office, Rhode Island State Emergency Management Agency, DHS/U.S. Coast Guard, Fort Drum Emergency Management Officer and other local and state agencies (including Public Health Students are doing senior projects or internship with the New York State Emergency Management Office, Rhode Island State Emergency Management Agency, DHS/U.S. Coast Guard, Fort Drum Emergency Management Officer and other local and state agencies (including Public Health Student and mentor complete daily journals and weekly reports Student and mentor complete daily journals and weekly reports

39 Simulations Program offers 9 semester hours of virtual exercise or disaster simulations Program offers 9 semester hours of virtual exercise or disaster simulations One 3 semester hour course focuses on the developing, conducting and evaluating exercises (typically TTX’s) One 3 semester hour course focuses on the developing, conducting and evaluating exercises (typically TTX’s) Another 6 hours course is “hands-on” and allows the students to actually develop an exercise – working in a “sim-cell”, as mock journalists, as part of the incident command staff or as an evaluator Another 6 hours course is “hands-on” and allows the students to actually develop an exercise – working in a “sim-cell”, as mock journalists, as part of the incident command staff or as an evaluator

40 Exercises Selected students are invited to observe and participate in developing, coordinating and evaluating exercises with local, state and Federal agencies. Selected students are invited to observe and participate in developing, coordinating and evaluating exercises with local, state and Federal agencies. Student in September 2008, assisted with the development of a major DHS/U.S. Coast Guard full-scale exercise for the St. Lawrence Seaway (and worked with other federal agencies to coordinate simultaneously run tabletops) Student in September 2008, assisted with the development of a major DHS/U.S. Coast Guard full-scale exercise for the St. Lawrence Seaway (and worked with other federal agencies to coordinate simultaneously run tabletops)

41 Can All Subjects be Taught via Online Learning? Answer: Yes! (caveat: good instructional design must be utilized by faculty trained in course development techniques)

42 Can we Improve Online Teaching?

43 Seven Principles

44 Seven Principles for Good Practice The "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education," originally published in the AAHE Bulletin (Chickering & Gamson, 1987, 1993), are a popular framework for evaluating teaching. The "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education," originally published in the AAHE Bulletin (Chickering & Gamson, 1987, 1993), are a popular framework for evaluating teaching. Such a framework helps faculty members and higher-education institutions examine and improve their teaching practices. Such a framework helps faculty members and higher-education institutions examine and improve their teaching practices.

45 Principles 1-3 Principle 1: Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact Principle 1: Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact Lesson for online instruction: Instructors should provide clear guidelines for interaction with students. Lesson for online instruction: Instructors should provide clear guidelines for interaction with students. Principle 2: Good Practice Encourages Cooperation Among Students Principle 2: Good Practice Encourages Cooperation Among Students Lesson for online instruction: Well-designed discussion assignments facilitate meaningful cooperation among students. Lesson for online instruction: Well-designed discussion assignments facilitate meaningful cooperation among students. Principle 3: Good Practice Encourages Active Learning Principle 3: Good Practice Encourages Active Learning Lesson for online instruction: Students should present course projects. Lesson for online instruction: Students should present course projects.

46 Principles 4-5 Principle 4: Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback Principle 4: Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback Lesson for online instruction: Instructors need to provide two types of feedback: information feedback and acknowledgment feedback. Lesson for online instruction: Instructors need to provide two types of feedback: information feedback and acknowledgment feedback. Principle 5: Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task Principle 5: Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task Lesson for online instruction: Online courses need deadlines. Lesson for online instruction: Online courses need deadlines. Principle 6: Good Practice Communicates High Expectations Principle 6: Good Practice Communicates High Expectations Lesson for online instruction: Challenging tasks, sample cases, and praise for quality work communicate high expectations. Lesson for online instruction: Challenging tasks, sample cases, and praise for quality work communicate high expectations. Principle 7: Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Principle 7: Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Lesson for online instruction: Allowing students to choose project topics incorporates diverse views into online courses. Lesson for online instruction: Allowing students to choose project topics incorporates diverse views into online courses.

47 Principles 6-7 Principle 6: Good Practice Communicates High Expectations Principle 6: Good Practice Communicates High Expectations Lesson for online instruction: Challenging tasks, sample cases, and praise for quality work communicate high expectations. Lesson for online instruction: Challenging tasks, sample cases, and praise for quality work communicate high expectations. Principle 7: Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Principle 7: Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Lesson for online instruction: Allowing students to choose project topics incorporates diverse views into online courses. Lesson for online instruction: Allowing students to choose project topics incorporates diverse views into online courses.

48 Five Pillars

49 Five Pillars for Quality Online Education for Asynchronous Learning Networks (ALN) Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) developed the Five Pillars in the mid- 1990’s (focused on measuring and improving the learning effectiveness of Asynchronous Learning Networks. The Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) developed the Five Pillars in the mid- 1990’s (focused on measuring and improving the learning effectiveness of Asynchronous Learning Networks. Sloan-C has websites that contain research on effective practices in each pillar. Sloan-C has websites that contain research on effective practices in each pillar.

50 Five Pillars, continued Learning Effectiveness: Learners interact (with faculty and each other) and engage in reflective discussions and collaborative learning. Learning Effectiveness: Learners interact (with faculty and each other) and engage in reflective discussions and collaborative learning. Student Satisfaction: Learners are most satisfied when they are engaged in courses where there is a high level of interaction with others and collaborative experiences, and where they receive significant feedback from faculty in a timely manner. Student Satisfaction: Learners are most satisfied when they are engaged in courses where there is a high level of interaction with others and collaborative experiences, and where they receive significant feedback from faculty in a timely manner. Source: (Lorenzo & Moore, 2002).

51 Five Pillars, continued Faculty Satisfaction: Faculty are most satisfied the flexibility of the online environment and the enhanced interactions that an online environment provides. Faculty Satisfaction: Faculty are most satisfied the flexibility of the online environment and the enhanced interactions that an online environment provides. Cost Effectiveness: Use of online courses has become almost mandatory due to competitive pressures. Cost Effectiveness: Use of online courses has become almost mandatory due to competitive pressures. Access: Learners are able to easily access programs and services. Access: Learners are able to easily access programs and services. Source: (Lorenzo & Moore, 2002).

52 Can we Improve Online Teaching? Answer: Yes!


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